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RS Electrogravitic References: Part 3 of 19.

Date: Thu, 5 Oct 1995 04:30:27 -0400
The Real Significance of the Electromagnetic Potentials Author(s): J`un L'iu
The importance of the potential is revealed in a newly discovered effect of 
the potential. This paper explore the same issue introduced in quant-
ph/9506038 from several different aspects including electron optics and 
relativity. Some people fail to recognize this effect due to a wrong 
application of gauge invariance.

In the above two papers, Dr Liu proposes a theory of the electromagnetic 
potential which is a radical extension of the well known Aharonov-Bohm effect. 
In the second paper he is barely able to contain his frustration about 
repeated publication rejections over the last four years from leading physics 
journals. He provides a theoretical foundation for his potential theory, as 
well as some relatively straight forward suggestions for experiments which 
might confirm the theory. But there is an enormous problem. Liu's theory 
violates the concept of invariance of physical parameters under an 
electromagnetic gauge transformation. Electromagnetic gauge invariance is a 
cornerstone in the foundation of quantum theory and QED, and it is also part 
and parcel linked with the dogma of light speed invariance. In other words, 

The AB effect is invariant under an electromagnetic gauge transformation. 
While a phase-shift occurs in the AB effect, it can be identified only over a 
closed path and is impossible to identify with any specific "local" region of 
space. Furthermore, in the AB effect, there is no interaction relating to a 
transfer of energy or momentum. Maintaining the idea of gauge invariance is a 
little harder to do in the Aharonov-Casher effect, but it can be accomplished 
by "gauging away" the physical effects of magnetic spin precession by using a 
combination of factors from the classical Maxwell fields along with the 
electromagnetic potential. It has the look of an elaborate parlor trick, but 
so does most of QED. 

Liu's theory predicts that the electromagnetic potential acts like a kind of 
"refractive index" to wave propogation, and is similar in some respects to 
what was predicted in the earlier paper on electron optics by Ehrenberg and 
Siday in 1949. The result is that in some circumstances an electromagnetic 
potential causes a change in wavelength, and in other circumstances causes a 
change in phase (AB effect). An effect on wavelength would be manifested as a 
change in the envelope of the interference pattern, rather than merely a shift 
in the pattern. In Liu's theory an exchange of energy and momentum becomes 
possible. His theory is relatively easy to test and verify, but oddly or not, 
no one has yet done so. Maybe because we already "know" it can't be true? 

One interesting prediction of Liu's theory is that electromagnetic potential 
will result in time dilation. He doesn't appear to be aware that there is 
already experimental evidence that this occurs. See references to inventions 
and experiments by people such as Saxl, Barker, and Keller, which demonstrate 
time dilation in an electric potential. Time dilation can be viewed 
equivalently as a shift in wavelength. Liu wishes for someone to conduct an 
experiment to test for a change in wavelength by using a quantum 
interferometer. A fine idea. But what about those experimenters who have 
already measured this effect with a clock? Also see a variety of references 
here to theories and experiments which relate the scalar electric potential to 
the gravitational field, and time dilation is a well know, and experimentally 
verified, prediction of general relativity. 

The Aharonov-Bohm effect has sparked a revolution in physical thought. There 
are a variety of new ideas and experiments, such as verification of Liu's 
theory, which could soon begin to fan it to a flame. When the flame becomes 
sufficiently illuminating, watch the political scientists begin to scramble 
for a comfortable seat nearer the fire. -- Robert Stirniman

Over the last five years, there have been over 300 papers published about 
various aspects of Aharonov-Bohm and Aharonov-Casher effects, and quantum 
interferometry. The subject relates to nearly all aspects of modern physics. 
Here are selected examples: 

AUTHOR(s):	Semon, Mark D.
TITLE(s):	The Aharonov-Bohm Effect: Still a Thought-Provoking
In: Foundations of physics.
JUL 01 1988 v 18 n 7 Page 731

AUTHOR(s):	Furuya, Kazuhito
TITLE(s):	Transient Response of the Aharonov-Bohm Effect.
In: Japanese journal of applied physics. part 1, 
FEB 01 1989 v 28 n 2 Page 303

AUTHOR(s):	Chetouani, L. Guechi, L. Hammann, T.F.
TITLE(s):	Exact path integral solution of the coulomb plus
Aharonov-Bohm potential.
In: Journal of mathematical physics.
MAR 01 1989 v 30 n 3 Page 655

AUTHOR(s):	Lee, Patrick A.
TITLE(s):	Gauge field, Aharonov-Bohm Flux, and high-Tc
In: Physical review letters.
AUG 07 1989 v 63 n 6 Page 680

AUTHOR(s):	Bezerra, V.B.
TITLE(s):	Gravitational analogs of the Aharonov-Bohm effect.
In: Journal of mathematical physics.
DEC 01 1989 v 30 n 12 Page 2895

AUTHOR(s):	Reznik, B. Aharonov, Y.
TITLE(s):	Question of the nonlocality of the Aharonov-Casher effect.
In: Physical review. D, Particles and fields. 
DEC 15 1989 v 40 n 12 Page 4178

AUTHOR(s):	Stovicek, P.
TITLE(s):	The Green function for the two-solenoid Aharonov-Bohm
In: Physics letters: [part A]
NOV 27 1989 v 142 n 1 Page 5

AUTHOR(s):	Ellis, J.R.
TITLE(s):	Dirac magnetic monopole and the Aharonov-Bohm solenoid in
the Poincare gauge.
In: Journal of physics A: Mathematical and general. 
JAN 07 1990 v 23 n 1 Page 65

AUTHOR(s):	Gerber, A. Deutscher, G.
TITLE(s):	AC-to-DC conversion and Aharonov-Bohm effect in percolating
superconducting films.
In: Physical review letters.
MAR 26 1990 v 64 n 13 Page 1585

AUTHOR(s):	Hagen, C.R.
TITLE(s):	Exact equivalence of spin-1/2 Aharonov-Bohm and
Aharonov-Casher effects.
In: Physical review letters.
MAY 14 1990 v 64 n 20 Page 2347

AUTHOR(s):	Afanase'ev, G.N.
TITLE(s):	Old and new problems in the theory of the Aharonov-Bohm
In: Soviet journal of particles and nuclei. 
JAN 01 1990 v 21 n 1 Page 74

AUTHOR(s):	Silverman, M.P.
TITLE(s):	Two-solenoid Aharonov-Bohm experiment with correlated
In: Physics letters: [part A]
AUG 13 1990 v 148 n 3/4 Page 154

AUTHOR(s):	Gornicki, Pawel
TITLE(s):	Aharonov-Bohm Effect Vacuum Polarization.
In: Annals of physics.
SEP 01 1990 v 202 n 2 Page 271

AUTHOR(s):	Gal'tsov, D.V.
Voropaev, S.A.
TITLE(s):	Bremsstrahlung polarization in the Aharonov-Bohm effect.
In: Moscow University physics bulletin.
1990 v 45 n 1 Page 8

AUTHOR(s):	Padmanabhan, T.
TITLE(s):	Vacuum polarization around an Aharonov-Bohm solenoid.
In: Pramana.
MAR 01 1991 v 36 n 3 Page 253

AUTHOR(s):	Hagen, C.R.
TITLE(s):	Spin dependence of the Aharonov-Bohm Effect.
In: International journal of modern physics A. 
JUL 30 1991 v 6 n 18 Page 3119

AUTHOR(s):	Dupuis, Nicolas Montambaux, Gilles
TITLE(s):	Aharonov-Bohm flux and statistics of energy levels in
In: Physical review B: Condensed matter. 
JUN 15 1991 v 43 n 18 Page 14390

AUTHOR(s):	Ortiz, M.E.
TITLE(s):	Gravitational anyons, Chern-Simons-Witten gravity and the
gravitational Aharonov-Bohm effect.
In: Nuclear physics. b.
SEP 30 1991 v 363 n 1 Page 185

AUTHOR(s):	Bezerra, V.B.
TITLE(s):	Gravitational Aharonov-Bohm effect in a locally flat
In: Classical and quantum gravity.
OCT 01 1991 v 8 n 10 Page 1939

AUTHOR(s):	Sitenko, Y.A.
TITLE(s):	The Aharonov-Bohm effect and the inducing of vacuum charge
by a singular magnetic string.
In: Nuclear physics. b.
MAR 23 1992 v 372 n 3 Page 622

AUTHOR(s):	March-Russell, John Preskill, John Wilczek, Frank
TITLE(s):	Internal frame dragging and a global analog of the
Aharonov-Bohm effect.
In: Physical review letters.
APR 27 1992 v 68 n 17 Page 2567

AUTHOR(s):	Krive, I.V. Rozhavsky, A.S.
TITLE(s):	Non-Traditional Aharonov-Bohm Effects in Condensed Matter.
In: International journal of modern physics. B. 
MAY 10 1992 v 6 n 9 Page 1255

AUTHOR(s):	Krive, I. V. Zvyagin, A. A.
TITLE(s):	Aharonov-casher effect in half-integer spin
In: Modern physics letters. B, Condensed matter ph 
JUN 20 1992 v 6 n 14 Page 871

AUTHOR(s):	Zubkov, M.A. Polikarpov, M.I.
TITLE(s):	Aharonov-Bohm effect in lattice field theory.
In: JETP letters.
APR 25 1993 v 57 n 8 Page 461

AUTHOR(s):	Duru, I. H.
TITLE(s):	Casimir Force Between Two Aharonov-Bohm Solenoids.
In: Foundations of physics.
MAY 01 1993 v 23 n 5 Page 809

AUTHOR(s):	Takai, Daisuke Ohta, Kuniichi
TITLE(s):	Aharonov-Bohm effect in the presence of magnetic flux and
electrostatic potential.
In: Physical review. b, condensed matter. 
JUL 15 1993 v 48 n 3 Page 1537

AUTHOR(s):	Allman, B.E. Cimmino, A. Klein, A.G.
TITLE(s):	Observation of the scalar Aharonov-Bohm effect by neutron
In: Physical review. A.
SEP 01 1993 v 48 n 3 Page 1799

AUTHOR(s):	Jensen, Bjorn Kucera, Jaromir
TITLE(s):	On a gravitational Aharonov-Bohm effect.
In: Journal of mathematical physics.
NOV 01 1993 v 34 n 11 Page 4975

AUTHOR(s):	Maeda, J. Shizuya, K.
TITLE(s):	Aharonov-Bohm and Aharonov-Casher effects and
electromagnetic angular momentum.
In: Zeitschrift fur Physik C; particles and fields. 
1993 v 60 n 2 Page 265

AUTHOR(s):	Afanasiev, G.N.
TITLE(s):	Toroidal solenoids in an electromagnetic field and toroidal
Aharonov-Casher effect.
In: Physica scripta.
OCT 01 1993 v 48 n 4 Page 385

AUTHOR(s):	Moreau, William Ross, Dennis K.
TITLE(s):	Complementary electric Aharonov-Bohm effect.
In: Physical review. A, Atomic, molecular, and opt 
JUN 01 1994 v 49 n 6 Page 4348

AUTHOR(s):	Ho, Vu B. Morgan, Michael J.
TITLE(s):	An Experiment to Test the Gravitational Aharonov-Bohm
In: Australian journal of physics.
1994 v 47 n 3 Page: 245

AUTHOR(s):	Zeiske, K. Zinner, G. Helmcke, J.
TITLE(s):	Atom interferometry in a static electric field: Measurement
of the Aharonov-Casher phase.
In: Applied physics. b, lasers and optics. 
FEB 01 1995 v 60 n 2/3 Page: 205

AUTHOR(s):	Sazonov, S.N.
TITLE(s):	On Aharonov-Bohm Effect in Multiconnected Superconductor.
In: Acta physica Polonica, A.
DEC 01 1994 v 86 n 6 Page 987

AUTHOR(s):	Reznik, B.
TITLE(s):	Gravitational analogue of the Aharonov-Casher effect.
In: Physical review d: particles, fields, gravitat 
MAR 15 1995 v 51 n 6 Page 3108

AUTHOR(s):	Oh, Sangchul Ryu, Chang-Mo
TITLE(s):	Persistent spin currents induced by the Aharonov-Casher
effect in mesoscopic rings.
In: Physical review B: Condensed matter. 
MAY 15 1995 v 51 n 19 Page 13441

AUTHOR(s):	Leadbeater, M. Lambert, C.J.
TITLE(s):	Mesoscopic Superconducting Analogs of the
Aharonov-Bohm-Casher Effect.
In: Physical review letters.
MAY 29 1995 v 74 n 22 Page 4519

AUTHOR(s):	Cook, Richard J. Fearn, Heidi Milonni, Peter W.
TITLE(s):	Fizeau's experiment and the Aharonov-Bohm effect.
In: American journal of physics.
AUG 01 1995 v 63 n 8 Page 705

AUTHOR(s):	Yi, J. Jeon, G. S. Choi, M. Y.
TITLE(s):	Dual Aharonov-Casher effect and persistent dipole current.
In: Physical review B: Condensed matter. 
SEP 15 1995 v 52 n 11 Page 7838

AUTHOR(s):	Audretsch, Jurgen Jasper, Ulf Skarzhinsky, Vladimir D.
TITLE(s):	Bremsstrahlung of relativistic electrons in the
Aharonov-Bohm potential.
In: Physical review d: particles, fields, gravitat 
FEB 15 1996 v 53 n 4 Page 2178

AUTHOR(s):	Skarzhinsky, Vladimir D. Audretsch, Jurgen Jasper, Ulf
TITLE(s):	Electron-positron pair production in the Aharonov-Bohm
In: Physical review d: particles, fields, gravitat 
FEB 15 1996 v 53 n 4 Page 2190

Time out for a summary.

. Hooper, as well as Carr, Rognerud, Jefimenko, et al, find that a 
electromagnetic effect which is not shieldable, and hence difficult to 
distinguish from gravitation, results from equal and opposite electric 
currents (dipole-current), and that a similar effect can also be generated by 
a moving magnet or a moving electric current. 

. Recent experiments in Tampere Finland, discover a gravitational 
shielding effect from a levitated rotating superconductor disk. This is 
similar in some respects to Hooper's invention, with the equal-and-opposite 
electric current being generated in a superconductor disk via the Meissner 

. Sansbury, Volkov, Brown, Teller, Blackett, Zollner, et al, provide 
theoretical arguments as well as some experimental indications that equal-and-
opposite electric charge (dipole-charge) is similar, or equivalent, to a 
static gravitational field. And that alignment of electric dipoles in matter 
and in vacuum polarization, can result in a force which is not shieldable, and 
not easily distinguishable from gravity. Conversely, it is well know that a 
gravitational field, an acceleration, or a mechanical force, causes a dipole 
moment (polarization) to occur within a dielectric material.

. Wallace, Laithwaite, Barnett, et al, discover that gravitational 
and electromagnetic field effects occur due to alignment of the microscopic 
spin of quantum particles with the angular momentum spin axis of a larger 
macroscopic body.

. Aharonov and Bohm discover that an effect can occur on an electrically 
charged particle due to the magnetic vector potential, in regions of space 
where the classic Maxwell fields vanish. Originally -- on the outside of 
infinitely long solenoid coil (with the magnetic field cancelled by equal-and-
opposite currents). Others have conducted this experiment using a toroidal 
coil coated with superconductor material (generating an equal-and-opposite 
current) to cause the Maxwell magnetic 
field to vanish. A similar effect, Aharonov-Casher is disovered to occur due 
to the electric scalar potential, in regions of space where the Maxwell 
electric field vanishes.

. Whittaker, and Eherenberg and Siday, have written theories which 
are precursors to Aharonov-Bohm, suggesting that the electromagnetic potential 
is a far richer and more fundamental thing than the Maxwell fields. The 
classical Maxwell fields are regarded as artifical abstractions. We can also 
note that Maxwell's theory itself, was originally much richer in variables (20 
equations and 20 unknowns), before it was simplified by Gibbs and Heaviside, 
to the vector formlation which we know as "Maxwell's" equations. 

. Vu Ho authors a recent paper suggesting experiments relating the 
electromagnetic potential and the Aharonov-Bohm effect to gravitation. And in 
a more recent paper, using the mathematics of differential geometry and 
general relativity, Dr Ho demonstrates that gravity can be expressed 
mathematically as a coupling of two equal-and-opposite electromagnetic fields.

. Jun Liu authors recent papers suggesting that the electromagnetic 
potential is of paramount importance. Liu's theory predicts that "local"
effects can result from the potential in regions where the Maxwell fields 
vanish -- a violation of the theory of invariance under electric gauge 
transformations. Liu theory predicts that time dilation will occur in an 
electric potential. Saxl, Barker, and Keller have conducted earlier 
experiments which demonstrate time dilation in an electric potential.
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