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**RS Electrogravitic References: Part 13 of 19.**

QUANTUM PHYSICS, ABSTRACT QUANT-PH/9502024 From: MANKO@napoli.infn.it Date: Mon, 27 Feb 1995 16:32:21 +0200 (CET) Deformation of Partical Distribution Functions due to Q-nonlinearity and Nonstationary Casimir Effect, Author: V. I. Man'ko The geometrical phase is shown to be integral of motion. Deformation of particle distribution function corresponding to nonstationary Casimir effect is expressed in terms of multivariable Hermite polynomials. Correction to Planck distribution due to q--nonlinearity is discussed. QUANTUM PHYSICS, ABSTRACT QUANT-PH/9503001 From: onofrio%38619.hepnet@Csa4.LBL.Gov Date: Wed, 1 Mar 95 08:23:43 PST Detecting Casimir Forces through a Tunneling Electromechanical Transducer Authors: Roberto Onofrio , Giovanni Carugno We propose the use of a tunneling electromechanical transducer to dinamically detect Casimir forces between two conducting surfaces. The maximum distance for which Casimir forces should be detectable with our method is around $1 \mu$m, while the lower limit is given by the ability to approach the surfaces. This technique should permit to study gravitational forces on the same range of distances, as well as the vacuum friction provided that very low dissipation mechanical resonators are used. CONDENSED MATTER THEORY, ABSTRACT COND-MAT/9505023 From: moraes@guinness.ias.edu (Fernando Moraes) Date: Fri, 5 May 95 09:35:57 EDT Casimir effect around disclinations Author: Fernando Moraes (Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton) This communication concerns the structure of the electromagnetic quantum vacuum in a disclinated insulator. It is shown that a nonzero vacuum energy density appears when the rotational symmetry of a continuous insulating elastic medium is broken by a disclination. An explicit expression is given for this Casimir energy density in terms of the parameter describing the disclination. CONDENSED MATTER THEORY, ABSTRACT COND-MAT/9505108 From: moraes@guinness.ias.edu (Fernando Moraes) Date: Tue, 23 May 95 17:12:35 EDT Enhancement of the magnetic moment of the electron due to a topological defect Author: Fernando Moraes (Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton) In the framework of the theory of defects/three-dimensional gravitation, it is obtained a positive correction to the magnetic moment of the electron bound to a disclination in a dielectric solid. QUANTUM PHYSICS, ABSTRACT QUANT-PH/9506005 From: JAEKEL MarcGo to the Next RS EG Refs. PageDate: Wed, 7 Jun 1995 16:30:40 +0200 Mechanical Effects of Radiation Pressure Quantum Fluctuations Authors: Marc- Thierry Jaekel (Laboratoire de Physique Th\'eorique de l'Ecole Normale Sup\'erieure) , Serge Reynaud (Laboratoire Kastler-Brossel) As revealed by space-time probing, mechanics and field theory come out as complementary descriptions for motions in space-time. In particular, quantum fields exert a radiation pressure on scatterers which results in mechanical effects that persist in vacuum. They include mean forces due to quantum field fluctuations, like Casimir forces, but also fluctuations of these forces and additional forces linked to motion. As in classical electron theory, a moving scatterer is submitted to a radiation reaction force which modifies its motional response to an applied force. We briefly survey the mechanical effects of quantum field fluctuations and discuss the consequences for stability of motion in vacuum and for position fluctuations. QUANTUM PHYSICS, ABSTRACT QUANT-PH/9506006 From: JAEKEL Marc Date: Wed, 7 Jun 1995 16:58:17 +0200 Quantum Fluctuations and Inertia Authors: Marc-Thierry Jaekel (Laboratoire de Physique Th\'eorique de l'Ecole Normale Sup\'erieure) , Serge Reynaud (Laboratoire Kastler-Brossel) Vacuum field fluctuations exert a radiation pressure which induces mechanical effects on scatterers. The question naturally arises whether the energy of vacuum fluctuations gives rise to inertia and gravitation in agreement with the general principles of mechanics. As a new approach to this question, we discuss the mechanical effects of quantum field fluctuations on two mirrors building a Fabry-Perot cavity. We first put into evidence that the energy related to Casimir forces is an energy stored on field fluctuations as a result of scattering time delays. We then discuss the forces felt by the mirrors when they move within vacuum field fluctuations, and show that energy stored on vacuum fluctuations contributes to inertia in conformity with the law of inertia of energy. As a further consequence, inertial masses exhibit quantum fluctuations with characteristic spectra in vacuum. QUANTUM PHYSICS, ABSTRACT QUANT-PH/9506023 From: claudia@cromwell.physics.uiuc.edu (Claudia C Eberlein) Date: Thu, 15 Jun 95 11:13:57 -0500 Sonoluminescence as quantum vacuum radiation Author: Claudia Eberlein (Dept of Physics, UIUC, Urbana, IL) Sonoluminescence is explained in terms of quantum radiation by moving interfaces between media of different polarizability. It can be considered as a dynamic Casimir effect, in the sense that it is a consequence of the imbalance of the zero-point fluctuations of the electromagnetic field during the non-inertial motion of a boundary. The transition amplitude from the vacuum into a two-photon state is calculated in a Hamiltonian formalism and turns out to be governed by the transition matrix-element of the radiation pressure. Expressions for the spectral density and the total radiated energy are given. HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS - THEORY, ABSTRACT HEP-TH/9508086 From: eli@ecm.ub.es (Emili Elizalde) Date: Fri, 18 Aug 1995 10:14:50 +0200 A precise definition of the Casimir energy, Authors: K. Kirsten , E. Elizalde The somehow arbitrary definition of the Casimir energy corresponding to a quantum system in a $d$-dimensional ultrastatic spacetime ---profusely used in the last years--- which has been critized sometimes for adopting without a sound argument the minimal subtraction scheme, is shown to be completely equivalent to the definition steming naturally from the concept of functional determinant through the zeta-function prescription. This is done by considering the theory at finite temperature and by defining then the Casimir energy as its energy in the limit $T\to 0$. The ambiguity in the coefficient $C_{d/2}$ is understood to be a result of the necessary renormalization of the free energy of the system. As an example, the Casimir energy corresponding to a general $(1+2)$-dimensional toroidal spacetime with flat spatial geometry, parametrized by the corresponding Teichm\"uller parameters, and its precise dependence on these parameters is obtained under the form of an analytic function. ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Ernest G. Cullwick. In his book "Electromagnetism and Relativity", published in 1957, was one of the first to provide an analysis of the probable coupling between EM and inertial fields. Cullwick realized that Maxwell's equations and most existing theories of electrodynamics assume that the mass of an electron is zero. At Maxwell's time this was a reasonable assumption. But it is well known today that electrons have mass, and therefore an inertial momemtum is always associated with an electric current. Cullwick suggested in his analysis that coupling terms between EM and inertia may be very small, but would likely appear sometime in the future as we go to higher current densities. And he was one of the first scientists to predict some of the odd effects which can now seen with superconductors. Cullwick was also one of the first to identify and attempt an analysis of the relativistic paradoxes and unusual effects which occur in a rotating EM field. His work still stands today as one of the only existing efforts to consider the problem of a rotating EM field. AUTHOR: Cullwick, E. G. (Ernest Geoffrey), 1903- TITLE: Electromagnetism and relativity : with particular reference to moving media and electromagnetic induction / by E. G. Cullwick. EDITION 2d ed. PUBL.: New York : J. Wiley, DATE: 1959 (2nd Edition) SUBJECT: Electromagnetic theory, Relativity (Physics) AUTHOR: Cullwick, E. G. (Ernest Geoffrey), 1903- TITLE: The fundamentals of electro-magnetism by E.G. Cullwick. EDITION 3rd ed. PUBL.: London, Cambridge U.P., DATE: 1966 (3rd Edition) SUBJECT: Electromagnetism AUTHOR: Cullwick, E. G. (Ernest Geoffrey), 1903- TITLE: The fundamentals of electro-magnetism; a restatement for engineering students and others of physical and theoretical principles in accordance with modern scientific thought, by E. Geoffrey Cullwick ... With an appendix and numerous examples on the recently adopted M.K.S. system of practical units ... PUBL.: New York, The Macmillan company; Cambridge, Eng., The University press, DATE: 1939 SUBJECT: Electromagnetism --------------------------------------------------------------------------- If you work out the metric for EM waves circulating in a cavity you get some strange results. There is a preliminary discussion of this effect in the article by Houshang Ardavan, 'Gravitational Waves from Electromagnetic Waves' in the book "Classical General Relativity," edited by W.B. Bonner, I.N. Islam and M.A.H. MacCollum (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1984). It is something I have seen done. At the point in an annular cavity where the phase velocity goes from less than c to greater than c, a term shows up in the derived metric of the system that looks like a source term. On the other hand you have assumed that the metric is source free in the EM region of the cavity. So you get a solution which contradicts the hypothesis that went into building the solution. You get something which is possibly unphysical. Now Einstein's equation and the associated geometry is pretty tricky and it is easy to get unphysical solutions. The final arbitors of whether a solution is satisfactory or not is physical reasonability and self consistancy (these are almost the same thing). The cavity problem seems very physically reasonable initially, but ends with a self-consistancy problem which appears to be unphysical. Also, Cauchy's theorem does not apply to this case since it becomes a mixed type problem (elliptic and hyperbolic PDEs), so the Hawking singularity theorems don't a priori apply. It is something very interesting, but to publish it with out being scoffed at would take a lot of work and possibly inventing some new math. -- Jim McClune, University of Missouri ------------------------------------------------------------------------- ROTATING FIELDS IN GENERAL RELATIVITY, by Islam, J.N. Begins with a short introduction to the relevant aspects of general relativity. This is followed by a detailed derivation of the Wehl-Lewis- Papapetrou form of the stationary axially symmetric metric. The Kerr and Tomimatsu-Sato forms of the rotating interior and exterior solutions of the Einstein equations are then considered. Subject: physics 1985 6 X 9 122 pp. 4 diagrams Hardback 0-521-26082-5 $47.95 (£7.99) -------------------------------------------------------------------------- >If an EM field is somehow rotated extremely fast, shouldn't all matter be repelled from its center? -kgo. How fast do you want it rotated? It's fairly simple to construct a system to produce rotating EM waves at whatever rotational velocity you wish by feeding a pair of broadside dipole arrays with quatrature phased waves. It is quite simple to construct a system that would have a rotational velocity of C within the uniform field area. It might also be fairly easy to do this with a Hemholtz coil arangement as well, but the broadside array will be much easier to do at easily engineerable frequencies. Some really interesting paradoxes come about when the rotational frequency is high enough so that the rotational velocity exceeds C within the uniform field area of the arrays or within the hemholtz coils. -- Robert Shannon ------------------------------------------------------------------------- Ehrenfest Paradox (Ehrenfest, 1909) -- The special relativistic "paradox" involving a rapidly rotating disc. Since any radial segment of the disc is perpendicular to the direction of motion, there should be no length contraction of the radius; however, since the circumference of the disc is parallel to the direction of motion, it should contract. Question -- by Kung Lo (October 1995): Take a rigid disk of radius R and spin it up to angular velocity . As seen by an observer S that is at rest in the center of the disk, the radius is still R, but the circumference is contracted by the Lorentz effect. How is this possible? More physically, if a fixed ring is just outside the spinning disk and placed with equally spaced markers on the rim of the disk and on the fixed ring, I know by symmetry that, when one marker on the disk is aligned with a marker on the ring, all pairs of markers must be aligned. This contradicts the fact that, for observer S, the distance between successive markers on the disk is reduced by the Lorentz factor. Answer -- provided by David Djajaputra (November 1995): It seems that the rotating disk paradox (it turned out to be Ehrenfest's paradox) has been extensively analyzed by many people (including Einstein himself, who developed general relativity to answer this problem, as one author speculates...). This I found from a nice paper : O. Gron, "Relativistic description of a rotating disk" Am. J. Phys. V43, 869 (1975), and all the references therein. The key sentence in Gron's paper is at the end of Section IV: "By definition a Born rigid motion of a body leaves lenghts unchanged, when measured in the body's proper frame . (...) A Born rigid motion is not a material property of the body, but the result of a specific program of forces designed to set the body in motion without introducing stresses. (...) A transition of the disk from rest to rotational motion, while it satisfies Born's definition of rigidity, is a kinematic impossibility" With this kinematics the radius is R and the circumference is as measured by observer S (lab frame), but an observer riding on the disk will measure a distance R to the center and a distance around the circumference (he can do this measurement by slowly walking around the spinning disk with a meter tape). This is consistent with the usual Lorentz contraction . The point is that this is NOT a Born rigid motion. There is much more in Gron's paper. -- Vittorio Celli ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Several key pharases keep popping up regarding rotating fields, powerful magnetic pulsed fields, and 90 degree cross-field phase shifts. For example, Preston Nicholes describes a device known as a Delta T antenna in the Montauk series of books. The Delta T antenna is described as a pyramidal structure, but lets just take two square loops, placed at 90 degrees to each other, and feed these two loops with an RF signal, also with a 90 degree phase shift, we will produce a rotating magnetic field within the loops (these loops share a common center point, and each loop is in a plane 90 degrees from the other) The speed of rotation of this magnetic field is a direct function of the frequancy of the applied RF signal. At the center of the antenna, the rotational velocity is zero, but as you move out from the center, and rotational velocity increases. At some distance from center would reach the speed of light, dependant of the frequancy used. One could imagine that the rotational velocity of this rotating magnetic field could reach the speed of light within the antenna structure itself if a way could be found to make the antenna much larger than a normaly resonant antenna would be for that same frequancy. At several hundred megahertz, a two meter per side square loop would have a rotational velocity well in excess of the speed of light within the antenna structure itself. What effect would there be at the boundry where the rotational velocity reached, and then exceeded the speed of light. How could the magnetic field even propogate to the center of the antenna structure if it would have to move faster than light to reach that space? If hemholtz coils were used instead of loops, the magnetic field strength would be uniform inside the structure, how could the field strenght be uniform if there is not sufficient time for the field to propogate through the space inside the structure itself? Could such an effect actually generate a wormhole like phenomena, at energy levels far below that of neutron stars and such? As the causal mechanism, the magnetic field, is in roation, would this describe a traversable worm hole as has been postulated in relationship to rotating black holes? -- Robert Shannon -------------------------------------------------------------------------- Aono, Osamu, 1937- Rotation of a magnetic field / Osamu Aono and Ryo Sugihara. Nagoya, Japan : Institute of Plasma Physics, Nagoya University, 1986. 6 p. ; 30 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: QC717.6 .N35 no. 792 (ALTERNATE CLASS QC754.2.M3) SUBJECTS: Magnetic fields. Electrodynamics. Research report (Nagoya Daigaku. Purazumu Kenkyujo) ; IPPJ-792. -------------------------------------------------------------------- ------ Let me clear this up a bit, the two coils are acting as antenne already, producing the rotating field by vector sumnation of the radiated quatrature phased EM waves. The loops would be operating as the driven elements of a cubical antenne, not as coils as such. If you prefer, substitute the two loop antenne with a pair of crossed dipoles at 90 degrees, this will also produce the rotating field, but the center will be occupied by the dipoles rather than be open as with loop antenne of by using sets of broadside arrays. Note that this is not the same as the rotational speed reaching c inside the "uniform field" area, as described earlier. It's simple a tool to understsand the generation of the rotating field and the relationship between applied frequency and the resultant roational speed. Rather than loop elements, in practice you might use a phased array of dipole elements that produces a constant phase plane wave, not unlike a pair of hemholtz coils produced a uniform field within the coil sets. Four of these "broadside arrays" would from the four sides of a cube, inside of which you could induce the fast rotating fields from the radiated EM waves. In all cases, the driven elements are lauching EM waves a c. Only the vector sum of the two (of four) quatrature fields is in rotation, which leads us back the the question of what happens as the rotational velocity of the sum of these EM fields reaches c within the field generator, and there is not sufficient time for the fields to propogate accross the Vr=c boundry? This is the point where two different physists have tried to lead me dowm the garden path of "red shifted magnetic fields". I'm not sure I'm ready to buy that concept just yet. -- Robert Shannon --------------------------------------------------------------------------- GENERAL RELATIVITY & QUANTUM COSMOLOGY, ABSTRACT GR-QC/9601034 From: Tevian Dray Date: Mon, 22 Jan 1996 10:57:03 PST The Rotating Quantum Vacuum Author(s): Paul C. W. Davies , Tevian Dray , Corinne A. Manogue Report-no: ADP 95-43/M36 (University of Adelaide) We derive conditions for rotating particle detectors to respond in a variety of bounded spacetimes and compare the results with the folklore that particle detectors do not respond in the vacuum state appropriate to their motion. Applications involving possible violations of the second law of thermodynamics are briefly addressed. --------------------------------------------------------------------------- I'm also saying that a pair of crossed coils will start behaving differently when the driving frequency is so high that the field lines near them try to exceed the speed of light. At low frequencies the coils create a rotating magnetic field. At high frequencies they send out radio waves having a rotating field vector (circularly polarized waves, in other words.) WITHIN the volume of the coils the fields still rotate, at least until the frequency is raised so high that the coils are many wavelengths across. At these frequencies the fields in the center of the crossed coils would be of complex shape, maybe some kind of contracting spiral. (Which is interesting, because at very high frequencies there would be a "hot spot" at the exact center of the crossed coils.) -- Robert Shannon ------------------------------------------------------------------------- On similar topic: anyone ever heard of the "CFA antenna" flap in the UK? CFA is for "crossed-field antenna." There were a bunch of articles and letters to the editor in EWW, "Electronics and Wireless World," the British engineering mag. The CFA-believers though they had discovered a way to make 1-foot antennas which were efficient at 100-meter wavelengths. The key to the CFA was to create the e- and b-fields separately: feed both a coil-loop and a pair of capacitor-spheres with separate high-current and high-voltage signals respectively, orient them 90deg to produce a broadside wave, shift the phases with L/C networks to form the proper EM wave (90? zero? ), and then obtain a powerful EM emission from a tiny antenna. There was a great quantity of argument and name-calling over this, all done in slow-motion over many months of letters in the letters-to-the-editor column. Then it just died away. Either the pro-CFA side couldn't prove that it worked, or nobody believed the proof they did find. -- William Beaty --------------------------------------------------------------------------