RS Electrogravitic References: Part 1 of 19.

This file contains an electrogravitics reference list, copied ad hoc from
various other files and sources, with commentary by yours truly.

Prepared by: Robert Stirniman

This Update: March 1, 1996

[Email address updated:  Dec. 23, 1997].

Danger Will Robinson! Some of the following information is serious, and some
is nonsense. Some of the things that might at first seem to be nonsense, are
not. And some things referenced below, which come from serious credentialed
scientists, are in fact nonsense. Whatever the case, it's been included. Good
luck sorting it out.

Understanding gravity is a matter of time.

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Internet Sites

Elektromagnum web site by David Jonsson:
http://nucleus.ibg.uu.se/elektromagnum

KeelyNet:
http://www.protree.com/KeelyNet/

Los Alamos National Lab Physics E-Print Archive:
http://xxx.lanl.gov/

Center for Gravitational Physics and Geometry:
http://vishnu.nirvana.phys.psu.edu/

Bill Beaty's Weird Science, Anomalous Physics, Free-Energy, Tesla Society:
http://www.eskimo.com/~billb/

The Institute For New Energy, Patrick Bailey, homepage :

Digital Equipment Corp's Alta Vista web search engine.
If you can't find it with this, it ain't out there yet.
http://www.altavista.digital.com/

science and technology journals. Data since early 1995.
http://www.elsevier.nl/cas/estoc/

Norman Redington's website, The Net Advance of Physics, recent preprints and
papers describing new developments in physics:
http://pobox.com/~redingtn

Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University's Aerospace Virtual Library:
http://macwww.db.erau.edu/www_virtual_lib/aerospace.html

Jack R. Hunt Memorial Library (aerospace):
http://amelia.db.erau.edu/

http://www-leland.stanford.edu/group/aiaa/national

NASA Langley Research Center Library:
http://blearg.larc.nasa.gov/library/larc-lib.html

NASA Scientific and Technical Information:
http://www.sti.nasa.gov/STI-homepage.html

University of Alabama at Hunstville. Dr Ning Li and Dr Douglas Torr.
Microgravity research consultants to NASA's Marshall Space Center.
http://isl-garnet.uah.edu/RR93/uahmatsci.html

The Microgravity Research Experiments (MICREX) Data Base
http://samson2.msfc.nasa.gov/fame/exps/kaw-sl3.html

Interstellar Propulsion Society:
http://www.digimark.net/ips/

National Science Foundation World Wide Web Server.
Find out where your science tax dollars are going.
http://stis.nsf.gov/

Nexus magazine web page:
http://www.peg.apc.org/~nexus/

http://www.newscientist.com/pstourist/index.html

The Farce of Physics:
http://www.germany.eu.net/books/farce

The World Wide Web Virtual Library: Sumeria/Technology

The Society for the Advancement of Autodynamics website:
http://www.webcom.com/~saa

Popular Mechanics' Tech Update Article Archive:
http://popularmechanics.com/cgi-bin/wais.pl

Fortean web site:
http://www.clas.ufl.edu/anthro/fortpages.html.

Homepage of Apeiron Magazine:
http://montreal.aei.ca:80/~apeiron/

Borderland Sciences Research Foundation ftp site:
ftp: northcoast.com/pub/bsrf

Homepage of the International Society of Unified Science, for advancing the
Reciprocal System Theory of Dewey B. Larson:
http://infox.eunet.cz/interpres/sr/isus/index.html

Frank Lofaro's homepage, including alternative science links, and two articles
by Whittaker written in 1903 and 1904 about scalar field theory and free
energy:
http://www.unlv.edu/~ftlofaro/

Homepage of the Oppositely Charged Twin Monopole (OCTM) theory of matter,
"Gravity is a Push", US patent number 5,377,936:
http://www.epicom.com/gravitypush

Dr Eujin Jeong's Dipole Theory of Gravity homepage:
http://www.realtime.net/~ejeong/

Levesque's (laurent@ee.umanitoba.ca) web site:
http://www.ee.umanitoba.ca/~laurent

UFOs and the New Physics:
http://www.hia.com/hia/pcr/ufo.html
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There is a fairly large body of evidence which supports the idea of a strong
relationship, and possibly an equivalent fundamental source, for
electromagnetism and gravitation. Many references to this effect are contained
in this resource list. But for now, let's forget about the experimental
evidence and theoretical ideas which are presented here, and begin with first
principles.

What if our knowledge of physics had evolved differently?

What if no one had ever given a thought to any theory of gravitation, before
we discovered the principles and theories of electromagnetics and the two
nuclear forces. We might have developed some fairly good theories which unify
the "three" forces. We would know that clumps of matter are held together
primarily by electromagnetic forces. And we would find experimentally that if
we separate some of these clumps of matter, a small force continues to exist
which trys to bring them back together. Would it seem rational to speculate
that this force is something entirely new and completely different from
electromagnetics? Would it not be a great foolishness to invent something new
and call it gravity and claim that it has no relationship with the known
forces, and then write elaborate mathematical theories which describe it
solely as geometry? Or, would it be more rational to see it as what it
probably is -- a manifestation of the electromagnetic forces which we already
know to hold matter together?

Could it be that electric charge is a fundamental thing, and inertial mass is
merely a shadow of something primal, and what we know as a gravitational field
is merely the net result of other primary fields? Geometrize it if you find it
useful to do so, but please recognize that defining gravity as geometry lends
no information to the understanding of its cause.

Of all the forces we know, there is none stronger than a paradigm. -- Robert
Stirniman
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GENERAL RELATIVITY & QUANTUM COSMOLOGY, ABSTRACT GR-QC/9512027 From:
kldalton@cs.clemson.edu
Date: Tue, 12 Dec 1995 11:30:30 -0500
Author(s): Kenneth Dalton
Journal-ref: Hadronic J. 17 (1994) 483-501
Hypothesis: The electromagnetic field is the source of gravitation. This
treatment of gravitation is consistent with the quantum theory of matter,
which holds that electric charge (or generalized charge') is the most
fundamental attribute of matter. Experimental predictions of the theory
include: (1) any massive body generates a time-dependent gravitational field;
(2) there is a linear correlation between the gravitational red-shift of a
stellar source and the energy of cosmic rays emitted by that source, given by
${\Delta \nu}/{\nu_0} = energy (eV)/10^{27}$; (3) the maximum energy of
cosmic rays is $10^{27}$ eV; (4) this limit is associated with an infinitely
red-shifted stellar object, an electrostatic black-hole,'' at the potential
$c^2/G^{1/2} = 10^{27}$ volts. Finally, the theory predicts that the
gravitational potential near any charged elementary particle is many orders of
magnitude greater than the Newtonian value.

HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS - THEORY, ABSTRACT HEP-TH/9601066 From: Kenichi Horie
Date: Sat, 13 Jan 1996 14:41:29 +0900
Geometric Interpretation of Electromagnetism in a Gravitational Theory with
Torsion and Spinorial Matter
Author(s): Kenichi Horie (KEK Japan)
Comments: Ph.D. thesis, 98 pages, LaTeX file, ca 276kB
Possible geometric frameworks for a unified theory of gravity and
electromagnetism are investigated: General relativity is enlarged by allowing
for an arbitrary complex linear connection and by constructing an extended
spinor derivative based on the complex connection. Thereby the spacetime
torsion not only is coupled to the spin of fermions and causes a four-fermion
contact interaction, but the non-metric vector-part of torsion is also related
to the electromagnetic potential. However, this long-standing relation is
shown to be valid only in a special U(1) gauge, and it is a formal consequence
of the underlying extended geometry.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------

Salem, Kenneth G.
The new gravity : a new force, a new mass, a new acceleration : unifying
gravity with light / Kenneth G. Salem. 1st ed. Johnstown, PA : Salem Books,
c1994. xiii, 181 p. : ill. ; 22 cm.
LC CALL NUMBER: QC794.6.G7 S26 1994
SUBJECTS: Unified field theories. Gravitation. Electromagnetic interactions.
ISBN: 0962539813

Green, James A.
Gravitation & the electroform model : from general relativity to unified field
theory / by James A. Green. 7th ed. [Wichita, Kan.] : Greenwood Research,
c1994. 33 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.
LC CALL NUMBER: QC178 .G68 1994
SUBJECTS: Gravitation. Unified field theories. Astrophysics. "Wichita State
University Physics Graduate Seminar, Dec.1993 and Dec. 1994"
----------------------------------------------------------------------

Another very interesting research on anti-gravity is done (and still going on)
by the Japanese prof. Shinishi SEIKE. He published his findings in the book "
The Principles of Ultra Relativity ". For his highly mathematical (no
nonsense) book write to:

Shinichi SEIKE
G Research Institute
Box 33
UWAJIMA/Ehime (798)
JAPAN
_________________________________________________________________

Patents for anti-gravity devices and systems have been issued to Brown,
Hooper, Wallace, and others.
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US Patents Awarded to Townsend Brown --

300,311 T.T.Brown	Nov. 15, 1928 A Method of and an Apparatus
or Machine for Producing Force
or Motion
1,974,483 T.T.Brown	Sept. 25, 1934 Electrostatic Motor
2,949,550 T.T.Brown	Aug. 16, 1960 Electrokinetic Apparatus
3,022,430 T.T.Brown	Feb. 20, 1962 Electrokinetic Generator
3,187,206 T.T.Brown	June 1, 1965 Electrokinetic Apparatus
3,296,491 T.T.Brown	Jan. 3, 1967 Method and Apparatus for Produc-
ing Ions and Electrically-Charged
Aerosols
3,518,462 T.T.Brown	June 30, 1970 Fluid Flow Control System
______________________________________________________________________

Dr. late William J. Hooper, BA, MA, PhD in Physics was affiliated with the
University of California at Berkley, and was Professor Emeritus, when he died
in 1971. His works are documented and he gained two U.S. patents for his "ALL-
ELECTRIC MOTIONAL FIELD GENERATOR". He claimed use of the "Motional Electric
Field" to produce gravity and anti-gravity for use in SPACECRAFT and AIRCRAFT.
Indeed, in U.S. patent #3,610,971 you can see a Flying Saucer diagram is used
as an example in Figure 7.
-- James Hartman, CaluNET Future Science Administrator

US Patent #3,610,971. "All Electric Motional Electric Field Generator",
Awarded to William Hooper, April 1969

US Patent # 3,656,013. "Apparatus for Generating Motional Electric Field",
Awarded to William Hooper, April 1972

Hooper, W. J. (1974). New Horizons in Electric, Magnetic and Gravitational
Field Theory, Electrodynamic Gravity, Inc. 1969

Frances G. Gibson, "THE ALL-ELECTRIC FIELD GENERATOR AND ITS POTENTIAL",
Electrodynamic Gravity, Inc., 1983

"Electric Propulsion Study", Dr. Dennis Cravens, SAIC Corp, prepared for USAF
Astronautics Lab at Edwards AFB, August 1990
-- Section 3.7 Non-Inductive Coils
Several authors have suggested that v x B term in the Lorentz expression
should be called into question. Several unverified experimental results have
ever been made. An experiment is suggested to test one or several of these
theoretical views. This is an area where the experimental procedure is
workable and the outcome could have direct results in the area of inertia
forces.
During the late 60's William J. Hooper put forth an interesting theory
involving the v x B terms dynamic electrical circuits. There was and is
uncertainty as to the exact physical understanding of the Biot-Savart-Lorentz
law and Ampere's law involving the set of reaction forces. Peter Graneau has
studied these expressions. Hoopers view was that there are three different
types of electric fields due to the distribution of electric field, and two
due to induction.
At the heart of the issue is the connection of the magnetic field and its
source in the charged particles. EM theory is presently consistent with the
idea that spinning magnetic dipoles create effects indistinguishable from
charged particles. There has been no critical experiment which can disprove
whether a magnetic flux rotates with its source. If it does co-move with its
source then it is logical to assume that a motional electric field in a fixed
reference frame of the current induces a magnetic field. This concept is
likewise consistent with a field-free interpretation such as Ampere's original
laws.
(with 4 pages more about Hooper's theories)

FREE FALL OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES: ON MOVING BODIES AND THEIR ELECTROMAGNETIC
FORCES, by Nils Rognerud 1994 (nils@ccnet.com) (available at the elektromagnum
web site)
This paper is a review of the problem of the observable action of
gravitational forces on charged particles. The author discusses the induced
electric fields and the sometimes overlooked unique physical properties. He
analyzes several experiments, showing the reality of the induced electric
fields. The current interpretation, based on the idea of only one electric
field, with certain characteristics, is compared with alternative approaches.
The Hooper Coil:
The author has tested a setup by pulsing strong currents, opposite and equal,
through multiple parallel conductors. The configuration of the conductors in
this type of experiment will cancel the B-fields, while still producing an Em
field, in accordance with Eq. 4.2. This is similar to an experiment by Hooper
(W. J. Hooper), who successfully predicted and measured the motional electric
field - all in zero resultant B-field.
Interestingly, all of the above experiments can influence an electron with a
zero B-field, in the region of the electron. This has some profound
implications - one of which is that the motional electric force field is
immune to electrostatic or magnetic shielding. Experimentally, it can be
confirmed that the motional electric field is immune to shielding and follows
the boundary conditions of the magnetic (not electric) field. The only way to
shield a motional electric field is to use a magnetic shield around the source
of the magnetic flux - containing it at the source. These effects are not
startling if one remembers that the motional electric field is a magnetic
effect and that a magnetic field has a different boundary condition than the
electric field.
----------------------------------------------------------------------

US Patent #3626605 -- "Method and Apparatus for Generating a Secondary
Gravitational Force Field"
Awarded to Henry Wm Wallace of Ardmore PA Dec 14, 1971

US Patent #3626606 -- "Method and Apparatus for Generating a Dynamic Force
Field"
Awarded to Henry Wm Wallace of Ardmore PA Dec 14, 1971

US Patent #3823570 -- "Heat Pump" (based on technology similar to the above
two inventions)
Awarded to Henry Wm Wallace of Freeport NY July 16, 1973
-----------------------------------------------------------------------

Gravity is a PUSH!
United States Patent Number 5,377,936
NET KINETIC ENERGY DIFFERENTIAL GUIDANCE AND PROPULSION SYSTEM FOR SATELLITES
AND SPACE VEHICLES
------------------------------------------------------------------------

In the early 1960s, Erwin Saxl conducted a series of experiments which seemed
to illustrate a non-zero coupling between EM and gravitational fields. He
claimed to see a change in the period of a torque pendulum when its electric
potential was raised.

US Patent # 3357253 -- "Device and Method for Measuring Gravitational and
Other Forces", awarded to E.J. Saxl, December 1967

"An Electrically Charged Torque Pendulum", by E.J. Saxl,
Nature 203, Page 136, July 11 1963.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------

US patent number #5,076,971.
Barker places radioactive elements inside the sphere of a Van de Graaff
generator, runs it at a negative potential for several minutes/hours/days --
and finds that the rate of radioactive decay is extremely enhanced -- with
some relationship to the magnitude of the negative potential.

The principal investigator undertook a series of experiments to test the
"Barker effect" and the "Keller Catalytic Process" in changing the rate of
radium, thorium, or uranium, all of which are radioactive). Barker claims that
subjecting radioactive materials to high electrostatic potentials (50,000
volts to 500,000 volts) can increase or decrease the rate of radioactive
decay, with short exposures of the high voltage capable of inducing erratic
decay rates which slowly return to normal over a period of weeks. Keller
claims that subjecting radioactive materials to the high heat and fusing
reaction of a chemical process (Keller Catalytic Process) can eliminate the
-----------------------------------------------------------------------

Carr, Otis (1959). "Amusement Device," (i.e. A Flying Saucer), US Patent No.
2,912,244.

Otis Carr's work involved counter-rotating charged discs that supposedly
produced thrust when they reached a certain speed in relation the the earth's
rotational speed and became activated by free energy from space. Maybe he did
have something." -- James E. Cox

Carr's work is similar in some respects to Hooper's inventions. In both cases,
an anti-gravitational effect is reported to result from equal and opposite
electric currents. Furthermore, one of Hooper's embodiments, the pancake coil,
has an uncanny resemblance to the gravitational shielding experiments which
were recently conducted in Tampere Finland (1992 and 1995). Except that in the
Tampere experiments, the equal and opposite current is generated in a
superconductor disk by way of the Meissner effect. Will we soon begin to
recognize value of the discoveries that Carr made nearly 40 years ago, and
Hooper made over 25 years ago? -- Robert Stirniman
-------------------------------------------------------------------------

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS OF HOOPER'S GRAVITY-ELECTROMAGNETIC COUPLING CONCEPT
National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Lewis Research Center,
Cleveland, OH. MILLIS, MARC G. WILLIAMSON, GARY SCOTT JUN. 1995 12 PAGES
Presented at the 31st Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, San Diego CA,
10-12 Jul. 1995; sponsored by AIAA, ASME, SAE, and ASEE NASA-TM-106963 E-9719
NAS 1.15:106963 AIAA PAPER 95-2601 Avail: CASI HC A03/MF A01 Experiments were
conducted to test assertions from Patent 3,610,971, by W.J. Hooper that self-
canceling electromagnetic coils can reduce the weight of objects placed
underneath. No weight changes were observed within the detectability of the
instrumentation. More careful examination of the patent and other reports from
Hooper led to the conclusion that Hooper may have misinterpreted thermal
effects as his 'Motional Field' effects. There is a possibility that the
claimed effects are below the detection thresholds of the instrumentation used
for these tests. CASI Accession Number: N95-28893

I have two problems with the methodology used by the NASA scientists in the
above experiment.
First -- The amount of ampere-turns used in the NASA experiment was
substantially lower than the amount used by Hooper. Hooper found that his
effect increased in proportion the square of the current. If you were
motivated to verify that the Hooper effect exists, would you not try to
conduct the experiment with MORE current, rather than less? Second -- NASA
conducted it's tests by energizing the coils and making measurements in an
immediate on-off mode, rather than letting things run for a while as Hooper
did. NASA's reason for doing this was to avoid errors due to thermal effects.
This makes sense. But what does not make sense is that if you are trying to
verify an original experiment and you make changes, you have an obligation to
also conduct the experiment in it's original mode. To do otherwise is bad
science. But what could be wrong with testing things in an immediate on-off
mode? Well, it can be seen in other experiments that a gravitational effect
sometimes results from macroscopic spin alignment of the quantum angular
momentum of a large number of microscopic particles. It has been demonstrated
in other experiments that it takes time for these particles to come into
alignment. For example in the inventions of Henry Wallace it sometimes took
minutes for the "kinemassic" gravito- magnetic field to fully manifest itself.
The reason that it takes time for particles to come into alignment, could be
much the same reason that it takes time to permanently magnetize a magnet.
Wallace found that the "kinemassic" effect occurs with elemental materials
which have a component of unpaired spin in the atomic nucleus. This includes
all common isotopes of copper, which of course is the material used in
Hooper's coils.

Incidently, NASA essentially has an economic monopoly in the lucrative market
for microgravity materials research. -- Robert Stirniman
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