BINDING FORCES: and the Smith Coil
By Toby Grotz, Robert Q. Achzehner, and Don Rapp
Toby Grotz, Robert Q. Achzehner, Don Rapp, "The Origin and History of the Smith Coil, "Electric Spacecraft Journal, Jan/Feb/Mar, Issue 21, June 9, 1997, pp 24.
Because the binding force meter is virtually unknown in new energy research, we would like to present the following description, written by Wilbert Smith and published in Topside, #12, Winter and Spring, 1963. This instrument may prove useful in investigating the effects of stress on the fabric of space due to the generation of unconventional fields and forces.
Matter, as we know it, is held together by "forces" the nature of which we do not clearly understand. We have developed some very elegant theories to explain most of the observed phenomena, and we add sufficient "correction factors" to make the theory fit the rest. But every now and then we come face to face with something which our theory just will not explain, and rather than admit that our theory is inadequate, discard it and start over again. This is well demonstrated in the matter of binding forces.
Some years ago, following some rather bad airplane crashes for which there was no satisfactory explanation, the people from "elsewhere" were asked through "contact" if these crashes were possibly due to our craft flying too close to their craft. We were informed, however, that our pilots flew around in complete disregard of the regions of reduced binding with which this planet is afflicted, and very often such craft were not designed with a sufficient factor of safety and came apart.
When we countered by saying that we knew nothing of such regions, we were informed that means for detecting them were easily within our technology and that we should build suitable instruments and then pay attention to what they registered.
The principle of the "binding meter" was then explained to us. The principle is quite simple: all matter is held together by the relative configurations of the three basic fields of nature, tempic, electric and magnetic. These configurations are characteristic of what we call the molecular structure, and the interactions of these fields is not linear.
Structurally the binding meter consists of a nylon fiber which is stressed close to its elastic limit (after having been over stressed to establish stability) pulling against a steel spring which is stressed well below the elastic limit. The nylon fiber is wound around a spindle which carries a pointer so that any longitudinal movement of the fiber will cause the spindle to turn and the pointer to move across an arbitrary scale. ln setting up the instrument nylon fishing leader was used and pre-stressed to the breaking point and this point noted. The instrument was then threaded and one end fastened to the spring and the other placed under tension to 75 percent of the previously noted breaking stress, and the end clamped under a washer which was somewhat softer than the nylon (to grip it solidly without deforming the nylon). [See Fig. 8] The whole instrument was then set aside for a few days to make sure that it was stable, after which the pointer was slipped to mid scale and the instrument was considered ready for service.
Many Successful Instruments
By making the body of the instrument of aluminum tubing about « inch diameter and 10 inches long, the combination gives very good temperature compensation, and a range of temperature of 100øF makes less than « division on an arbitrary scale of 12. There is no perceptible change over the complete range of humidity and no barometric sensitivity was observed. Dimensions apparently are not critical parameters.
My colleagues and I have investigated the general areas through which aircraft have flown just prior to unexplained crashes showing several scale divisions change. These regions seem to be roughly circular and about 1,000 feet in diameter, and probably extend upward quite a distance. A few have been detected by air when planes have flown through them, but fortunately in these cases the craft were strong enough to remain intact.
Whether this is generally true or not we cannot say, but it does appear that things are somewhat stronger in the northern latitudes than they are farther south, and certain areas seem to be permanently afflicted with reduced binding. We do not know if the regions of reduced binding move about or just fade away, but we do know that when we looked for several such regions after three or four months we could find no trace of them.
It would therefore appear that this business of reduced binding would stand quite a bit of further serious investigation.
[Fig. 8. Diagram of Smith's Binding Meter.]
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July 30, 1998.