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RS Electrogravitic References: Part 2 of 19.

The Hooper effect can be readily demonstrated in the "Two Moving
Magnets Experiment". In this experiment, magnetic flux is provided by equal 
strength opposite pole magnets, moving uniformly in opposite directions. The 
induced motional electric field that is generated in a conductor, is found to 
be twice that which would result from a single magnet, while remarkably, the 
sum of the magnetic B field is zero. This experiment is easy to setup and 
verify in any electronics laboratory with a pair of magnets, a wire, and a 
voltmeter. In fact, you may wrap the conductor, in electrostatic or magnetic 
shielding, and find the same result.
-- Nils Rognerud

Oleg Jefimenko, "Causality, Electromagnetic Induction, and Gravitation", 
Electret Scientific, Star City, (1992)

Oleg Jefimenko, "Force Exerted on a Stationary Charge by a Moving Electric 
Current or a Moving Magnet", American Journal of Physics, Vol 61, pages 218-
222 (1993)

Apparently, there are some VERY interesting clues to the nature of the 
universe that are related to the phenomenon of SPIN. It might get very 
interesting if someone were to make a project of assembling in one place all 
the information that has been observed, alleged, suspected, or speculated 
about concerning unexpected effects related to spin, along with all the 
traditional Newtonian results, stir, add some seasoning, and see what comes 
For example, in quantum mechanics, if you want to measure the spin axis of an 
electron, you do an experiment in which you ASSUME an axis, make a measurement 
of the correlation (the dot product) of that axis with the actual axis of spin 
for that electron, and theory says you can determine at least how close your 
guess was. It was a major surprise for the first expermienters with this to 
find that the guess was always right: whatever spin axis you assume turns out 
to be correct, exactly dead accurate. You must be a VERY good guesser. Out of 
this experimental result came the concept of "isospin". Which in itself is 
kind of weird in that objects with zero radius can still exhibit spinx. But I 
find the idea that the spin is wherever you guess it might be to be even 
weirder and to need a better model that predicts this result. -- John Sangster

Paper: gr-qc/9311036
Date: Tue, 30 Nov 93 13:47:52 +0900
Gravitational Field of a Moving Spinning Point Particle, by Jaegu Kim, 7 
The gravitational and electromagnetic fields of a moving charged spinning 
point particle are obtained in the Lorentz covariant form by transforming the 
Kerr--Newman solution in Boyer--Lindquist coordinates to the one in the 
coordinate system which resembles the isotropic coordinates and then 
covariantizing it. It is shown that the general relativistic proper time at 
the location of the particle is the same as the special relativistic one and 
the gravitational and electromagnetic self forces vanish.

Jaegu Kim, "Gravitational Field of a Moving Point Particle", Journal of the 
Korean Physical Society, Vol 27 No 5, Oct 94, Pages 484-492 

Jaegu Kim, "Gravitational Field of a Moving Spinning Point Particle", Journal 
of the Korean Physical Society, Vol 27 No 5, Oct 94, Pages 479-483 

In the above papers, Dr. Kim derives solutions for the Einstein-Maxwell 
equations for: a charged massless point particle, a point particle having mass 
but no charge, a point particle having mass and charge, a massless point 
particle with charge and spin, and finally -- a point particle having charge, 
mass, and spin. He determines that there is a region of space around a charged 
spinning mass in which the gravitational force is negative. 

The ability to generate a negative gravity effect may come as no surprise to 
experimenters who have worked with Bose-Einstein condensates, superfluids, or 
superconductor material in which the angular momentum of quantum level 
particles can become aligned along a "macroscopic" spin axis. And it is 
probably also not a surprise to those who have looked at devices such as the 
inventions of Henry Wallace, in which a macroscopic body is mechanically spun 
at high speed in order to cause a "kinemassic" gravito-magnetic field due to 
spin alignment of the nucleus of elemental materials having an odd number of 
nucleons (un-paired spin).

Paper: GR-QC/9504023
Date: Mon, 17 Apr 1995 10:43:50 +0900
Title: Pure spin-connection formulation of gravity and classification 
of energy-momentum tensors
Author: Mathias PILLIN  Report-no: YITP/U-95-
It is shown how the different irreducibility classes of the energy-momentum 
tensor allow for a pure spin-connection formulation. Ambiguities in this 
formulation especially concerning the need for constraints are clarified.

From: (R Bursill) Subject: Hi Tc SC and 
gravitational shielding Date: Fri, 6 Oct 1995 03:14:41 GMT

Is anyone familiar with the experiments in Tampere Finland, by Podkletnov et 
al on weak gravitational shielding from a Meissner levitating, rotating disk 
of high-Tc superconducting material? The paper is: E. Podkletnov and R. 
Nieminen, Physica C 203 (1992) 441. E. Podkletnov and A. D. Levit have another 
paper now, a Tampere University of Technology report, January 1995 (Finland), 
the experiment having being repeated (I assume no one believed it the first 
In the 1st experiment a 5 g sample of silicon dioxide was found to loose 
around 0.05 % of its weight when placed at a distance of 15 mm from the SC 
disk. The SC disk had diameter 145 mm and thickness 6 mm. Under rotation of 
the disk the effect increased up to 0.3 %. In the 2nd experiment samples of 
different composition and weight (10-50 g) were placed at distances of 25 mm 
to 1.5 m from the disk. The mass loss went as high as around 2 %. I found out 
about this through a theoretical preprint by Giovanni Modanese, a Von Humboldt 
Fellow from the Max Plank institute. The preprint no. is MPI-PhT/95-44, May 
1995. A colleage got it from, paper 9505094. Modanese 
thinks that it is something to do with the bose condensate from the SC 
interacting with the gravitational field. He uses some non-perturbative 
quantum theory on the Regge lattice to attempt to understand the effect. Must 
be a little bit like explaining cold fusion with the standard tools - couldn't 
be done. We all know what happened to cold fusion but at the time a professor 
from my department said in a public lecture that the product of the 
believability and the potential importance if true was of order 1.
- Robert Bursill

E. Podkletnov and R. Nieminen, "A Possibility of Gravitational Force Shielding 
by Bulk YBa2Cu3O7-x Superconductor", Physica C 203 (1992) pp 441-444.

E. Podkletnov and A.D. Levi, "Gravitational Shielding Properties of Composite 
Bulk YBa2Cu3O7-x Superconductor Below 70 C Under Electro-Magnetic Field", 
Tampere University of Technology report MSU-95 chem, January 1995.

Theoretical analysis of a reported weak gravitational shielding effect Author: 
G. Modanese (Max-Planck-Institut, Munich) Report-no: MPI-PhT/95-44 May 1995
Under special conditions (Meissner-effect levitation and rapid rotation) a 
disk of high-Tc superconducting material has recently been found to produce a 
weak shielding of the gravitational field. We show that this phenomenon has no 
explanation in the standard gravity theories, except possibly in the non-
perturbative quantum theory on the Regge lattice. More data, and independent 
repetitions of the experiment are however necessary. 

From: Modanese Giovanni  Date: Wed, 17 Jan 
1996 21:54:45 +0100 (MET) Updating the analysis of Tampere's weak 
gravitational shielding experiment Author: Giovanni Modanese
Report-no: UTF-367/96
The most recent data about the weak gravitational shielding produced in 
Tampere by Podkletnov and coworkers through a levitating and rotating HTC 
superconducting disk show a very weak dependence of the shielding value ($\sim 
1 \%$) on the height above the disk. We show that whilst this behaviour is 
incompatible with an intuitive vectorial picture of the shielding, it is 
consistently explained by our theoretical model. The expulsive force observed 
at the border of the shielded zone is due to energy conservation.

NASA is conducting experiments similar to the anti-gravity shielding 
experiments done in Tampere Finland. A scientist named Ning Li at the 
University of Alabama Huntsville, is reported to be consulting with NASA. She 
has written some interesting articles about the relationship between 
superconductors and gravtiation. Here are references to some of her published 
articles, and a few related items: 

AUTHOR(s):	Li, Ning and Torr, D.G.
TITLE(s)	Effects of a Gravitomagnetic Field on pure superconductors
In: Phys. Rev. D,
JAN 15 1993 v 43 n 2 Page 457

AUTHOR(s):	Torr, Douglas G. Li, Ning
TITLE(s):	Gravitoelectric-Electric Coupling via Superconductivity.
In: Foundations of physics letters.
AUG 01 1993 v 6 n 4 Page 371

AUTHOR(s):	Li, Ning and Torr, D.G.
TITLE(s):	Gravitational effects on the magnetic attenuation of
In: Physical review. b, condensed matter. 
SEP 01 1992 v 46 n 9 Page 5489

AUTHOR(s):	Peng, Huei
TITLE(s):	A New Approach to Studying Local Gravitomagnetic Effects on
a Superconductor.
In: General relativity and gravitation.
JUN 01 1990 v 22 n 6 Page 609

AUTHOR(s):	Mashhoon, Bahram Paik, Jung Ho Will, Clifford M.
TITLE(s):	Detection of the gravitomagnetic field using an orbiting
superconducting gravity gradiometer. Theoretical principles. In: Physical 
review. D, Particles and fields. 
MAY 15 1989 v 39 n 10 Page 2825

I haven't had the opportunity to read the articles by Drs. Li and Torr, but I 
am told that in one of her articles, Dr Li provides the following interesting 
comment --

" a detectable gravitomagnetic field, and in the presence of a 
time-dependent applied magnetic vector potential field, a detectable 
gravitoelectric field could be produced"

There is also some information about Dr Ning Li at: http://isl- 

Dr Li is with the Applied Materials Lab at the University of Alabama at 
Huntsville. She works closely with Dr Douglas Torr. One of their primary 
interests is development and production of exotic materials in a microgravity 
environment -- a peculiar coincidence, or maybe not, with the writing of 
physical theories about how to produce anti-gravity in the laboratory. 

Here's an unusual article from the website. 
Can gravity be 'made' in the laboratory? 

A theory that might lead to the creation of measurable manmade gravitational 
fields has been developed by physicists at UAH. 

If the theoretical work is borne out in the laboratory, it will prove that 
physicist Albert Einstein was correct in predicting that moving matter 
generates two kinds of gravitational fields: gravito-magnetic and gravito-
electric. The 'artificial' gravitational field would be generated inside a 
container made of a superconducting material, said Dr. Douglas Torr, a 
research professor of physics and director of UAH's Optical Aeronomy 
Laboratory. "I think we can at the very least generate a microscopic field 
..." If Einstein was right, the amount of gravito-magnetic energy produced by 
an object is proportional to its mass and its movement, explained Dr. Ning Li, 
a research scientist in UAH's Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research. 
To create the artificial gravitational fields, Torr and Li propose placing a 
superconducting container in a magnetic field to align ions that are spinning 
or rotating in tiny circles inside the superconducting material. Their theory 
predicts the existence of ionic spin or rotation in a superconductor in a 
magnetic field.

There are persistent rumors among UFO-buffs that NASA already has an operating 
microgravity chamber, located in Houston TX and/or Huntsville AL. One person, 
Robert Oechsler, reports that he has personally been inside NASA's antigrav 
chamber. But, that's another story. For more info, see the books "Alien 
Contact" and "Alien Update" by Timothy Good.

Paper: hep-th/9412243
Date: Sat, 31 Dec 1994 17:06:38 +1100
Title: Gravity as a coupling of two electromagnetic fields Author: Vu B Ho
A discussion on a possibility to represent gravity as a coupling of two equal 
and opposite electrogmanetic fields. Classically the existence of equal and 
opposite electromagnetic fields can be ignored altogether. However, the 
problem can be viewed differently if we want to take into account possible 
quantum effects. We know that in quantum mechanics the potentials themselves 
may be significant and they may determine the dynamics of a particle in a 
region where the fields vanish. (Aharonov and Bohm 1959, Peshkin and Tonomura 

Michael J. Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia 1994 8 PAGES, 
Australian Journal of Physics (ISSN 0004-9506) vol. 47, no. 3 1994 p. 245-252 
The gravitational Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect is examined in the weak-field 
approximation to general relativity. In analogy with the electromagnetic AB 
effect, we find that a gravitoelectromagnetic 4-vector potential gives rise to 
interference effects. A matter wave interferometry experiment, based on a 
modification of the gravity-induced quantum interference experiment of 
Colella, Overhauser and Werner (COW), is proposed to explicitly test the 
gravitoelectric version of the AB effect in a uniform gravitational field. 
CASI Accession Number: A95-87327

I recommend you get a copy of Aharonov and Bohm's classic paper "Significance 
of Electromagnetic Potentials in the Quantum Theory" published in The Physical 
Review in 1959. One of the important things that Aharonov and Bohm did was to 
demonstrate that the electromagnetic potentials are richer in properties than 
the Maxwell fields. The field is an artifical mathematical construct from 
which emerges the whole idea of a continuum. When you can wean yourself of 
this intellectual crutch you will be ready to do real physics. Both GR and QM 
are addicted to the same falsehood.
-- Charles Cagle

In the Aharonov-Bohm effect it has been determined theortically and 
experimentally that there is a measurable effect on a charged particle due to 
the electromagnetic vector potential. Which of course would be no surprise, 
except that the effect occurs even in areas of space where the value of the 
classical electromagnetic fields vanish. A quantum phase shift, detectable via 
particle interferometry, is found to occur due to the magnetic vector 
potential A. The effect on a charged particle occurs in regions which are 
completely shielded from classical electromagnetic fields.

A dual of the Aharonov-Bohm effect is the Aharonov-Casher effect, where it is 
shown that measurable effects of spin-precession of a particle's magnetic 
moment can occur due to the electric potential, even in areas of space where 
the classical electrical field is completely absent.

Prior to the revolutionary paper by Aharonov and Bohm in 1959, the importance 
of the electomagnetic potential and related interferometry effects, was 
suggested in articles by Edmund Whittaker in 1903 and 1904. And, what is now 
known as the Aharonov-Bohm effect, was explicitly identified in an earlier 
paper on electron optics by Ehrenberg and Siday in 1949.

E.T. Whittaker, "On the partial differential equations of mathematical 
physics," Mathematische Annalen, Vol 57, 1903, pages 333-355. 
In this paper Whittaker demonstrates that all scalar EM potentials have an 
internal, organized, bidirectional EM plane-wave structure. Thus there exists 
an electromagnetics that is totally internal to the scalar EM potential. Since 
vacuum/spacetime is scalar potential, then this internal EM is in fact 
"internal" to the local potentialized vacuum/ spacetime.
-- Tom Bearden

E.T. Whittaker, "On an expression of the electromagnetic field due to 
electrons by means of two scalar potential functions," Proceedings of the 
London Mathematical Society, Series 2, Vol 1, 1904, pages 367-372. 
In this paper Whittaker shows that all of classical electromagnetics can be 
replaced by scalar potential interferometry. This ignored paper anticipated 
the Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect by 55 years, and drastically extended it as 
well. Indeed, it prescribes a macroscopic AB effect that is distance-
independent, providing a direct and engineerable mechanism for action-at-a-
distance. It also provides a testable hidden-variable theory that predicts 
drastically new and novel effects. -- Tom Bearden

W. Ehrenberg and R. W. Siday, Proc. Phys. Soc. London, B62, 8 (1949) 
Ten years earlier than Aharonov and Bohm, Ehrenberg and Siday formulated the 
science of electron optics by defining the electron refractive-index as a 
function of electromagnetic potential. Near the end of their paper, they 
discuss "a curious effect", which is exactly the AB effect. On the two sides 
of a magnetic flux, the vector potential has different values. This means a 
different refractive index for two geometrically equivalent paths. This 
difference in refractive index would cause an observable phase shift.
-- Jun Liu

Y. Aharonov and D. Bohm, "Significance of Electromagnetic Potentials in the 
Quantum Theory," Physical Review, Second Series, Vol 115 no 3, pages 485-491 
Effects of potentials on charged particles exist even in the region where all 
the fields (and therefore the forces on the particles) vanish, contrary to 
classical electrodynamics. The quantum effects are due to the phenomenon of 
interference. These effects occur in spite of Faraday shielding. The Lorentz 
force does not appear anywhere in the fundamental quantum theory, but appears 
only as an approximation that holds in the classical limit. In QM, the 
fundamental physical entities are the potentials, while the fields are derived 
from them by differentiation. 

Herman Erlichson, "Aharonov-Bohm Effect and Quantum Effects on Charged 
Particles in Field-Free Regions," American Journal of Physics, Vol 38 No 2, 
Pages 162-173 (1970).

M. Danos, "Bohm-Aharonov effect. The quantum mechanics of the electrical 
transformer," American Journal of Physics, Vol 50 No 1, pgs 64-66 (1982). 

Bertram Schwarzschild, "Currents in normal-metal rings exhibit Aharonov-Bohm 
Effect," Physics Today, Vol 39 No 1, pages 17-20 (Jan 1986) 

S. Olariu and I. Iovitzu Popescu, "The quantum effects of electromagnetic 
fluxes," Reviews of Modern Physics, Vol 57 No2, April 1985. 

Yoseph Imry and Richard Webb, "Quantum Interference and the Aharonov- Bohm 
Effect", Scientific American, April 1989, pages 56-62 

E. Merzbacher, "Single Valuedness of Wave Functions", American Journal of 
Physics, Vol 30 No 4, pages 237-247 (April 1962) 

Yoseph Imry, "The Physics of Mesoscopic Systems", Directions in Condensed 
Matter Physics, World Scientific Publishing (1986) 

Richard Webb and Sean Washburn, "Quantum Interference Fluctuations in 
Disordered Metals", Physics Today, Vol 41 No 12 pages 46-53, Dec 1989 

"STAR WARS NOW! The Bohm-Aharonov Effect, Scalar Interferometry, and Soviet 
Weaponization" By T. E. Bearden, Tesla Book Company 

Peshkin M. and Lipkin H.J. "Topology, Locality, and Aharonov-Bohm Effect with 
Neutrons" Physical review letters APR 10 1995 v 74 n 15 

Yakir Aharonov and Ady Stern, "Origin of the geometric forces accompanying 
Berry's geometric potentials", Physical Review letters. DEC 21 1992 v 69 n 25 
Page 3593

Yakir Aharonov, Jeeva Anandan, and Sandu Popescu, "Superpositions of time 
evolutions of a quantum system and a quantum time-translation machine." 
Physical review letters. JUN 18 1990 v 64 n 25 Page 2965

Date: Sun, 25 Jun 1995 03:25:05 -0400
Potential Effect: Aharonov-Bohm Effect of Simply Connected Region Author: Jun 
Comments: Prediction of a new effect. Numerical estimate given for 
experimental verification. The referees disagree with each other on the 
existence of this effect.
We study a generalization of Aharonov-Bohm effect, the potential effect. The 
discussion is focused on field-free effects in simply connected region, which 
obviously can not have any local field-flux. Among the published discussions 
about this kind of effects, it is generally agreed that this kind of effect 
does not exist due to gauge invariance. However, there are also opinions that 
this effect is a trivial variation of Aharonov-Bohm effect and therefore there 
is no need to check its existence. To my knowledge, it has neverbeen tested. 
My first goal here is to supply enough theoretical reason to motivate the 
experimental test of this effect. I start with an intuitive derivation, then I 
introduce a wave-front theory as a theoretical consideration. Logically, the 
existence of potential effect implies the existence of the AB effect, but not 
vice versa. The purpose of this paper is to provide a physical connection in 
the opposite direction.
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