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RS Electrogravitic References: Part 3 of 19.
QUANTUM PHYSICS, ABSTRACT QUANT-PH/9510004 From: "Jun Liu"Go to the Next RS EG Refs. Page
Date: Thu, 5 Oct 1995 04:30:27 -0400 The Real Significance of the Electromagnetic Potentials Author(s): J`un L'iu The importance of the potential is revealed in a newly discovered effect of the potential. This paper explore the same issue introduced in quant- ph/9506038 from several different aspects including electron optics and relativity. Some people fail to recognize this effect due to a wrong application of gauge invariance. In the above two papers, Dr Liu proposes a theory of the electromagnetic potential which is a radical extension of the well known Aharonov-Bohm effect. In the second paper he is barely able to contain his frustration about repeated publication rejections over the last four years from leading physics journals. He provides a theoretical foundation for his potential theory, as well as some relatively straight forward suggestions for experiments which might confirm the theory. But there is an enormous problem. Liu's theory violates the concept of invariance of physical parameters under an electromagnetic gauge transformation. Electromagnetic gauge invariance is a cornerstone in the foundation of quantum theory and QED, and it is also part and parcel linked with the dogma of light speed invariance. In other words, heresy. The AB effect is invariant under an electromagnetic gauge transformation. While a phase-shift occurs in the AB effect, it can be identified only over a closed path and is impossible to identify with any specific "local" region of space. Furthermore, in the AB effect, there is no interaction relating to a transfer of energy or momentum. Maintaining the idea of gauge invariance is a little harder to do in the Aharonov-Casher effect, but it can be accomplished by "gauging away" the physical effects of magnetic spin precession by using a combination of factors from the classical Maxwell fields along with the electromagnetic potential. It has the look of an elaborate parlor trick, but so does most of QED. Liu's theory predicts that the electromagnetic potential acts like a kind of "refractive index" to wave propogation, and is similar in some respects to what was predicted in the earlier paper on electron optics by Ehrenberg and Siday in 1949. The result is that in some circumstances an electromagnetic potential causes a change in wavelength, and in other circumstances causes a change in phase (AB effect). An effect on wavelength would be manifested as a change in the envelope of the interference pattern, rather than merely a shift in the pattern. In Liu's theory an exchange of energy and momentum becomes possible. His theory is relatively easy to test and verify, but oddly or not, no one has yet done so. Maybe because we already "know" it can't be true? One interesting prediction of Liu's theory is that electromagnetic potential will result in time dilation. He doesn't appear to be aware that there is already experimental evidence that this occurs. See references to inventions and experiments by people such as Saxl, Barker, and Keller, which demonstrate time dilation in an electric potential. Time dilation can be viewed equivalently as a shift in wavelength. Liu wishes for someone to conduct an experiment to test for a change in wavelength by using a quantum interferometer. A fine idea. But what about those experimenters who have already measured this effect with a clock? Also see a variety of references here to theories and experiments which relate the scalar electric potential to the gravitational field, and time dilation is a well know, and experimentally verified, prediction of general relativity. The Aharonov-Bohm effect has sparked a revolution in physical thought. There are a variety of new ideas and experiments, such as verification of Liu's theory, which could soon begin to fan it to a flame. When the flame becomes sufficiently illuminating, watch the political scientists begin to scramble for a comfortable seat nearer the fire. -- Robert Stirniman -------------------------------------------------------------------- Over the last five years, there have been over 300 papers published about various aspects of Aharonov-Bohm and Aharonov-Casher effects, and quantum interferometry. The subject relates to nearly all aspects of modern physics. Here are selected examples: AUTHOR(s): Semon, Mark D. TITLE(s): The Aharonov-Bohm Effect: Still a Thought-Provoking Experiment. In: Foundations of physics. JUL 01 1988 v 18 n 7 Page 731 AUTHOR(s): Furuya, Kazuhito TITLE(s): Transient Response of the Aharonov-Bohm Effect. In: Japanese journal of applied physics. part 1, FEB 01 1989 v 28 n 2 Page 303 AUTHOR(s): Chetouani, L. Guechi, L. Hammann, T.F. TITLE(s): Exact path integral solution of the coulomb plus Aharonov-Bohm potential. In: Journal of mathematical physics. MAR 01 1989 v 30 n 3 Page 655 AUTHOR(s): Lee, Patrick A. TITLE(s): Gauge field, Aharonov-Bohm Flux, and high-Tc superconductivity. In: Physical review letters. AUG 07 1989 v 63 n 6 Page 680 AUTHOR(s): Bezerra, V.B. TITLE(s): Gravitational analogs of the Aharonov-Bohm effect. In: Journal of mathematical physics. DEC 01 1989 v 30 n 12 Page 2895 AUTHOR(s): Reznik, B. Aharonov, Y. TITLE(s): Question of the nonlocality of the Aharonov-Casher effect. In: Physical review. D, Particles and fields. DEC 15 1989 v 40 n 12 Page 4178 AUTHOR(s): Stovicek, P. TITLE(s): The Green function for the two-solenoid Aharonov-Bohm effect. In: Physics letters: [part A] NOV 27 1989 v 142 n 1 Page 5 AUTHOR(s): Ellis, J.R. TITLE(s): Dirac magnetic monopole and the Aharonov-Bohm solenoid in the Poincare gauge. In: Journal of physics A: Mathematical and general. JAN 07 1990 v 23 n 1 Page 65 AUTHOR(s): Gerber, A. Deutscher, G. TITLE(s): AC-to-DC conversion and Aharonov-Bohm effect in percolating superconducting films. In: Physical review letters. MAR 26 1990 v 64 n 13 Page 1585 AUTHOR(s): Hagen, C.R. TITLE(s): Exact equivalence of spin-1/2 Aharonov-Bohm and Aharonov-Casher effects. In: Physical review letters. MAY 14 1990 v 64 n 20 Page 2347 AUTHOR(s): Afanase'ev, G.N. TITLE(s): Old and new problems in the theory of the Aharonov-Bohm effect. In: Soviet journal of particles and nuclei. JAN 01 1990 v 21 n 1 Page 74 AUTHOR(s): Silverman, M.P. TITLE(s): Two-solenoid Aharonov-Bohm experiment with correlated particles. In: Physics letters: [part A] AUG 13 1990 v 148 n 3/4 Page 154 AUTHOR(s): Gornicki, Pawel TITLE(s): Aharonov-Bohm Effect Vacuum Polarization. In: Annals of physics. SEP 01 1990 v 202 n 2 Page 271 AUTHOR(s): Gal'tsov, D.V. Voropaev, S.A. TITLE(s): Bremsstrahlung polarization in the Aharonov-Bohm effect. In: Moscow University physics bulletin. 1990 v 45 n 1 Page 8 AUTHOR(s): Padmanabhan, T. TITLE(s): Vacuum polarization around an Aharonov-Bohm solenoid. In: Pramana. MAR 01 1991 v 36 n 3 Page 253 AUTHOR(s): Hagen, C.R. TITLE(s): Spin dependence of the Aharonov-Bohm Effect. In: International journal of modern physics A. JUL 30 1991 v 6 n 18 Page 3119 AUTHOR(s): Dupuis, Nicolas Montambaux, Gilles TITLE(s): Aharonov-Bohm flux and statistics of energy levels in metals. In: Physical review B: Condensed matter. JUN 15 1991 v 43 n 18 Page 14390 AUTHOR(s): Ortiz, M.E. TITLE(s): Gravitational anyons, Chern-Simons-Witten gravity and the gravitational Aharonov-Bohm effect. In: Nuclear physics. b. SEP 30 1991 v 363 n 1 Page 185 AUTHOR(s): Bezerra, V.B. TITLE(s): Gravitational Aharonov-Bohm effect in a locally flat spacetime. In: Classical and quantum gravity. OCT 01 1991 v 8 n 10 Page 1939 AUTHOR(s): Sitenko, Y.A. TITLE(s): The Aharonov-Bohm effect and the inducing of vacuum charge by a singular magnetic string. In: Nuclear physics. b. MAR 23 1992 v 372 n 3 Page 622 AUTHOR(s): March-Russell, John Preskill, John Wilczek, Frank TITLE(s): Internal frame dragging and a global analog of the Aharonov-Bohm effect. In: Physical review letters. APR 27 1992 v 68 n 17 Page 2567 AUTHOR(s): Krive, I.V. Rozhavsky, A.S. TITLE(s): Non-Traditional Aharonov-Bohm Effects in Condensed Matter. In: International journal of modern physics. B. MAY 10 1992 v 6 n 9 Page 1255 AUTHOR(s): Krive, I. V. Zvyagin, A. A. TITLE(s): Aharonov-casher effect in half-integer spin antiferromagnets. In: Modern physics letters. B, Condensed matter ph JUN 20 1992 v 6 n 14 Page 871 AUTHOR(s): Zubkov, M.A. Polikarpov, M.I. TITLE(s): Aharonov-Bohm effect in lattice field theory. In: JETP letters. APR 25 1993 v 57 n 8 Page 461 AUTHOR(s): Duru, I. H. TITLE(s): Casimir Force Between Two Aharonov-Bohm Solenoids. In: Foundations of physics. MAY 01 1993 v 23 n 5 Page 809 AUTHOR(s): Takai, Daisuke Ohta, Kuniichi TITLE(s): Aharonov-Bohm effect in the presence of magnetic flux and electrostatic potential. In: Physical review. b, condensed matter. JUL 15 1993 v 48 n 3 Page 1537 AUTHOR(s): Allman, B.E. Cimmino, A. Klein, A.G. TITLE(s): Observation of the scalar Aharonov-Bohm effect by neutron interferometry. In: Physical review. A. SEP 01 1993 v 48 n 3 Page 1799 AUTHOR(s): Jensen, Bjorn Kucera, Jaromir TITLE(s): On a gravitational Aharonov-Bohm effect. In: Journal of mathematical physics. NOV 01 1993 v 34 n 11 Page 4975 AUTHOR(s): Maeda, J. Shizuya, K. TITLE(s): Aharonov-Bohm and Aharonov-Casher effects and electromagnetic angular momentum. In: Zeitschrift fur Physik C; particles and fields. 1993 v 60 n 2 Page 265 AUTHOR(s): Afanasiev, G.N. TITLE(s): Toroidal solenoids in an electromagnetic field and toroidal Aharonov-Casher effect. In: Physica scripta. OCT 01 1993 v 48 n 4 Page 385 AUTHOR(s): Moreau, William Ross, Dennis K. TITLE(s): Complementary electric Aharonov-Bohm effect. In: Physical review. A, Atomic, molecular, and opt JUN 01 1994 v 49 n 6 Page 4348 AUTHOR(s): Ho, Vu B. Morgan, Michael J. TITLE(s): An Experiment to Test the Gravitational Aharonov-Bohm Effect. In: Australian journal of physics. 1994 v 47 n 3 Page: 245 AUTHOR(s): Zeiske, K. Zinner, G. Helmcke, J. TITLE(s): Atom interferometry in a static electric field: Measurement of the Aharonov-Casher phase. In: Applied physics. b, lasers and optics. FEB 01 1995 v 60 n 2/3 Page: 205 AUTHOR(s): Sazonov, S.N. TITLE(s): On Aharonov-Bohm Effect in Multiconnected Superconductor. In: Acta physica Polonica, A. DEC 01 1994 v 86 n 6 Page 987 AUTHOR(s): Reznik, B. TITLE(s): Gravitational analogue of the Aharonov-Casher effect. In: Physical review d: particles, fields, gravitat MAR 15 1995 v 51 n 6 Page 3108 AUTHOR(s): Oh, Sangchul Ryu, Chang-Mo TITLE(s): Persistent spin currents induced by the Aharonov-Casher effect in mesoscopic rings. In: Physical review B: Condensed matter. MAY 15 1995 v 51 n 19 Page 13441 AUTHOR(s): Leadbeater, M. Lambert, C.J. TITLE(s): Mesoscopic Superconducting Analogs of the Aharonov-Bohm-Casher Effect. In: Physical review letters. MAY 29 1995 v 74 n 22 Page 4519 AUTHOR(s): Cook, Richard J. Fearn, Heidi Milonni, Peter W. TITLE(s): Fizeau's experiment and the Aharonov-Bohm effect. In: American journal of physics. AUG 01 1995 v 63 n 8 Page 705 AUTHOR(s): Yi, J. Jeon, G. S. Choi, M. Y. TITLE(s): Dual Aharonov-Casher effect and persistent dipole current. In: Physical review B: Condensed matter. SEP 15 1995 v 52 n 11 Page 7838 AUTHOR(s): Audretsch, Jurgen Jasper, Ulf Skarzhinsky, Vladimir D. TITLE(s): Bremsstrahlung of relativistic electrons in the Aharonov-Bohm potential. In: Physical review d: particles, fields, gravitat FEB 15 1996 v 53 n 4 Page 2178 AUTHOR(s): Skarzhinsky, Vladimir D. Audretsch, Jurgen Jasper, Ulf TITLE(s): Electron-positron pair production in the Aharonov-Bohm potential. In: Physical review d: particles, fields, gravitat FEB 15 1996 v 53 n 4 Page 2190 ----------------------------------------------------------------------- Time out for a summary. . Hooper, as well as Carr, Rognerud, Jefimenko, et al, find that a electromagnetic effect which is not shieldable, and hence difficult to distinguish from gravitation, results from equal and opposite electric currents (dipole-current), and that a similar effect can also be generated by a moving magnet or a moving electric current. . Recent experiments in Tampere Finland, discover a gravitational shielding effect from a levitated rotating superconductor disk. This is similar in some respects to Hooper's invention, with the equal-and-opposite electric current being generated in a superconductor disk via the Meissner effect. . Sansbury, Volkov, Brown, Teller, Blackett, Zollner, et al, provide theoretical arguments as well as some experimental indications that equal-and- opposite electric charge (dipole-charge) is similar, or equivalent, to a static gravitational field. And that alignment of electric dipoles in matter and in vacuum polarization, can result in a force which is not shieldable, and not easily distinguishable from gravity. Conversely, it is well know that a gravitational field, an acceleration, or a mechanical force, causes a dipole moment (polarization) to occur within a dielectric material. . Wallace, Laithwaite, Barnett, et al, discover that gravitational and electromagnetic field effects occur due to alignment of the microscopic spin of quantum particles with the angular momentum spin axis of a larger macroscopic body. . Aharonov and Bohm discover that an effect can occur on an electrically charged particle due to the magnetic vector potential, in regions of space where the classic Maxwell fields vanish. Originally -- on the outside of infinitely long solenoid coil (with the magnetic field cancelled by equal-and- opposite currents). Others have conducted this experiment using a toroidal coil coated with superconductor material (generating an equal-and-opposite current) to cause the Maxwell magnetic field to vanish. A similar effect, Aharonov-Casher is disovered to occur due to the electric scalar potential, in regions of space where the Maxwell electric field vanishes. . Whittaker, and Eherenberg and Siday, have written theories which are precursors to Aharonov-Bohm, suggesting that the electromagnetic potential is a far richer and more fundamental thing than the Maxwell fields. The classical Maxwell fields are regarded as artifical abstractions. We can also note that Maxwell's theory itself, was originally much richer in variables (20 equations and 20 unknowns), before it was simplified by Gibbs and Heaviside, to the vector formlation which we know as "Maxwell's" equations. . Vu Ho authors a recent paper suggesting experiments relating the electromagnetic potential and the Aharonov-Bohm effect to gravitation. And in a more recent paper, using the mathematics of differential geometry and general relativity, Dr Ho demonstrates that gravity can be expressed mathematically as a coupling of two equal-and-opposite electromagnetic fields. . Jun Liu authors recent papers suggesting that the electromagnetic potential is of paramount importance. Liu's theory predicts that "local" effects can result from the potential in regions where the Maxwell fields vanish -- a violation of the theory of invariance under electric gauge transformations. Liu theory predicts that time dilation will occur in an electric potential. Saxl, Barker, and Keller have conducted earlier experiments which demonstrate time dilation in an electric potential.
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