HISTORY AND APPLICATIONS OF HAARP TECHNOLOGIES: THE HIGH FREQUENCY ACTIVE AURORAL RESEARCH PROGRAM
By: Patrick Bailey and Nancy Worthington
An updated and revised version of a paper originally submitted in June 1997 to the 1997 Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, the 32nd IECEC, held July 27 - August 1, 1997, in Honolulu, Hawaii.
Posted to the INE Website with the permission of authors.
HISTORY AND APPLICATIONS OF HAARP TECHNOLOGIES: THE HIGH FREQUENCY ACTIVE AURORAL RESEARCH PROGRAM
Patrick G. Bailey
Institute for New Energy
P. O. Box 201
Los Altos, CA 94023-0201
Nancy C. Worthington
P. O. Box 201
Los Altos, CA 94023-0201
A serious review of HAARP is presented. On the surface, HAARP appears to be a nice military "scientific endeavor aimed at studying the properties and behavior of the ionosphere". Upon further investigation, HAARP appears to be filled with secrecy and fraught with possible severe dangers. Attempts to reopen an official assessment of this program and its old out-dated unclassified Environmental Impact Statement have thus far failed. HAARP appears to be in use by ARCO to sell natural gas to the military that would otherwise be trapped in Alaska. The HAARP patents imply that Billions of Watts could easily be used to power HAARP, with no or few equipment upgrades. The patents are now owned by a major military contractor. Many of the possible applications, as stated in the actual patents supporting HAARP, would be classified. An Independent Review Committee needs to be formed to access the possible dangers of the various real and possibly classified HAARP projects. This Committee needs to be independent from US Federal politics, Alaska state politics, the US military, and ARCO oil interests, and would probably need to report to both the Congress and the Senate. There is a great need to form this Review Committee, and the time to form it is NOW!
The High Frequency Active Auroral Research Project (HAARP) looks like a harmless research project - especially when first viewed from a limited exterior viewpoint. However, when viewed from a wider perspective and with more detailed supporting data and information, HAARP begins to look more complex and even very secret and covert. It is not the intent of this paper to debate or discredit the existing project. Rather, it is the intention of this paper to raise honest questions and concerns about an on-going project whose actual operation may indeed be secret. As free citizens, it is our duty to openly question and find out what we are allowing others to do, especially if they can affect us on a large-scale and perhaps on a world-wide basis!
Information on HAARP has come primarily from the following major sources: (1) The official HAARP Project Information and Data (HAARP Home Page, current); (2) the "HAARP HF Active Auroral Research Program Joint Services Program Plans And Activities" (HAARP, Feb. 1990); (3) A book by Dr. Nick Begich and Jeane Manning that outline the status and possible dangers of HAARP (Begich and Manning, 1995); (4) a summary of that book in an Australian review article entitled "HAARP: Vandalism in the Sky?" (Nexus Mag., Jan. 1996); (5) the Patents that been identified that support HAARP (Patents, IBM, current); (6) other related information from the internet, such as the "Alternate HAARP Page" (Padberg, J., current), "The HAARP Game Home Page" (unauthored, current), and "HAARP: Specific Project Goals Taken From The Major HAARP Patent With Comments" (unauthored, Sept. 1996); and (7) on-going internet website information and UseNet postings found using search engines on HAARP.
Further detailed information can also be obtained in a continuing newsletter on this topic (Begich, N., current).
It must be truthfully recalled that in almost all of the US military programs of the past 20 years or so, the public has been allowed to know only a small amount of the information that was really known about those programs - and the public was certainly told none of the dangers involved. From the Trinity atomic bomb tests, to other nuclear blast tests, to the storage of high-level nuclear wastes, to the use of chemicals in Vietnam, to the use of chemicals in Iraq, to the effects of high velocity aircraft being used today - the public was told nothing of the dangers, and later had to live with - and are now living with - the consequences.
What about possible negative consequences of HAARP?
It may be that our best source of future data regarding the truth about HAARP will only come from the internet.
While it is important to support our country's military and our own national defense, it is more important to question the effects of our research projects and the authority of those in whom we have placed our trust. It is not only our right, IT IS OUR DUTY!
It is hoped that data will also come from those involved with the truth and details of the real operational goals of the project.
THE OFFICIAL HAARP PROJECT
Purpose and Objectives of HAARP
The official "Purpose and Objectives of the HAARP Program" are given in their website home page (HAARP Home Page, current):
"HAARP is a scientific endeavor aimed at studying the properties and behavior of the ionosphere, with particular emphasis on being able to understand and use it to enhance communications and surveillance systems for both civilian and defense purposes.
The HAARP program is committed to developing a world class ionospheric research facility consisting of:
The ionospheric research instrument (IRI), a high power transmitter facility operating in the HF frequency range.
The IRI will be used to temporarily excite a limited area of the ionosphere for scientific study.
Diagnostic instruments that will be used to observe the physical processes that occur in the excited region.
Observation of the processes resulting from the use of the IRI in a controlled manner will allow scientists to better understand processes that occur continuously under the natural stimulation of the sun.
In addition, diagnostics installed at the HAARP facility will be useful for a variety of other research purposes including the study of global warming and ozone depletion."
Frequently Asked Questions
In an attempt to answer all questions regarding the possible negative and harmful effects of HAARP, the HAARP home website provides in its "Frequently Asked Questions" page:
"Q: Are there any health hazards due to fields produced by HAARP?
A: The health and safety of the public (and of the scientific researchers who will be present at the site) has been a primary focus in the design of the HAARP IRI. There are no locations on-site where the E-M fields exceed safety standards for RFR exposure as defined by IEEE/ANSI C95.1-1992 and NCRP Report No 86. In fact, the E-M fields measured at the closest public access to the site are lower than those existing in many urban environments. We have provided a more detailed look at this issue in a separate page on HAARP E-M Safety.
Q: Will HAARP be used to generate ELF?
A: Previous experience at other facilities has shown that it is possible to generate a small but useful ELF signal through ionospheric heating. This field will be more than one and a half billion times weaker than the Earth's background field and about one million times weaker than the level where researchers have reported biological effects in the literature. The field is so weak, in fact, that sophisticated instruments must be used to observe it, yet it is still quite useful for many applications. Also see the ELF section for a thorough discussion of this aspect of ionospheric research.
Q: What about radio frequency interference?
A: Analyses conducted during the environmental impact process suggest that radio frequency interference could occur for receiver systems that operate in the areas surrounding Gakona. However, other facilities similar to the HAARP IRI and its diagnostic instruments have achieved compatibility with other users of the radio frequency environment. The government is committed to achieve compatibility with other users of the electromagnetic spectrum and an electromagnetic compatibility program has been established to assure this goal is achieved.
Q: How large will the HAARP IRI be when it is complete?
A: When it is completed, the HAARP IRI will consist of 180 antennas on a total land area of about 23 acres. The final facility will have a total transmitter power of about 3,600 killowatts. This is the last phase of the project and is the maximum size that was approved (and the maximum size that can be constructed) in accordance with the Environmental Impact Process. We have provided a comparison of the various phases of the IRI throughout the program, from the initial prototype up to and including the final facility.
Q: Can HAARP be used for military purposes?
A: The HAARP facility will be used for basic and applied research related to the study of the Earth's ionosphere. It is not designed to be an operational system for military purposes. The HAARP specifications were developed by a consortium of universities to meet the requirements for a world-class research facility and an expanded group of universities are playing a major role in the design of future research efforts. Administratively, HAARP is restricted to operate only on a "not to interfere" (NIB) basis by the NTIA and is classified as an experimental station in the NTIA spectrum certification document."
It is a major concern of many scientists and researchers that perhaps these questions and answers do not cover all of the ground that the HAARP Program itself plans to cover during its operations in future years - especially when the power dramatically increases!.
On Nov. 3, 1993, the U.S. Air Force announced that the prime contractor on the first phase of the HAARP project was ARCO Power Technologies, Inc. (APTI). At the time the project was put out for bids, APTI was a subsidiary of Atlantic Richfield Oil Company (ARCO) and owned the patent rights to various patents pertaining to the HAARP project, such as those invented by Bernard J. Eastlund. How did a small subsidiary get the military contract for such a large project? One that was five times large than APTI's annual budget? The answer seems to lie in the patents owned at the time by APTI.
And why should ARCO be interested or involved?
ARCO is one of the largest employers in Alaska, where it is primarily involved in the North Slope oil fields. As ARCO oil is a major industry there, the Alaska State government has been very supportive of the HAARP Program. The University of Alaska has also benefited from this program in several ways, and would also be supportive of HAARP. (Begich and Manning, 1995).
In those ARCO oil fields, the natural gas is re-injected into the Earth rather than "flared" off or produced for use, as done in most other oil fields around the world. The re-injected gas increases the oil field pressure and thus creates enhanced oil production. No market for this natural gas exists, as it would be very expensive to pipe it from there to market in the US. The HAARP site is close to an already granted right-of-way for a future Trans-Alaska gas Pipeline! All of the significant regulatory hurdles have been passed for constructing the gas line should markets be found. Does HAARP and its possible military mission represent a huge natural gas market for ARCO?
At its present stage, HAARP does not represent a high energy consumer in terms of input power for ARCO. The first two phases of the project may not have consumed more than one to ten megaWatts of power. HOWEVER: What about the future? If the project follows the plans outlined in the patents and what the project planners may want, the power demands could SHARPLY increase - to ARCO's advantage. The patents talk about using billions of Watts of power. The HAARP Home Page references 3.6 billion Watts! Who would stop such a project if it its power levels got that far?
And the story gets more involved. After the HAARP contact was awarded to APTI, APTI was sold to E-Systems in June 1994, under undisclosed terms. That is interesting in that APTI is reported to have shown no net income since it opened in the late 1980's. E-Systems changed the name of the company to Advanced Power Technologies Incorporated (a different APTI, yet the same spelling as in the patents), and assumed control of the patents and the HAARP project. E-systems is also one of the largest intelligence contractors in the U.S. The value in this sale seems to be the patents and the HAARP contract.
In 1995, Raytheon Corporation was reported to have bought and acquired E-Systems for $2.3 Billion (Wall Street Journal, 1995). Raytheon is a very large company with several large military contacts, some of course classified. What is Raytheon doing with HAARP? The value of the HAARP program may only be found in its patents.
"ARCO Power Technologies Incorporated (APTI) held twelve patents, all of which were linked to Star Wars defense systems. APTI was the main contractor on the first phase of the HAARP project. These patents represented technologies which were inconsistent with the normal activities of Atlantic Richfield Company (ARCO), the patent organization of APTI. In ARCO's 1994 annual report, no mention of APTI or the HAARP contract was found. Apparently ARCO was not in the kind of technology and military construction contacting business suggested by this technology. APTI was an anomalous subsidiary of ARCO, with ARCO having no real expertise, outside of APTI, for developing these kinds of patents." "This writer believes that ARCO did not want to be involved in the defense industry development of these patents. After all, they were just looking for a market for natural gas. Gas on the North Slope of Alaska was the issue for ARCO. The cost of a pipeline and related facilities needed to move the gas to southern Alaska was estimated at more than $20 billion, pricing the gas out of the market. So APTI acquired the twelve patents and a potentially lucrative market." (Begich and Manning, 1995, pp. 111-124).
An information packet containing all twelve patents is available (Begich, N., current).
For your information and for public release, here are those twelve patents. Note carefully the titles.
HAARP PATENTS (Assigned to APTI, Inc.) U.S. Patent 4686605: Method And Apparatus For Altering A Region In The Earth's Atmosphere, Ionosphere, And/Or Magnetosphere Inventors: Eastlund; Bernard J., Spring, TX Assignees: APTI, Inc., Los Angeles, CA Issued: Aug. 11, 1987 Filed: Jan. 10, 1985 U.S. Patent 5038664: Method For Producing A Shell Of Relativistic Particles At An Altitude Above The Earth's Surface Inventors: Eastlund; Bernard J., Spring, TX Assignees: APTI, Inc., Washington, DC Issued: Aug. 13, 1991 Filed: Jan. 10, 1985 U.S. Patent 4712155: Method And Apparatus For Creating An Artificial Electron Cyclotron Heating Region Of Plasma Inventors: Eastlund; Bernard J., Spring, TX Ramo; Simon, Beverly Hills, CA Assignees: APTI, Inc., Los Angeles, CA Issued: Dec. 8, 1987 Filed: Jan. 28, 1985 U.S. Patent 5068669: Power Beaming System Inventors: Koert; Peter, Washington, DC Cha; James T., Fairfax, VA Assignees: APTI, Inc., Washington, DC Issued: Nov. 26, 1991 Filed: Sep. 1, 1988 U.S. Patent 5218374: Power Beaming System With Printer Circuit Radiating Elements Having Resonating Cavities Inventors: Koert; Peter, Washington, DC Cha; James T., Fairfax, VA Assignees: APTI, Inc., Washington, DC Issued: June 8, 1993 Filed: Oct. 10, 1989 U.S. Patent 5293176: Folded Cross Grid Dipole Antenna Element Inventors: Elliot; Paul G., Vienna, VA Assignees: APTI, Inc., Washington, DC Issued: Mar. 8, 1994 Filed: Nov. 18, 1991 U.S. Patent 5202689: Lightweight Focusing Reflector For Space Inventors: Bussard; Robert W., Manassas, VA Wallace; Thomas H., Gainesville, FL Assignees: APTI, Inc., Washington, DC Issued: Apr. 13, 1993 Filed: Aug. 23, 1991 U.S. Patent 5041834: Artificial Ionospheric Mirror Composed Of A Plasma Layer Which Can Be Tilted Inventors: Koert; Peter, Washington, DC Assignees: APTI, Inc., Washington, DC Issued: Aug. 20, 1991 Filed: May. 17, 1990 U.S. Patent 4999637: Creation Of Artificial Ionization Clouds Above The Earth Inventors: Bass; Ronald M., Houston, TX Assignees: APTI, Inc., Washington, DC Issued: Mar. 12, 1991 Filed: May. 14, 1987 U.S. Patent 4954709: High Resolution Directional Gamma Ray Detector Inventors: Zigler; Arie, Rishon Le Zion, Israel Eisen; Yosset, Rishon Le Zion, Israel Assignees: APTI, Inc., Washington, DC Issued: Sep. 4, 1990 Filed: Aug. 16, 1989 U.S. Patent 4817495: Defense System For Discriminating Between Objects In Space Inventors: Drobot; Adam T., Annandale, VA Assignees: APTI, Inc., Los Angeles, CA Issued: Apr. 4, 1989 Filed: Jul. 7, 1986 U.S. Patent 4873928: Nuclear-Sized Explosions Without Radiation Inventors: Lowther; Frank E., Plano, TX Assignees: APTI, Inc., Los Angeles, CA Issued: Oct. 17, 1989 Filed: June 15, 1987Additional information on each of these patents can be quickly found using the easy-to-use IBM Womplex Patent Search System by patent number web page (Patents, IBM, current), or at the STO's Internet Patent Search System web page (Patents, STO, current).
Figs. 1 through 4 illustrate some aspects of the HAARP technology from figures taken from HAARP records and patents.
The HAARP project is different than other "atmospheric heaters" in that the Eastland device in Patent 4,686,605 would allow a concentration of one Watt per cc in the atmosphere, compared to other heaters that are only able to deliver about one-millionth of a Watt per cc. This is a huge difference to other devices, and patents, which was "sufficient to cause movement of a plasma region along said diverging magnetic field lines to an altitude higher than the altitude at which said excitation was initiated", as quoted from a Jan. 1987 amendment to the original patent application in order to receive the subsequent patent.
A review of the other patent titles shows that one application of this technology may be Power Beaming; Patents 5,068,669, 5,218,374, & 5,202,689: Transmitting the power represented by the Alaskan ARCO natural gas fields into the atmosphere to be received by appropriate receiver stations in other locations! Clearly, such applications would be initially classified.
Patent 5,041,834 creates an Artificial Ionospheric Mirror that could be used for over-the-horizon radar and other such communications for the military over great distances. It could also be used to locate with high accuracy and possible resolution incoming objects.
The other patents deal primary with components of the well-known "Star Wars "systems, and could provide other applications in particle beam technology, space-based defense, and plasma laser-like weapons.
It appears that ALL of these potential applications could be classified by the military in support of the National Defense.
POSSIBLE HIDDEN AGENDAS
How much power would be enough?
The HAARP project is designed so that the power can be increased without the replacement of any of the projects physical parts. The proof-of-concept phase of the project could easily turn into a full weapons system or power transmission system phase.
Phase one of the project began in Dec. 1994, and ended in 1995, with an estimated effective-radiated power of one gigaWatt. The second phase is set to increase the power several times of "at least 100 dbW", or about 10 Billion Watts of power (HAARP, Feb. 1990).
As the antenna gain of HAARP is about 1000, the actual input power required to generate 10 Billion Watts of effective-radiated power would be about 10 Million Watts of generated input power.
This concept was illustrated by Princeton, NJ, physicist Dr. Richard Williams, while commenting on his view of the HAARP project in Nov. 1994:
"My main objection to HAARP is that they intend to dump electromagnetic radiation into the upper atmosphere at very high power levels...The radiated power level will be between '90 dbW and 100 dbW'...They refer at one point to the need to go 'at least' to 100 dbW. One way to visualize this power level is that a 10-billion Watt generator running continuously for one hour, would deliver a quantity of energy equal to that of a Hiroshima-size atomic bomb."
A few scientists and researchers also think that the use of HAARP has already been extended to NASA missions, such as the ill-fated "Tethered Satellite". The use of such a tether could easily be used to receive power transmitted by HAARP. The fact that that tether melted and broke during deployment was probably not due to HAARP, but rather due to our own current lack of technical understanding of the electro-magnetic physics that apply in the upper atmosphere (Hoagland, 1996).
According to these and other patents, and the various references cited below, the possible applications of HAARP at these higher power levels are:
What the actual dangers that HAARP poses are of course under some debate.
However: There is a big difference between what the dangers of the "Current HAARP Program" are, and what the dangers of the "Future HAARP Program" are! There is also a major difference between the dangers of a non-classified project and those posed by a large classified project whose scope and details are not made available to the general public!
The author of the "HAARP Game Home Page" on the internet titles his website: "HAARP is not unique or new technology. It is a continuation of war science discoveries from the 1950's" (unauthored, current).
It must be recalled that the entire HAARP Environmental Impact Statement was written in 1993 for the initial phases of the program, with the use of the lower power levels. This Environmental Impact Statement DOES NOT address the effects of the higher power levels that are planned for HAARP or any classified project applications.
Even attempts to obtain background material on HAARP have net with official resistance and refusal. An official request for the proceedings of the government workshop on HAARP, "Presentations from the HAARP Workshop on Ionospheric Heating Diagnostics" in 1991 (Fisher, D., Oct. 1991) was met with an official denial of the public's right to obtain that information (Kossey, P., May 1996). This information, as well as the complete list of attendees of that workshop (Unauthored, 1991), are all available on the internet. Complete website URLs are included for your use in each reference, where known.
A "Formal letter that the United States Air Force prepare a supplement to the July 1993 HAARP Final Environmental Impact Statement" has been submitted to the HAARP Project and even the President of the US, without visible effect thus far (Van Tuyn, P., May 1996). It is on the internet. Read it!
The effects of HAARP on the weather are completely unknown. "Weather Modification" is a very interesting subject, and if it existed, would absolutely become a classified project, in the interest of National Security. The effect of heating the jet stream over Alaska could have profound results on the weather in Denver or Miami, depending on the time of year and the original position of the jet stream over Alaska. To say that HAARP cannot or will not influence the weather is just not true. How much it will influence the weather is just unknown.
Also, we know that earthquakes are occur when tectonic plates shift. What would be the effect of massive ionized power coming from the Earth's atmosphere into the Earth's core? Could it be enough to trigger slight or major earthquakes? Perhaps.
ELF (Extremely Low Frequencies) and VLF (Very Low Frequencies) communications are also controversial topics of discussion. While the military currently uses such low frequencies within the Earth and the oceans to communicate with submarines world-wide, the use of the atmosphere for such communications may produce disastrous effects on insects, birds, animals, and humans!
Several researchers have already noted major adverse effects that have occurred in Alaska since the beginning of the HAARP experimentation program, and they point to HAARP as the only cause (Begich and Manning, 1995).
Researchers have estimated that such radiations will be similar to those found under power-lines, and much more severe, as the frequency will be more attuned to life functions and brain waves. One researcher is quoted as saying that insects and other life forms that depend upon using their antenna will be affected world-wide!
In addition, several other researchers have pointed out that in the future operational phases of the program, EMF waves will be produced within the atmosphere that are in the same frequency band as human brain waves. Our conscious and unconscious activities have been found to be controlled by brain waves in the range from 1 to about 35 Hz. Our conscious activity is regulated by brain waves in the 14-35 Hz range (Beta). Our unconscious and higher conscious activity is in the range of 8-14 Hz (Alpha). Our relaxed and deeply relaxed states are in the ranges of 4-8 Hz (Theta) and 1-4 Hz (Delta) (Hurtak, J., 1997). As the frequency decreases, the effect is more pronounced and more unconscious. The effect of large power EM radiations pulsing though the atmosphere on living creatures and human consciousness in these frequency ranges is completely unknown!
It has also been shown that both ELF and VLF radiations can affect and entrain human brain wave patterns in ways that are against that of the individual's will (Hurtak, J., Aug. 1996).
A list of the possible dangers include:
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
HAARP appears as a nice and ambitious military "scientific endeavor aimed at studying the properties and behavior of the ionosphere, with particular emphasis on being able to understand and use it to enhance communications and surveillance systems for both civilian and defense purposes". The HAARP Final Environmental Impact Statement was completed in 1993, and addresses the unclassified use of HAARP with very low amounts of input and transmitted power. Attempts to reopen an official assessment of this program have thus far failed. HAARP appears to be in use by ARCO to sell natural gas to the military that would otherwise be trapped in Alaska. The HAARP patents imply that Billions of Watts could easily be used to power HAARP, with no or few equipment upgrades. The patents are now owned by a major military contractor. Many of the possible applications, as stated in the actual patents supporting HAARP, would be classified. You can draw your own conclusions:
An Independent Review Committee needs to be formed to access the possible dangers of the various real and possibly classified HAARP projects. This Committee needs to be independent from US Federal politics, Alaska state politics, the US military, and ARCO oil interests, and would probably need to report to both the Congress and the Senate. There is a great need to form this Review Committee, and the time to form it is NOW!
The information, data, and support provided by Nick Begich and Jeane Manning is gratefully acknowledged, as well as their permission to quote from their book. We also thank all those individuals listed in the References, and all the other writers and networkers, both past and future, who are asking hard questions and when getting no answers do not ever, ever give up!
Begich, N., and Manning, J., "Angles Don't Play This HAARP," Earthpulse Press, P.O. Box 916, Homer Alaska 99603, 907-249-9111, (or at local bookstores), 1995.
Begich, N., "The Flashpoints Newsletter," P.O. Box 201393, Anchorage, Alaska 99520, current.
Begich, N., "HAARP Patent Package (12 Patents)," P.O. Box 201393, Anchorage, Alaska 99520, current.
Fisher, Drew, "Presentations from the HAARP Workshop on Ionospheric Heating Diagnostics", 30 April - 2 May 1991, Phillips Laboratory (AFSC), Hanscom AFB, MA 01731-5000, Major Drew R. Fisher, Editor, www.micronet.net/~lb/HC/nstlmnt1.html, 22 Oct 1991.
HAARP Program, "HAARP HF Active Auroral Research Program Joint Services Program Plans And Activities", www.xyz.net/~nohaarp/jspd.htm, Feb. 1990.
The HAARP Home Page, server5550.itd.nrl.navy.mil/projects/haarp/index.html, current.
Nexus Magazine, "HAARP: Vandalism In The Sky?", Volume 3, Number 1 (December '95-January '96), www.icom.net/~nexus/HAARP.html, or www.padrak.com/alt/HAARP3_BKUP.html, Jan. 1996.
Hoagland, Richard, personal communications, 1996.
Hurtak, James J., personal communications, 1997.
Hurtak, J. J., "Effects of ELF and VLF on the Human Mind", Art Bell Radio Show Program Tape No. 960830C, Aug. 1996.
Kossey, P., Letter Denying Public Access and Disclosure of the "PL/GP Technical Memorandum No. 195, 1991 HAARP Workshop", Paul Kossey, www.micronet.net/~lb/HC/ 195.html, May 1996.
Padberg, Jim., "The Alternative HAARP Page", www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/1606/akhaarp.html, current.
Patents, US, IBM Patent Server Website, patent.womplex.ibm.com, current.
Patents, US, STO's Internet Patent Search System Website, sunsite.unc.edu/patents/intropat.html, current.
Unauthored, "The HAARP Game Home Page", www.micronet.net/~lb/HC/game.html, current.
Unauthored, "HAARP: Specific Project Goals Taken From The Major HAARP Patent With Comments", www.padrak.com/alt/HAARP6.html, Sep. 1996.
Unauthored, 1991 HAARP Workshop Attendees & Affiliates, www.micronet.net/~lb/HC/work.html, 1991.
Van Tuyn, Peter, "Formal letter that the United States Air Force prepare a supplement to the July 1993 HAARP Final Environmental Impact Statement", www.xyz.net/~nohaarp/trustees.htm, May 1996.
Wall Street Journal, "Raytheon to Acquire E-Systems for $64 a Share...", Pages A1, A3, and A16, April 3, 1995.
Fig. 1. Charged Particle Motion in Earth's Geomagnetic Field. (Figure drawn by Eastlund to show the effect of his full-sized heater. It shows the charged particle motion in the Earth's Geomagnetic Field.)
Fig. 2. Field Lines in the Atmosphere (Taken from the primary U.S. Patent of Eastlund, U.S. Pat. 4,686,605.)
Fig. 3 Illustration of Power Beaming, Earth-to-Earth. (Taken from U.S. Patent 5,202,689.)
Fig. 4 Bouncing ELF Waves Through the Earth and Atmosphere. (Taken from a presentation made at the HAARP Workshop in 1991.) (ELF waves can disrupt mental functions and impact wildlife migration patterns.)
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Mar. 30, 1997.