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**RS Electrogravitic References: Part 12 of 19.**

"CP Violation and Antigravity Revisited", G. Chardin, Nuclear Physics, Jun 7 1993, Vol 558 "Equivalence Principal Violation, Antigravity and Anyons Induced by Gravitational Chern-Simons Couplings", S. Deser, Classical and Quantum Gravity, 1992, Vol 9 Supp "The Arguments Against Antigravity and the Gravitational Acceleration of Anti-Matter", Michael Martin, Physics Reports, Jul 1 1991, Vol 205 "Empirical Limits to Antigravity", Ericson & Richter, Europhysics Letters, Feb 15 1990, Vol 11 no 4 "Chern-Simons Quantizations of (2+1) Anti-de Sitter Gravity on a Torus", K. Ezawa, Classical and Quantum Gravity, Feb 1 1995 Vol 12 No 2 "Green's Function for Anti-de Sitter Space Gravity", Gary Kleppe, Physical Review d: Particles, Fields, Gravity; Dec 15 1994 Vol 50 No 12 "Lowest Eigenvalues of the Energy Operator for Totally Anti Symmetric Massless Fields of the N-Dimensional Anti-de Sitter Group", R.R. Metsaev, Classical and Quantum Gravity, Nov 1 1994, Vol 11 No 11 "The Positivity of Energy for Asymptotically Anti-de Sitter Spacetimes", E. Woolgar, Classical and Quantum Gravity, Jul 1 1994, Vol 11 No 7 "Vacuum Polarization Near Asymptotically Anti-de Sitter Black Holes in Odd Dimensions", Shiraishi & Maki, Classical and Quantum Gravity, Jul 1 1994, Vol 11 No 7 "Strong Anti Gravity: Life in the Shock Wave", Fabbrichesi & Roland, Nuclear Physics B, Dec 21 1992, Vol 388 No 2 "Global Solutions of Yang-Mills Equations on Anti-de Sitter Spacetime", Choquet-Bruhat, Classical and Quantum Gravity, Dec 1 1989, Vol 6 No 12 "The Scalar Wave Equation on Static de Sitter and Anti-de Sitter Spacetimes", D. Polarski, Classical and Quantum Gravity, Jun 1 1989 "Lehman Representation of the Spinor Two-Point Function in Anti-de Sitter Space", E. Gath, Classical and Quantum Gravity, May 1 1989, Vol 6 no 5 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- Dr. Bernhard Haisch has modeled inertial mass as deriving from an accelerated body's interaction with the zero point field (ZPF), consonant with a large body of refereed physics literature. Haisch in Feb 1994 Phys. Rev. A Science vol 263 p 612 Scientific American vol 270, p 30 New Scientist 25 Feb 1995 p 30 ------------------------------------------------------------------------- "Gravity as a Zero-Point-Fluctuation Force," H.E. Puthoff, Physical Review A: General Physics. Mar 1 1989, Vol39 No 5 ---------------------------- ---------------------------------------------- The 4 February 1994 issue of Science magazine has an article about a new theory of inertia. A recent paper by Bernhard Haisch, Alfonso Rueda and Hal Puthoff in the 1 Feb 1994 issue of Physical Review A, based on earlier work by Andrei Sakharov, derives inertia from quantum electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations. The idea is that if inertia is due to some strange quantum EM effects, it might be understood and controlled, and even neutralized. Haisch is at the Lockheed Palo Alto laboratories, Rueda, at Cal. State. Long Beach, and Puthoff at the Institute for Advanced Studies in Austin Texas. Needless to say, this new theory is serious, but very controversial physics. A test is planned later this year at the SLAC linear accelerator by exposing a high energy electron beam to terawatt laser. Keep tuned! -- John H. Chalmers Jr -------------------------------------------------------------------------- A recent controversial theory of Austin Institute for Advanced Study physicist Hal Puthoff and his collaborators Haisch and Rueda appears to explain gravity as not an intrinsic property of matter but as an indirect consequence of Maxwellian electromagnetic radiation, namely that (as earlier suggested by the late Russian dissenter Sakharov) gravity is a "shadow effect" similar to the Casimir Effect of quantum electrodynamics. Bass points out that if the Haisch- Puthoff-Rueda theory is correct then Hodowanec's idea of tapping the earth's gravity field in some electromagnetic way not hitherto suggested is conceivable. - Joel McClain ---------------------------------------------------------------------- Puthoff and his collaborators have gone so far as to use SED (Stochastic Electro-Dynamics) to _explain_ both gravitational & inertial mass and to show their equivalence, and to derive Newton's F = Ma, and to derive Mach's principle (without which Einstein admitted that no theory of gravity could claim to be complete), and to derive Dirac's "cosmological numerical coincidences" as inevitabilities, and to derive Newtonian gravity, and to derive the Newton-Cavendish parameter G!!! -- Robert Bass ------------------------------------------------------------------------- It is an amazing coincidence that the total Newtonian gravitational potential energy of any object due to all masses in the universe is equal in magnitude to its total energy, at least to within a small factor, considering that this involves an expression involving multiple factors of the order of 10 to the 40th power. This was pointed out by Dirac in his Large Numbers Hypothesis, and used as part of a beautiful illustrative theory by Dennis Sciama [1], in which he constructs a theory of gravity closely analogous to the classical theory of electromagnetism, and shows that inertia can be directly attributed to the gravitational effect of accelerating relative to the gravitational potential sources of the whole universe (or indeed of accelerating the whole universe relative to the object, because in Sciama's theory, the two points of view are equivalent). This theory is obviously consistent with Mach's Principle (which is effectively that inertial motion is in some sense relative to the rest of universe). Sciama's theory is only a simplified approximation, but it is so neat that it seems likely that some similar principle must apply also within General Relativity. However, one of its most basic implications is that the gravitational "constant" G would depend on the distribution of matter in the universe, which seems to be in direct conflict with GR. I personally think GR is probably not quite right. -- Jonathan Scott [1] D.W.Sciama, "On the Origin of Inertia", M.N.R.A.S. Vol. 113, p34, 1953. ----------------------------------------------------------------------- GENERAL RELATIVITY & QUANTUM COSMOLOGY, ABSTRACT GR-QC/9412012 From: "Haret Rosu"Go to the Next RS EG Refs. PageDate: 3 Dec 94 19:36:00 CST Classical and quantum inertia: a heuristic introduction, Author(s): Haret C. Rosu Report: IFUG-27/94, Comments: 20 pages, LaTex 11pt, no figures. A non-technical discussion of the problem of inertia is provided both in classical physics and in the quantum world. After briefly reviewing the classical formulations (WEP, EEP, and SEP), I pass to a presentation of the equivalence statements for quantum vacuum states. One can also find a number of related comments and suggestions. ----------------------------------------------------------------------- Krech, Michael. The Casimir effect in critical systems / Michael Krech. Singapore ; River Edge, NJ : World Scientific, c1994. x, 253 p. : ill. ; 23 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: QC173.4.C74 K74 1994 SUBJECTS: Critical phenomena. Casimir effect. ISBN: 9810218451 Cavity quantum electrodynamics/edited by Paul R. Berman. Boston : Academic Press, c1994. xvi, 464 p. : ill. ; 24 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: QC446.2 .C38 1994 SUBJECTS: Quantum optics. Quantum electrodynamics. Casimir effect. ISBN: 0120922452 (alk. paper) Long-range Casimir forces : theory and recent experiments on atomic systems Edited by Frank S. Levin and David A. Micha. New York : Plenum Press, c1993. LC CALL NUMBER: QC680 .L63 1993 SUBJECTS: Casimir effect. ISBN: 0306443856 Physics in the making : essays on developments in 20th century physics: in honour of H.B.G. Casimir on the occasion of his 80th birthday/ edited by A. Sarlemijn and M.J. Sparnaay. Amsterdam : North-Holland; New York, N.Y., U.S.A. : Sole distributors for the U.S.A. and Canada, Elsevier Science Pub. Co., 1989. xiv, 361 p. : ill. ; 23 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: QC7 .P48 1989 SUBJECTS: Casimir, H. B. G. (Hendrik Brugt Gerhard), 1909- Casimir, H. B. G. (Hendrik Brugt Gerhard), 1909- Sarlemijn, Andries, 1936- Sparnaay, M. J. (Marcus Johannes) ISBN: 0444881212 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- Edwards-Casimir Quantum Vacuum Drive -- A hypothetical drive exploiting the peculiarities of quantum mechanics by restricting allowed wavelengths of virtual photons on one side of the drive (the bow of the ship); the pressure generated from the unrestricted virtual photons toward the aft generates a net force and propels the drive. ---------- ------------------------------------------------------------ CONDENSED MATTER, ABSTRACT COND-MAT/9505108 From: moraes@guinness.ias.edu (Fernando Moraes) Date: Tue, 23 May 95 17:12:35 EDT Enhancement of the magnetic moment of the electron due to a topological defect Author(s): Fernando Moraes (Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton) In the framework of the theory of defects/three-dimensional gravitation, it is obtained a positive correction to the magnetic moment of the electron bound to a disclination in a dielectric solid. With the disclination modelled as a parallel plate casimir effect. HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS - THEORY, ABSTRACT HEP-TH/9212077 From: milton@phyast.nhn.uoknor.edu (Kim Milton) Date: Fri, 11 Dec 92 16:13:13 CST MAXWELL-CHERN-SIMONS CASIMIR EFFECT, KIMBALL A. MILTON, DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY, UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA In odd-dimensional spaces, gauge invariance permits a Chern-Simons mass term for the gauge fields in addition to the usual Maxwell-Yang-Mills kinetic energy term. We study the Casimir effect in such a (2+1)-dimensional Abelian theory. For the case of parallel conducting lines the result is the same as for a scalar field. For the case of circular boundary conditions the results are completely different, with even the sign of the effect being opposite for Maxwell-Chern-Simons fields and scalar fields. We further examine the effect of finite temperature. The Casimir stress is found to be attractive at both low and high temperature. Possibilities of observing this effect in the laboratory are discussed. GENERAL RELATIVITY & QUANTUM COSMOLOGY, ABSTRACT GR-QC/9303038 PHYS. REV. D 48, 776 (1993) FROM: LFORD@PEARL.TUFTS.EDU Date: Wed, 31 Mar 1993 17:47 EDT MOTION OF INERTIAL OBSERVERS THROUGH NEGATIVE ENERGY, BY L.H. FORD AND THOMAS A. ROMAN, Recent research has indicated that negative energy fluxes due to quantum coherence effects obey uncertainty principle-type inequalities of the form $|\Delta E|\,{\Delta \tau} \lprox 1\,$. Here $|\Delta E|$ is the magnitude of the negative energy which is transmitted on a timescale $\Delta \tau$. Our main focus in this paper is on negative energy fluxes which are produced by the motion of observers through static negative energy regions. We find that although a quantum inequality appears to be satisfied for radially moving geodesic observers in two and four-dimensional black hole spacetimes, an observer orbiting close to a black hole will see a constant negative energy flux. In addition, we show that inertial observers moving slowly through the Casimir vacuum can achieve arbitrarily large violations of the inequality. It seems likely that, in general, these types of negative energy fluxes are not constrained by inequalities on the magnitude and duration of the flux. We construct a model of a non-gravitational stress-energy detector, which is rapidly switched on and off, and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of such a detector. GENERAL RELATIVITY & QUANTUM COSMOLOGY, ABSTRACT GR-QC/9304008 PHYS. REV. D 47, 4510 (1993). FROM: LFORD@PEARL.TUFTS.EDU Date: Tue, 6 Apr 1993 12:56 EDT SEMICLASSICAL GRAVITY THEORY AND QUANTUM FLUCTUATIONS, BY CHUNG-I KUO AND L. H. FORD. We discuss the limits of validity of the semiclassical theory of gravity in which a classical metric is coupled to the expectation value of the stress tensor. It is argued that this theory is a good approximation only when the fluctuations in the stress tensor are small. We calculate a dimensionless measure of these fluctuations for a scalar field on a flat background in particular cases, including squeezed states and the Casimir vacuum state. It is found that the fluctuations are small for states which are close to a coherent state, which describes classical behavior, but tend to be large otherwise. We find in all cases studied that the energy density fluctuations are large whenever the local energy density is negative. This is taken to mean that the gravitational field of a system with negative energy density, such as the Casimir vacuum, is not described by a fixed classical metric but is undergoing large metric fluctuations. We propose an operational scheme by which one can describe a fluctuating gravitational field in terms of the statistical behavior of test particles. For this purpose we obtain an equation of the form of the Langevin equation used to describe Brownian motion. HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS - PHENOMENOLOGY, ABSTRACT HEP-PH/9307258 From: langfeld@ptsun1.tphys.physik.uni-tuebingen.de (Kurt Langfeld) Date: Tue, 13 Jul 93 08:04:30 +0200 CASIMIR EFFECT OF STRONGLY INTERACTING SCALAR FIELDS, BY K. LANGFELD, F. SCHMUSER, AND H. REINHARDT Non-trivial $\phi ^{4}$-theory is studied in a renormalisation group invariant approach inside a box consisting of rectangular plates and where the scalar modes satisfy periodic boundary conditions at the plates. It is found that the Casimir energy exponentially approaches the infinite volume limit, the decay rate given by the scalar condensate. It therefore essentially differs from the power law of a free theory. This might provide experimental access to properties of the non-trivial vacuum. At small interplate distances the system can no longer tolerate a scalar condensate, and a first order phase transition to the perturbative phase occurs. The dependence of the vacuum energy density and the scalar condensate on the box dimensions are presented. GENERAL RELATIVITY & QUANTUM COSMOLOGY, ABSTRACT GR-QC 9310007 PHYSICA SCRIPTA 48, 649 (1993) FROM: harald@nordita.dk (Harald H. Soleng) Date: Mon, 4 Oct 93 INVERSE SQUARE LAW OF GRAVITATION IN (2+1)-DIMENSIONAL SPACE-TIME AS A CONSEQUENCE OF CASIMIR ENERGY, H. H. SOLENG, The gravitational effect of vacuum polarization in space exterior to a particle in (2+1)-dimensional Einstein theory is investigated. In the weak field limit this gravitational field corresponds to an inverse square law of gravitational attraction, even though the gravitational mass of the quantum vacuum is negative. The paradox is resolved by considering a particle of finite extension and taking into account the vacuum polarization in its interior. HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS - THEORY, ABSTRACT HEP-TH/9312069 From: segui@cc.unizar.es Date: Thu, 9 DEC 93 13:50 GMT A MODIFIED SCHWINGER'S FORMULA FOR THE CASIMIR EFFECT, M.V. COUGO-PINTO, C. FARINA AND ANTONIO J. SEGUI-SANTONJA After briefly reviewing how the (proper-time) Schwinger's formula works for computing the Casimir energy in the case of "scalar electrodynamics" where the boundary conditions are dictated by two perfectly conducting parallel plates with separation "a" in the Z-axis, we propose a slightly modification in the previous approach based on an analytical continuation method. As we will see, for the case at hand our formula does not need the use of Poisson summation to get a (renormalized) finite result. HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS - THEORY, ABSTRACT HEP-TH/9401123 From: segui@cc.unizar.es Date: Tue, 25 JAN 94 21:47 GMT SCHWINGER'S METHOD FOR THE MASSIVE CASIMIR EFFECT, BY M.V. COUGO-PINTO, C. FARINA AND A.J. SEGUI-SANTONJA We apply to the massive scalar field a method recently proposed by Schwinger to calculate the Casimir effect. The method is applied with two different regularization schemes: the Schwinger original one by means of Poisson formula and another one by means of analytical continuation. HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS - THEORY, ABSTRACT HEP-TH/9405060 From: Shtykov Nikolay Date: Tue, 10 May 94 17:40:50 JST THE FINITE VACUUM ENERGY FOR SPINOR, SCALAR AND VECTOR FIELDS, N.SHTYKOV We compute the one-loop potential (the Casimir energy) for scalar, spinor and vectors fields on the spaces $\,R^{m+1}\, \times\,Y$ with $\,Y=\,S^N\,,CP^2$. As a physical model we consider spinor electrodynamics on four-dimensional product manifolds. We examine the cancelation of a divergent part of the Casimir energy on even-dimensional spaces by means of including the parameter $\,M$ in original action. For some models we compare our results with those found in the literature. HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS - THEORY, ABSTRACT HEP-TH/9408172 From: LFORD@PEARL.TUFTS.EDU Date: Tue, 30 Aug 1994 16:45:05 -0400 (EDT) DECOHERENCE AND VACUUM FLUCTUATIONS, L.H. FORD, TUFTS UNIVERSITY The interference pattern of coherent electrons is effected by coupling to the quantized electromagnetic field. The amplitudes of the interference maxima are changed by a factor which depends upon a double line integral of the photon two-point function around the closed path of the electrons. The interference pattern is sensitive to shifts in the vacuum fluctuations in regions from which the electrons are excluded. Thus this effect combines aspects of both the Casimir and the Aharonov-Bohm effects. The coupling to the quantized electromagnetic field tends to decrease the amplitude of the interference oscillations, and hence is a form of decoherence. The contributions due to photon emission and to vacuum fluctuations may be separately identified. It is to be expected that photon emission leads to decoherence, as it can reveal which path an electron takes. It is less obvious that vacuum fluctuations also can cause decoherence. What is directly observable is a shift in the fluctuations due, for example, to the presence of a conducting plate. In the case of electrons moving parallel to conducting boundaries, the dominant decohering influence is that of the vacuum fluctuations. The shift in the interference amplitudes can be of the order of a few percent, so experimental verification of this effect may be possible. The possibility of using this effect to probe the interior of matter, e.g., to determine the electrical conductivity of a rod by means of electrons encircling it is discussed. (Presented at the Conference on Fundamental Problems in Quantum Theory, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, June 18-22, 1994.) GENERAL RELATIVITY & QUANTUM COSMOLOGY, ABSTRACT GR-QC/9410043 PHYS. REV. D 51, 4277(1995). FROM: FORD@TUHEP.PHY.TUFTS.EDU Date: Fri, 28 Oct 1994 20:33 EST AVERAGED ENERGY CONDITIONS AND QUANTUM INEQUALITIES, L.H. FORD AND THOMAS A. ROMAN Connections are uncovered between the averaged weak (AWEC) and averaged null (ANEC) energy conditions, and quantum inequality restrictions on negative energy for free massless scalar fields. In a two-dimensional compactified Minkowski universe, we derive a covariant quantum inequality-type bound on the difference of the expectation values of the energy density in an arbitrary quantum state and in the Casimir vacuum state. From this bound, it is shown that the difference of expectation values also obeys AWEC and ANEC-type integral conditions. In contrast, it is well-known that the stress tensor in the Casimir vacuum state alone satisfies neither quantum inequalities nor averaged energy conditions. Such difference inequalities represent limits on the degree of energy condition violation that is allowed over and above any violation due to negative energy densities in a background vacuum state. In our simple two-dimensional model, they provide physically interesting examples of new constraints on negative energy which hold even when the usual AWEC, ANEC, and quantum inequality restrictions fail. In the limit when the size of the space is allowed to go to infinity, we derive quantum inequalities for timelike and null geodesics which, in appropriate limits, reduce to AWEC and ANEC in ordinary two-dimensional Minkowski spacetime. We also derive a quantum inequality bound on the energy density seen by an inertial observer in four- dimensional Minkowski spacetime. The bound implies that any inertial observer in flat spacetime cannot see an arbitrarily large negative energy density which lasts for an arbitrarily long period of time. GENERAL RELATIVITY & QUANTUM COSMOLOGY, ABSTRACT GR-QC/9411053 From: "Haret Rosu" Date: 20 Nov 94 21:15:00 CST On the assignment of frequency spectra to quantum vacuum effects, Author: Haret C. Rosu, Report: IFUG-25/94, I discuss in an introductory manner, i.e., in the form of comments on available references, the problem of assigning frequency spectra to such fundamental effects like Casimir, Hawking, Unruh, and squeezing effects. This may help to clarify their differences as well as their similarities. GENERAL RELATIVITY & QUANTUM COSMOLOGY, ABSTRACT GR-QC/9411056 From: ulvi@tapir.Caltech.EDU (Ulvi Yurtsever) Date: Mon, 21 Nov 94 15:56:11 -0800 The averaged null energy condition and difference inequalities in quantum field theory, by: Ulvi Yurtsever Recently, Larry Ford and Tom Roman have discovered that in a flat cylindrical space, although the stress-energy tensor itself fails to satisfy the averaged null energy condition (ANEC) along the (non-achronal) null geodesics, when the ``Casimir-vacuum" contribution is subtracted from the stress-energy the resulting tensor does satisfy the ANEC inequality. Ford and Roman name this class of constraints on the quantum stress-energy tensor ``difference inequalities." Here I give a proof of the difference inequality for a minimally coupled massless scalar field in an arbitrary two-dimensional spacetime, using the same techniques as those we relied on to prove ANEC in an earlier paper with Robert Wald. I begin with an overview of averaged energy conditions in quantum field theory.