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RS Electrogravitic References: Part 11 of 19.

For those of you who are not familiar with the obscure aspects of General 
Relativity, hopefully this will steer you in the right direction for further 
research and knowledge. Non-Newtonian gravitational fields, which may be 
either attractive or repulsive, can be generated from three effects. These are 
that of rotating masses, moving masses, or fluctuating masses relative to a 
stationary, non-rotating body. These effects are similar to centrifugal, 
Coriolis, and other inertial forces and were first described by W. de Sitter 
in 1916 and Hans Thirring in 1918. Dr. Robert L. Forward published his 
Guidelines to Antigravity in March 1963 in the American Journal of Physics. 
Dr. Forward is an expert in General Relativity and Gravity Research and 
studied under Weber at the University of Maryland. In his guidelines article, 
he discusses the dipole effect of gravity as predicted by General Relativity. 
Unfortunately, the forces generated are extremely weak without very dense mass 
or extremely high angular velocities. I suggest that everyone with an interest 
in such aspects obtain a copy of this article and read it through before 
passing any judgements as to these forces existing or being generated!
-- Phillip Carpenter

Might a mass (gravitational charge) in motion also produce another type of 
field much like a magnetic one?
Something like this is "gravitomagnetic effect" is theoretically predicted. If 
you were in such a field, it would simply give the impression that you were in 
a locally rotating frame of reference, so moving objects would experience 
coriolis forces, even when you were not rotating relative to distant reference 
points. As the effect is of the order of v1 v2/c^2 where v1 is the speed of 
the gravitational source and v2 is the speed of the test object, it is 
extremely small and has not yet been measured.
Note also that a rotating massive object is expected to give rise to a similar 
field in the same way as a current loop gives rise to a magnetic field. This 
is known as the Lense-Thirring effect. A first-order Special Relativity 
approximation (which only applies for a locally inertial frame of reference 
where space isn't significantly curved) is simply that the rotation field is 
(v1 x g)/c^2 where g is the Newtonian acceleration vector v1 is the velocity 
of the source object. The acceleration that field generates for a body moving 
with velocity v2 is v2 x (v1 x g)/c^2. Note for comparison that the magnetic 
field is B = (v1 x E)/c^2 so the magnetic force is q v2 x (v1 x E)/c^2. The 
gravitational rotation field calculated in this way is equal to 2w where w is 
the apparent angular velocity of rotation. It is hoped that "conscience-
guided" satellite experiments may confirm this effect within a few years, but 
at present there are too many other disturbances which make it too difficult 
to measure such a small effect. The rotation field, whether caused by a 
linearly moving mass or a rotating object, only affects moving masses. 
However, there is of course a much stronger associated acceleration field 
which affects all masses. From the subjective point of view, the acceleration 
field may appear to be partly linear acceleration and partly "centrifugal" 
force associated with rotary motion, but this is a higher-order effect. -- 
Jonathan Scott

Some scientists in Boulder, CO (USA) have suceeded in cooling down matter into 
the elusive Bose-Einstein condensate. The kinetic energy of the atoms in this 
state have been removed. If you could maintain this state in stable form and 
spin it, the angular momentum would repel the earth and lift many times its 
own mass. Outside of the atmosphere, this could produce the desired 
gravitational dipole effect. -------------------------------------------------

Bonaldi, M., et al., "Inertial and Gravitational Experiments With Superfluids: 
A Progress Report," Proceedings of the Fourth Marcel Grossmann Meeting on 
General Relativity, Elsevler Science Publishers B.V., 1985, pp. 1309-1317.

In: Phys.Lett.118B:385,1982
Date/Source: August 1982
Fermilab Library: FERMILAB-PUB-82/53-THY -- Preprint -- Available 

Title: Long range effects in asymptotic fields and angular 
momentum of classical field electrodynamics Date/Source: February 1995
Fermilab Library: CALL NUMBER DESY-95-035 -- Preprint -- Available 

Title: Angular Momentum
Authors: Brink, D. M. (David Maurice), and G.R. Satchler Date/Source: Oxford : 
Clarendon Press ; New York : Oxford University 
Press, 1993.
Fermilab Library: CALL NUMBER QC793.3.A5 B75 1993 -- Book -- Available -------

AUTHOR(s):	Hayasaka, Hideo Takeuchi, Sakae
TITLE:	Gravitation and Astrophysics.
Summary:	Anomalous weight reduction on a gyroscope's right rotations
around the vertical axis on the Earth.
In: Physical review letters.
DEC 18 1989 v 63 n 25 Page 2701

AUTHOR(s):	Starzhinskii, V.M.
TITLE:	An exceptional case of motion of the Kovalevskaia
In: PMM, Journal of applied mathematics and mechanic 
1983 v 47 n 1 Page 134

From: (John Sangster, SPHINX Technologies) Subject: 
Weight Reduction in Spinning Masses Date: Fri, 3 Nov 1995 06:04:35 GMT

Recently Hideo Hayasaka and Sakae Takeuchi of the Engineering Faculty at 
Tohoku University in Japan have published an experimental result of this sort. 
They found that gyroscopes spinning clockwise as seen from above, at their 
location, exhibited a decrease in relative mass of 5.07 x 10^-5 and 4.22 x 
10^-5 respectively for the two gyroscope configurations studied. (Weight was 
multiplied by 1-e where e is the relative factors given above, if I haven't 
botched up in my arithmetic.) The effect as plotted in the paper I saw appears 
to be perfectly linear to within reasonable experimental error, thus giving a 
rotational velocity at which the weight would go to zero which I made out to 
be 3.27 MHz (million rotations per second) in the first case and 3.95 MHz in 
the second.
That was with CLOCKWISE rotation as seen from above. With COUNTERclockwise 
rotation, the same experimental setup showed ZERO EFFECT. Zip. Nada. Nichts. 
Nyechevo. You get the idea. For one thing, this result makes it almost certain 
that they are NOT dealing with bad lab technique. Not to mention the fact that 
they spent nearly a year and a half going over and over their setup and trying 
to answer all objections by the reviewers of their Physical Review Letters 
paper (it eventually appeared in PRL (63 2701)). As far as I know, nobody has 
published a theoretical model that accounts for these observations. The idea 
of a physical phenomenon that appears only in one direction of rotation is 
rather unprecedented. I know of only one other mathematical/physical 
phenomenon that does this, and I'm trying to understand how the two might be 
related, but without success as yet.
-- John Sangster

Physicist Alex Harvey wrote an article about the Hayakawa-Taguechi experiment. 
The article was published in: 

Nature, Aug 23 1990, Vol 346 Page 705

You'll also find other references there. Harvey shows mathematically that an 
angular momentum vector aligned antiparallel to the local gravitational field 
violates the equivalence principle. He also shows that the path of a spinning 
body under gravity need not be geodesic. Here are two "holes" in GR that seem 
to account for the behavior of H & T's gyros. New experiments should be 
designed to force the asymmetry to appear, as predicted by theory, rather than 
passively leave the results to chance.
There is a dimensional error of Hayasaka and Takeuchi which CAN be corrected 
by supplying a quantity that restores proper dimensionality. In simplest 
terms, H and T's result looks like: { deltaN = - (proportionality constant) m 
w r } where deltaN is the weight change in Newtons, m is the mass of the rotor 
in kg, w is the rotation frequency in angular units and r is the radius of the 
rotor in meters. The units of the missing quantity are radians per second. The 
rotation, w, has already been counted. The missing quantity is the precession, 
Wp. With clockwise rotation, the vector J points down the spin axis, while the 
precession vector, Wp, points up the spin axis.
Physicist Alex Harvey, writing about H and T's results, confirmed that there 
is no (symmetrical) weight gain, no effect at all, with counter-clockwise 
rotation, J (up). In this case, says Harvey, "[J] is parallel to the 
gravitational field."

AUTHOR(s):	Harvey, Alex
TITLE(s):	Complex Transformation of the Kasner Metric.
In: General relativity and gravitation.
OCT 01 1989 v 21 n 10 Page 1021

AUTHOR(s):	Harvey, Alex
TITLE(s):	Cosmological models.
In: American journal of physics.
OCT 01 1993 v 61 n 10 Page 901

AUTHOR(s):	Harvey, Alex
TITLE(s):	Identities of the scalars of the four-dimensional
Riemannian manifold.
In: Journal of mathematical physics.
JAN 01 1995 v 36 n 1 Page 356

AUTHOR(s):	Harvey, Alex
TITLE(s):	Will the Real Kasner Metric Please Stand Up.
In: General relativity and gravitation.
DEC 01 1990 v 22 n 12 Page 1433

>Maybe I've missed it, but I've looked seriously, and there seems to be no 
information in undergraduate or graduate level physics reference books which 
mentions the relationship between macroscopic and microscopic angular momentum 
-- much less provides any analysis or explanation linking quantum angular 
momentum to macroscopic angular momentum. 

You're catching on. The subject of compound angular momentum, or internal and 
external angular momentum, or intrinsic and extrinsic angular momentum has 
been a repressed subject for about 2 and half decades. Add to that list, 
spherical pendulums, Coriolis effect, except as applied to balistics and 
meteorology as used by the US military, and Shafer's pendulum, that neat 
little device used as the artifical horizon of aircraft.

>How does quantum angular momentum become organized from a microscopic to a 
macroscopic level? Has anyone ever published any work about this? I can't find 

There isn't any that I know of, though back in the late fifties, there was a 
fellow named Edward Condon at the University of Colorado who was fairly 
proficient on the subject. So much so that he wrote the rotational dynamics 
section, called noninertial dynamics at the time, of the reference "The 
Handbook of Physics" which he also co-edited (Chapter 5). I don't recall 
offhand who the publisher was (Harcourt/Brace?), though it was endorsed by the 
American Institute of Physics. Later, when Mr Condon was the head of the USAF 
project 'Blue Book', he labored to supress his own work when the directive was 
handed down from the Navy's Turtle Island project.
-- James Youlton

In the Barnett effect a long iron cylinder, when rotated at high speed about 
its longitudinal axis, is found to develop a measurable component of 
magnetization, the value of which is proportional to the angular speed. The 
effect is attributed to the influence of the impressed rotation upon the 
revolving electronics systems due to the mass property of the unpaired 
electrons within the atoms. -- Henry Wallace

Barnett, S.J., "Magnetization By Rotation," The American Physical Society, 
Second Series, vol. VI, No. 2, Jun., 1915, pp. 171-172. 

Barnett, S.J., "Magnetization By Rotation," The Physical Review, Second 
Series, vol. VI., No. 4, Oct., 1915, pp. 239-270. ----------------------------

The Barnett Effect is known to me as the effect of a change in volume of a 
magnetic material in response to a change in it's magnetization strength. If a 
ferrite material is exposed to a higher magnetization field (more current 
through the coil) the ferritd will change in volume. I was not aware that this 
has anything to do with alignment to a spinning axis. For further information 
about this aspect of the Barnett effect, see: Ref. Handbook of Magnetic 
Phenomena, by Harry S Burk, Van Nostrand Reinhold 1986 Page 262. -- William 

Magnetic systems with competing interactions : frustrated spin systems / 
edited by H.T. Diep. Singapore ; River Edge, N.J. : World Scientific, c1994. 
xiv, 335 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.
LC CALL NUMBER: QC754.2.S75 M34 1994
SUBJECTS: Magnetization. Rotational motion. Spin waves. Ferromagnetism. 
Nonlinear phenomena and chaos in magnetic materials / P.E. Wigen -- Some 
nonlinear effects in magnetically ordered materials / H. Suhl -- Spin-wave 
instability processes in ferrites / M. Chen & C.E. Patton -- Spin-wave 
dynamics in a ferrimagnetic sphere: experiments and models / P.H. Bryant, D.C. 
Jeffries, & K. Nakamura -- Spin-wave auto-oscillations in YIG spheres driven 
by parallel pumping and subsidiary resonance / S.M. Rezende & A. Azevedo -- 
Strong chaos in magnetic resonance / M. Warden -- Magnetostatic modes in thin 
films / R.D. McMichael & P.E. Wigen -- Fractal properties in magnetic crystal 
/ H. Yamazaki -- Spin-wave envelope solitons in magnetic films / A.N. Slavin, 
B.A. Kalinikos, & N.G. Korshikov. ISBN: 9810210051

Hence the Wilson-Blackett proportionality between the angular momentum of 
planets, stars etc and their magnetic moment. For more information see Science 
News Aug 6 '94 p82. ----------------------------------------------------------

AUTHOR(s):	Bloxham, Jeremy Gubbins, David
TITLE(s):	The Evolution of the Earth's Magnetic Field.
Summary:	The origin of the field has fascinated more than a dozen
generations of physicists. Molten iron in the outer core, driven by convection 
and influenced by the earth's rotation, acts as a dynamo that generates the 
field. Now historical records of magnetic-field changes yield new insights 
into the process and into how the field may behave in the future.
In: Scientific American. DEC 01 1989 v 261 n 6 Page 68 

AUTHOR(s):	Malov, I.F.
TITLE(s):	Angle between the magnetic field and the rotation axis in
In: Soviet astronomy.
MAR 01 1990 v 34 n 2 Page 189

AUTHOR(s):	Marsheva, N. M.
TITLE(s):	Permanent rotation of a heavy rigid body in a magnetic
In: Moscow university mechanics bulletin. 1989 v 44 n 1 

AUTHOR(s):	Vitale, S. Bonaldi, M. Falferi, P.
TITLE:	Magnetization by rotation and gyromagnetic gyroscopes.
Summary:	We discuss how the general phenomenon of magnetization by
rotation may be used probe the angular velocity of the laboratory with respect 
to a local frame of inertia. We show that gyroscope with no moving parts based 
on this pheno-
In: Physical review B: Condensed matter. 
JUN 01 1989 v 39 n 16 p B Page 11993

 Date: Fri, 22 Sep 1995 09:43:52 +0200
Critical Dynamics of Magnets
Authors: Erwin Frey , Franz Schwabl (TU Muenchen) Comments: Review article 
(154 pages, figures included) 
We review our current understanding of the critical dynamics of magnets above 
and below the transition temperature with focus on the effects due to the 
dipole--dipole interaction present in all real magnets. Significant progress 
in our understanding of real ferromagnets in the vicinity of the critical 
point has been made in the last decade through improved experimental 
techniques and theoretical advances in taking into account realistic spin-spin 
interactions. We start our review with a discussion of the theoretical results 
for the critical dynamics based on recent renormalization group, mode coupling 
and spin wave theories. A detailed comparison is made of the theory with 
experimental results obtained by different measuring techniques, such as 
neutron scattering, hyperfine interaction, muon--spin--resonance, electron--
spin--resonance, and magnetic relaxation, in various materials. Furthermore we 
discuss the effects of dipolar interaction on the critical dynamics of three--
dimensional isotropic antiferromagnets and uniaxial ferromagnets. Special 
attention is also paid to a discussion of the consequences of dipolar 
anisotropies on the existence of magnetic order and the spin--wave spectrum in 
two--dimensional ferromagnets and antiferromagnets. We close our review with a 
formulation of critical dynamics in terms of nonlinear Langevin equations.

Paper: cond-mat/9501029
From: Kazuhiro Kuboki 
Date: Mon, 09 Jan 1995 10:40:11 EST
Title: Proximity-induced time-reversal symmetry breaking at Josephson 
junctions between unconventional superconductors Author: Kazuhiro Kuboki and 
Manfred Sigrist 
We argue that a locally time-reversal symmetry breaking state can occur at 
Josephson junctions between unconventional superconductors. Order parameters 
induced by the proximity effect can combine with the bulk order parameter to 
form such a state. This property is specifically due to the intrinsic phase 
structure of the pairing wave function in unconventional superconductors. 
Experimental consequences of this effect in high-temperature superconductors 
are examined.

Paper: cond-mat/9501088
From: David Benedict Bailey  Date: Thu, 19 Jan 
1995 11:34:10 -0800 (PST) 
Title: Gapless Time-Reversal Symmetry Breaking Superconductivity Authors: A. 
M. Tikofsky and D. B. Bailey 
We consider a layered superconductor with a complex order parameter whose 
phase switches sign from one layer to the next. This system is shown to 
exhibit gapless superconductivity for sufficiently large interlayer pairing or 
interlayer hopping. In addition, this description is consistent with 
experiments finding signals of time-reversal symmetry breaking in high-
temperature superconductors only at the surface and not in the sample bulk. 

Paper: cond-mat/9501133
From: (Lev Ioffe) Date: Mon, 30 Jan 95 08:59:22 EST
Title: On the spin density wave transition in a two dimensional spin liquid.
Authors: B. L. Altshuler, L. B. Ioffe, A. I. Larkin, A. J. Millis. 
Strongly correlated two dimensional electrons are believed to form a spin 
liquid in some regimes of density and temperature. As the density is varied, 
one expects a transition from this spin liquid state to a spin density wave 
antiferromagnetic state. In this paper we show that it is self-consistent to 
assume that this transition is second order and, on this assumption, determine 
the critical behavior of the 2p_F susceptibility, the NMR rates T1 and T2 and 
the uniform susceptibility. We compare our results to data on high Tc 

Paper: gr-qc/9502041
From: Barry Haddow  Date: Fri, 24 Feb 1995 18:59:15 (GMT)
Title: Purely Magnetic Spacetimes
Author: Barry Haddow (Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland) 
Purely magnetic spacetimes, in which the Riemann tensor satisfies 
R_{abcd}u^bu^d=0 for some unit timelike vector u^a, are studied. The algebraic 
consequences for the Weyl and Ricci tensors are examined in detail and 
consideration given to the uniqueness of u^a. Some remarks concerning the 
nature of the congruence associated with u^a are made.

Paper: cond-mat/9502103
From: (Debnarayan Jana) Date: Fri, 24 Feb 95 11:23:21+050
Title: Universal Diamagnetism of Charged Scalar Fields Authors: Debnarayan 
We show that charged scalar fields are always diamagnetic, even in the 
presence of interactions and at finite temperatures. This generalises earlier 
work on the diamagnetism of charged spinless bosons to the case of infinite 
degrees of freedom.

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