Hal Fox 1, Robert W. Bass, Shang-Xian Jin
Several recent developments of devices that produce low-energy nuclear reactions are explained by the deliberate or fortuitous production of Shoulders' high-density charge clusters, also called EVs (for Electrum Validum). Some and perhaps most of the nuclear reactions in a variety of fluids and devices including the Pons-Fleischmann discovery (palladium/heavy water systems), in nickel/light water systems, in Patterson Power CellsTM, in low pressure deuterium gas devices, in sparking-in-hydrogen devices, in exploding resistors, in plasma-focus devices, in the abundance of elements in the earth's surface, and in the Neal-Gleeson Process are explained by the creation, launching, and impingement of high-density charge clusters on a target element or elements. This paper presents a hypothesis and computations that explains these various discoveries and experimental results that have resulted in the filing of a broad patent application. Excess heat from various so-called cold fusion discoveries are substantiated.
High-density charge clusters, as taught by Kenneth Shoulders , can be formed in a near vacuum by a short pulse of negative potential applied to a specially-designed cathode (such as using a conical point). The charge cluster was designated by Shoulders as an EV or electrum validum (Latin and Greek for strong electron). A typical EV will impact a witness plate (a thin metal foil placed near the anode) and leave variously-sized holes or blisters in the metal foil. Single EVs and EV clusters may vary in size from less than a micron to 50 microns as produced in the laboratory. It is believed that with appropriate input energy levels larger EVs may be produced.
EVs are formed by many types of electrical discharges. Nearly all electrical sparks, filaments, streamers, or lightning bolts will produce EVs. These EVs are evident when a spark impacts a metal surface. Spark erosion may be primarily the effect of EV action. For one skilled in the art, the strike pattern of a EV is often readily identified . Because the EV consists of 108 to 1013 electrons and are relatively small, the energy density is large. Provided that the energy of the EV exceeds a certain energy level, the EV can cause nuclear reactions to occur as reported by Shoulders .
As taught in Shoulders' patents  EVs can be stripped of most positive ions. In other embodiments, the EV can be produced so that it carries or transports a small percent of positive ions . Such EVs, especially when more energetic than a threshold energy value, can produce nuclear reactions. Under these conditions the EV has been designated as a Nuclear EV or NEV .
When an EV or NEV, of sufficient energy level, and carrying positive ions, impacts some types of target materials a nuclear reaction is produced. The difference between the strike of an EV and an NEV can be easily be seen on microphotographs. Shoulders has shown several typical pictures in his paper  where the difference between an energetic EV strike and a NEV strike is readily apparent. The following Fig. 1a (from Shoulders) is the electron microscope micrograph of an impact of an EV. Fig. 2a (from Shoulders) is a similar micrograph of the result of the impact of an NEV. In Fig. 1a the metal has been melted by the released energy of the EV impact but there is no evidence of nuclear reactions, as shown by the X-ray microanalysis in Fig. 1b. In Fig. 2a the NEV has caused a vigorous explosion with measurable nuclear changes as shown by the X-Ray microanalysis in Fig. 2b. Figures are reproduced from Shoulders .
The EV is observed to maintain a stable cluster configuration even though consisting primarily of electrons. Therefore, there must be a highly dynamic nature to the EV (and the NEV) so that electrodynamic forces are stronger than the repulsive forces of the electron charges. The possibility of the existence of an essentially single-specie plasma state represented by a stable packet of charged particles moving collectively through space-time was examined by Ziolkowski . Robert Bass  has shown that a solution of Maxwell's equations is valid for a toroid or a infinitely-long cylinder. From Bass's mathematical description, one of us (Fox) has proposed that the form of the EV (or the NEV) is probably a toroid. That assumption has not been firmly established. The size and number of EV clusters is determined by formation parameters, especially by the magnitude and shape of the electrical pulse used to create the EV. Typically, single EVs can vary from one-half to three microns. Higher formation energies produce clusters of EVs which then tend to form a necklace of smaller EVs. The EV necklace is typically about 20 microns in diameter and appears to travel in a direction perpendicular to the plane of the necklace, much like a smoke ring travels. Fig. 3, after Shoulders , illustrates a 20-micron cluster of smaller EVs.
B. THE KINETIC ENERGY CAPABILITY OF AN EV
The energy density of an EV can be shown to be large. The numerical density of electrons in an EV or an NEV is about equal to Avogadro's Number (about 6 x 1023 per cubic cm.). The total number of electrons in a typical EV one micron in diameter is about 1011 according to Shoulders . Assume that the size of the EV is a sphere one micron in diameter and that the number of electrons in the EV is 1011 electrons. The mass of an electron is 9.1095 x 10-28 grams. The mass-to-charge ratio of the EV is about the same as the mass-to-charge ratio of an electron . According to Shoulders [1,2] an EV can carry or be embedded with about 1 to 10 positive ions for every million electrons. In other words, if the EV has 1011 electrons there may be an attached plasma of 105 to 106 positive ions. The source of these ions can come from a low-pressure hydrogen atmosphere or from low-pressure water vapor in the near-vacuum environment in which the EVs are produced .
An EV or an NEV, if created and launched in the presence of a strong electric field, is subject to the same accelerating potential as an electron placed in the same electric field. The velocity achieved by an EV or an NEV in such as electric field is about the same as the velocity achieved by a single electron. Although the EV or NEV may be carrying a large number of positive ions, the ratio of electrons to positive ions is so large (105 to 106) that the positive ions embedded in the EV or NEV have very little effect on the velocity imparted to the EV by the electric field.
The velocity gained by the EV provides a large kinetic energy to the charge cluster. In classical electrodynamics, the kinetic energy of a charge cluster is determined by the potential difference (or electric field strength) between the emitter (cathode) and target (anode). The kinetic energy of the charge cluster at the point or surface of the emitter is considered to be zero and to increase as the charge cluster approaches the target or anode.
When an ion, with mass Mi and charge Z e, is accelerated by a electric field potential difference V, the ion will attain an energy W increase of Div W = Z e V, where Z is the charge number of the ion and e is the unit electron charge. The velocity increase vi in the non-relativistic case is
vi = (2 Z e V / Mi)1/2 (1)
where we assume that the initial velocity of the ion is zero.
Now consider a high-density charge cluster (an EV or an NEV) with Ne electrons and Ni positive ions with mass Mi and charge Z e. When this charge cluster accelerates through the same potential difference V as given above, the cluster will gain energy equal to (- Ne e + Ni Z e)V and the velocity increase in the non-relativistic case is
v = [2 (- Ne e + Ni Z e)V / (Ne me + Ni Mi)]1/2 (2)
where Me is the electron mass and Mi is the positive ion mass and zero initial velocity of the cluster is assumed.
In the NEV case, the ratio of the number of positive ions to the number of negative electrons Ni / Ne is about 10-6. Then equation (2) can be approximated by
| vNEV | = (2 e V / me)1/2 (3)
The ratio of vNEV to vi for the same potential difference V is given by
| vNEV | / vi = (Mi / Z me)1/2 (4)
and the ratio of the kinetic energy, Ki,NEV, attained by a positive ion embedded in the NEV and the kinetic energy, Ki, gained by a positive ion in a cluster of only positive ions is then
Ki,NEV / Ki = 1/2 Mi v2NEV / 1/2 Mi vi2 = Mi / Z me = approx 1836 A/Z (5)
where A is the mass number and Z is the charge number of the positive ion, respectively.
This concept that high kinetic energy can be imparted to positive ions by an EV which has been formed with relatively low-energy means is important! As an example of the extent of the kinetic energy developed in a positive ion, when 5 kilovolts potential difference is applied, a proton (deuteron) in the case of a pure proton (deuteron) cluster will attain 5 KeV energy. However, a proton (deuteron) embedded in an NEV, using the same accelerating potential of 5 kilovolts could attain a kinetic energy of 9.18 (18.36) mega-electron volts! This additional kinetic energy is now sufficient to overcome the Coulomb barrier of a typical target nucleus and produce nuclear reactions. When a large number of NEVs, with accompanying positive ions, are produced and accelerated to a target anode, the nuclear reaction rate can be quite high.
As the NEV research and development matures, it is likely that this technique of promoting high kinetic-energy positive ions will become one of the least expensive and easiest methods to study nuclear reactions. A table-top, compact, charged-particle accelerator may no longer be a dream but become a reality. Such a device is proposed to replace large expensive particle accelerators. In the near future, small colleges and even secondary schools could afford to have a laboratory particle accelerator.
C. THE NEV AND COLD FUSION DEVICES
As detailed above, when an NEV is accelerated in an electric field (and is carrying perhaps 106 positive ions), there is sufficient energy to create nuclear reactions by transporting the positive ions into the nuclei of the target material. This statement can be clearly demonstrated by replicating the experiments of Shoulders ; George ; Dash ; Matsumoto ; Dufour ; Samgin, et al.,; Savvatimova, et al;  Miley and Patterson ; Reiter and Faile ; Rout, Srinivasan, et al. ; and many others. The parameters of the experiment must be selected so that NEVs are produced. Conceptually, the difference between an EV and an NEV can be determined by the difference between the charge-to-mass ratio. Alternatively, to determine if NEVs are being produced it is better if the experiment is run for only a short time and the metal target is viewed before the target electrode looks like the moon's surface with too many strike patterns obstructing the view. Scanning electron microscopy can be used to determine if there are nuclear changes in the vicinity of the NEV strike. If not, then the strike was likely an EV with insufficient energy to promote nuclear reactions.
If we examine other types of experiments such as Bockris  where pure carbon electrodes were caused to arc under pure water and iron was produced, we would suggest that NEVs were produced. On the other hand, in a replication of the Bockris experiment, Grotz found no significant results . According to the hypothesis presented in this paper, Bockris has nuclear reactions because his experiment produced NEVs. Grotz has negative results because his experimental procedure was not sufficiently energetic and only EVs were produced.
A dramatic evidence for the power of an EV is pictured in Ken Shoulders' book  where he shows the trail left by an EV necklace (a number of EVs can form into a type of a smoke-ring pattern having a dimension of about 20 microns in diameter, this combination is named an EV necklace). One picture shows the hole drilled by an EV through several times it own diameter of aluminum oxide. The EV apparently vaporized the aluminum oxide and the vapor was then deposited on the inner surface of the "EV-drilled" cylindrical hole. See Fig. 4 from Shoulders .
It is interesting to note that Shoulders' experimental work on high-density charge clusters, covering more than a decade has been rediscovered in Russia by G. A. Mesyats . Mesyats states, "A commonly fused way to initiate an ecton is to induce a vacuum discharge over a dielectric being in contact with a metal." [23, pg 725]. (Mesyats ecton is Shoulders' EV. Compare with Shoulders' patents [1,2]).
D. SIMPLE TEST FOR EV PRODUCTION
If you are working with devices in which EVs are expected to be produced, the following procedure is suggested. Place a small transistor radio near the suspected EV source. Tune to an AM (amplitude modulated) part of the radio band where there are no AM stations on the air. Turn up the volume and listen for "cracks" of static. When an EV strikes it will emits sufficient electromagnetic energy to hear on such a radio. Remember that FM (frequency modulation) clips these bursts of EM radiation and that static discharges will not be heard on FM stations. (Note: Travelers in country where flash floods can be caused by thunderstorms use this technique with their auto radios to listen for any lightning flashes. If lightning cracks are prevalent, wary travelers do not camp in stream beds.)
If you question whether EVs can do damage to metal surfaces, just disconnect the capacitor that is wired across the breaker points of a distributor in a gasoline-fueled internal combustion engine. You will soon find that you will need to replace the distributor contacts. The capacitor is sufficient to prevent the formation of EVs.
E. GEOLOGIC IMPLICATIONS OF NEVs
Every lightning strike will produce an abundance of EVs and NEVs. If one desires to check that statement, place a polished metal sheet at a place frequented by lightning strikes. After a lightning bolt has hit near the metal sheet, examine it for EV or NEV patterns. To consider the long-term effect of lightning-produced NEVs, assume that lightning is a source of many NEVs. The end result would be a flurry of nuclear reactions with every lightning strike. Over the millions of years that the earth's atmosphere has been characterized by frequent or occasional thunder storms, it would be expected that the geological surface of the earth would be enriched by elements characteristic of NEV-caused nuclear reactions.
In his verbal presentation of his paper Shoulders  used the term "dirt" to describe the conglomeration of new elements produced by an NEV strike onto a palladium target. The term "dirt" was chosen to describe the combination of calcium, potassium, carbon, aluminum, iron, etc. of the elements that appear to be abundantly produced by an NEV strike on a metal target and the resulting nuclear reactions.
Therefore, it is suggested that the elements found in the earth's crust have been produced, in part, by the action of lightning during the earth's many years of atmospheric thunderstorms. Here is a list of the twenty most abundant elements found in the earth's crust with their atomic numbers : Oxygen 8; Silicon 14; Aluminum 13; Iron 26; Calcium 48; Sodium 11; Potassium 19; Magnesium 12; Titanium 22; Hydrogen 1; Phosphorus 15; Manganese 25; Sulfur 16; Carbon 12; Chlorine 17; Rubidium 37; Fluorine 9; Strontium 38; Barium 56; and Zirconium 40. The reader will find it interesting to compare the elements produced by NEV strikes on metal targets with this list. Shoulders' verbal designation of "dirt" for the elements found at an NEV strike appears most appropriate. See Appendix A for a list of possible nuclear reactions with a palladium target from a paper by Jin & Fox .
F. IMPROVING THE NEAL-GLEESON PROCESS FOR TRANSMUTATION
In a paper presented by one of us (Fox)  the Neal-Gleeson Process for low-energy nuclear reactions was partially described. In the Neal-Gleeson Process, a relatively simple configuration of an electro-nuclear cell is connected to a suitable medium-voltage source (several hundred volts). With the proper cell, electrode, and electrolyte configuration, heavy elements in the electrolyte can be transmuted to lower mass elements. This process has been developed over the past two years in a series of over one hundred experiments with gradually-improving results. Naturally-radioactive thorium and naturally-radioactive uranium have been processed with the result that the radioactivity has been dramatically reduced (up to 77 percent reduction in radioactivity). This is a clear indication that the radioactive elements have been transmuted. Mass spectroscopy analysis of before and after samples show that elements not present in the before samples are present in the after samples.
It is the basis of the hypothesis presented in this paper that the mechanism for the reduction of radioactivity, using the Neal-Gleeson Process (patent pending), is that many NEVs are produced at the electrodes and injected into the heavy elements dissolved in the electrolyte. Therefore, if one desires to improve on the Neal-Gleeson Process it will be by improving the manner in which NEVs are produced and injected into the nuclei of selected target elements.
G. THE PENETRATION OF A NUCLEI BY AN NEV
It remains to be determined as to what extent an energetic NEV can carry positive ions, such as hydrogen, deuterium, or lithium ions and cause such ions to penetrate the Coulomb barrier of the nuclei. We know that EVs travel at velocities up to a reasonable fraction of the speed of light [1, 2, 15]. The velocity of an EV is strongly dependent on the accelerating voltage supplied. As detailed above, the kinetic energy imparted to an NEV is sufficient to carry the positive ions into the nucleus of nearby elements (in the vicinity of an NEV strike), overcome the Coulomb barrier, causing such ions to become a part of the nuclei of some fraction of such target nuclei (by NEV ion collisions), and promoting a nuclear reaction (such as the fissioning of heavy elements).
While this type of nuclear reaction could be considered to be a high-energy plasma physics reaction, the initiating process is low-energy (often less than 1,000 volts). The process of the nuclear reaction begins with the creation of a high-density charge cluster by low-energy means. However, the charge cluster has a high energy potential. The impact of the NEV, with at least some types of matter, then produces nuclear reactions. The question that should be addressed is: "Is it expected that the nuclear reactions caused by NEVs will have the same branching ratios as nuclear reactions observed in high-energy plasma physics?" It is suggested that the over 600 papers reporting on cold fusion successes is replete with evidence that the branching ratios, for at least some low-energy-generated nuclear reactions, are different from the branching ratios found in high-energy gas-plasma physics nuclear reactions. The fact that the reactions occur in or near the surface of a metal lattice is a sufficiently different from the environment that occurs in high-energy gas-plasma physics to produce different results. However, it is believed that the nuclear reactions produced by NEVs in a low-pressure gas environment will be similar to the experimental results from a similar bombardment of a target material with high-energy positive ions.
This paper presents a hypothesis which is intended to guide further experiments to determine to what extent the NEVs are responsible for nuclear reactions in various types of cold fusion devices and also in the Neal-Gleeson Process. This hypothesis explains many of the anomalies observed in a variety of cited experiments. The hypothesis has the advantage of not requiring any unusual new physics principles to be invoked. The acceptance of the formation of and the development of high kinetic-energy potential of the NEVs has sufficient merit to critically investigate this hypothesis with both experiments and for further mathematical analysis to determine the range of possible application of this hypothesis in explaining previous experiments (beginning with Pons and Fleischmann ) and extending the important discoveries of Shoulders' work and of the Neal-Gleeson Process into new realms of experimental investigation. If this hypothesis is correct, then a new world of nuclear physics is opened to further development complete with transmutation, power generation, and thousands of new inventions for the benefit of man and beast.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: As seen by the references, the authors have had the privilege of communicating with some of today's geniuses through personal contact with many scientists, engineers, and inventors. The authors' contributions are one of gathering and rearranging scraps from the intellectual feasts of the scientific elite. The financial support of the Fusion Information Center, Inc. is acknowledged.
 Kenneth R. Shoulders, "Energy Conversion Using High Charge Density", U.S. Patent 5,018,180, issued May 21, 1991, see also "Circuits Responsible to and Controlling Charged Particles", U.S. Patent 5,054,047, issued Oct. 1, 1991.
 Kenneth and Steven Shoulders, "Observations on the Role of Charge Clusters in Nuclear Cluster Reactions", Journal of New Energy, vol. 1, no 3, Fall 1996.
 Robert W. Bass, "New Solutions of Maxwell's Equations", Fusion Facts, August 1992, pp 20-21.
 Russ George, Paper presented at second Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions conference, College Station, Texas, September 13-14, 1996.
 S. Miguet, John Dash (Portland State University), "Microanalysis of Palladium after Electrolysis in Heavy Water", Journal of New Energy, vol. 1, no 1, January 1996, pp 23, 5 figs, 3 refs.
 Takaaski Matsumoto (Hokkaido Univ.), "Cold Fusion Experiments by Using Electrical Discharge in Water", in "Proceedings: ICCF4, Volume 3: Nuclear Measurements Papers", December 6-9, 1993, Maui, Hawaii, pg 10-1 to 10-6, 4 refs, 2 figs.
 J. Dufour, "Cold Fusion by Sparking in Hydrogen Isotopes," Fusion Technology, 1993, vol. 24, p 205ff.
 A. L. Samgin, A. N. Baraboshkin, I. V. Murigin, S. A. Tsvetkov, V. S. Andreev, G. Vakarin (Inst. High-Temp. Electrochem., Rus. Acad. Sci., Ekaterinburg), "The Influence of Conductivity on the Neutron Generation Process in Proton Conducting Solid Electrolytes," "Proceedings of ICCF4, Volume 3: Nuclear Measurements Papers", December 6-9, 1993, Maui, Hawaii, pg 5-1 to 5-7, 9 refs, 3 figs.
 Irina Savvatimova, Yan Kucherov, & Alexander Karabut, "Impurities in Cathode Material Before and after Deuterium Glow Discharge Experiments", Fusion Technology, vol. 26, no 4T, Dec 1994, pp 389-394. ICCF-4, Maui, Hawaii, Dec 6-9, 1993.
 George H. Miley and James A. Patterson, "Nuclear Transmutations in Thin-Film Nickel Coatings Undergoing Electrolysis", Journal of New Energy, vol. 1, no 3, Proceedings of the Second Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions Conference, Sept 13-14, 1996, College Station, Texas.
 Reiter and Faile, "Spark Gap Experiments", New Energy News, Sept 1996, pp 11ff.
 R. K. Rout, M. Srinivasan, A. Shyam and V. Chitra (BARC, India), "Detection of High Tritium Activity on the Central Titanium Electrode of a Plasma Focus Device," Fusion Technology, vol. 19, March 1991, pp 391-394.
 R. Sundaresan & J. O'M. Bockris, "Anomalous Reactions During Arcing between Carbon Rods in Water", Fusion Technology, vol. 26, Nov. 1994.
 Toby Grotz, "Investigations of Reports of the Synthesis of Iron via Arc Discharge through Carbon Compounds", Journal of New Energy, vol. 1, no 3, Fall 1996, 3 figs, 10 refs.
 Kenneth R. Shoulders, "EV - A Tale of Discovery", 265 pages, illus., c 1987, privately published and available from the author.
 Robert C. Weast, Editor, "CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics", 59th Edition, CRC Press, Inc. 1978, pg F-199.
 Robert Bass, Rod Neal, Stan Gleeson, & Hal Fox, "Electro-Nuclear Transmutations: Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions in an Electrolytic Cell", Journal of New Energy, vol. 1, no 3, Fall 1996.
 Shang-Xian Jin & Hal Fox, "Possible Palladium-Related Nuclear Reactions", Journal of New Energy, vol. 1, no 3, Fall 1996.
 Ron Brightson, "Application of the Neutron Cluster Model to Experimental Results", Journal of New Energy, vol. 1, no 1, pp 68-74.
 Roberto Monti, "Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions: Experimental Evidence for the Alpha Extended Model of the Atom", Journal of New Energy, vol. 1, no 3, Fall 1996, Proceedings of the Second Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions Conference.
 M. Fleischmann, S. Pons, and M. Hawkins, "Electrochemically Induced Nuclear Fusion of Deuterium." J. Electroanalytical Chem., vol. 261, pp 301-308, and erratum, vol. 263, p 187, 1989.
 Richard W. Ziolkowski & Michael K. Tippett, "Collective effect in an electron plasma system catalyzed by a localized electromagnetic wave", Physical Review A, vol. 43, no 6, 15 Mar 1991, pp 3066-3072, 1 fig, 7 refs.
 G. A. Mesyats (Inst. of Electrophysics, Ekaterinburg, Russia), "ECTON Processes at the Cathode in a Vacuum Discharge", "Proceedings ISDEIV, XVIIth International Symposium on Discharges and Electrical Insulation in Vacuum", Berkeley, Calif., July 21-26, 1996, Volume II, pp 720-731, 10 figs, 5 tables, 38 refs.
Elements that potentially could be produced by non-neutral plasma injection into a palladium target.
The following data is taken from the Jin & Fox paper, "Possible Palladium-related Nuclear Reactions", "Journal of New Energy", vol. 1, no. 3 .
In this case only palladium is considered as a target material. Only the reactions with deuterium, protons, and alpha particles as payload elements are listed below. Only those nuclear reactions that are consistent with conservation rules are included. It is obvious that as other target elements are considered and as other payload elements may be considered, the entire spectrum of the periodic table may be amenable to formation by the NEV-payload-accelerator-target process. In fact, if the new elements produced do not leave the target material, many additional elements could be created by the plasma-injection process with secondary target elements. As stated in the patent application: "It is obvious that one skilled in the art can produce just about any element desired."
Payload Element: deuteron. Possible Pairs of Elements Produced:
Rhodium & helium; lithium & ruthenium; lithium & molybdenum; beryllium and tellurium; beryllium & molybdenum; beryllium & niobium; boron & molybdenum; carbon & niobium; carbon & zirconium; nitrogen & zirconium; nitrogen & strontium & helium; fluorine & strontium; fluorine & krypton; neon & rubidium; neon & krypton; neon & bromine; magnesium & bromine; magnesium & selenium; magnesium & arsenic & helium; silicon & arsenic; silicon & germanium; silicon & gallium; phosphorus & germanium; phosphorus & zinc; sulfur & gallium; sulfur & copper; argon & copper; potassium & nickel; calcium & cobalt; titanium & manganese.
Payload Element: proton. Possible Pairs of Elements Produced:
Boron & molybdenum; fluorine & krypton; sodium & krypton; sodium & selenium; aluminum & germanium; phosphorus & germanium; scandium & iron; phosphorus & gallium; vanadium & chromium; titanium & manganese; calcium & manganese; manganese & chromium.
Payload Element: helium-4. Possible Pairs of Elements Produced:
Beryllium & ruthenium; carbon & molybdenum; oxygen & zirconium; neon & strontium; magnesium & krypton; silicon & selenium; sulfur & germanium; argon & zinc; krypton & copper; potassium & copper; calcium & nickel; titanium & iron; sodium & krypton; magnesium & bromine; chlorine & zinc.
A cautionary note: The above list of possible elements makes no assumptions about the inner construction of the nucleus. If Ron Brightson  is correct in his nuclear cluster model, many of these possible reactions are favored and others are not. If Roberto Monti  is correct in his alpha-cluster model, then the same statement is true. It is expected that a series of experiments will be required to produce the type of data that will provide the basis for improved understanding of the inner structure of the nucleus.
NOTE: Those who may be interested in commercial rights to this technology should contact Hal Fox, 801-583-6232, Fax 801-583-2963.
Figures Appearing in the Paper:
End of Figures Appearing in the Paper:
Return to the INE Main Page
Nov. 7, 1996.