ABSTRACTS FROM ICCF-7, PART THREE
Continued from Part One in the May 1998 NEN.
Continued from Part Two in the June 1998 NEN.
ABSTRACTS FROM ICCF-7, PART THREE
April 1998 Vancouver, BC, Canada
Program Manual and Abstracts
Part Three (cont'd from May 1998 NEN)
Proceedings will be available in July from:
ENECO, 391-B, Chipeta Way,
Salt Lake City, UT 84108.
K. Ochiai, K. Maruta, H. Miyamaru, T. Iida, A. Takahashi (Dept. Nucl. Engr., Osaka Univ., Japan), "Measurement of High-Energetic Particles from Titanium Sheet Implanted with Deuteron Beam," p 108, 2 refs.
T. Ohmori (Catalysis Res. Cntr., Hokkaido Univ.), T. Mizuno (Fac. Engr., Hokkaido Univ.), "Observation of the Product Elements of Nuclear Transmutation Reaction on/in Several Metal Electrodes by the Cathodic Electrolysis in Light Water Solutions," p 109.
We have confirmed using several analytical methods that many kinds of new elements are produced on/in Pd, Pt, Au and W electrodes after the electrolysis in light water solutions. For example, for Au cathode, the products were Fe, Zn, Cr, Cu, Ca, Ti and Si and Mg as the products were detected only by the electrolysis at an extremely high current density. The mass spectrometry analysis was carried out for many kinds of elements over mass numbers of 1 to 208. The isotopic compositions of above elements were significantly different from these natural isotopic distributions. For example, the isotopic composition of natural iron is 5.8% Fe54, 91.72% Fe56, 2.2% Fe57 and 0.28% Fe58. On the other hand, in the case of iron produced on/in an Au electrode content was 5% Fe54, 62% Fe56 and 33% Fe57. It is known that the natural isotopic distribution varies only by less than 0.003% for iron. Essentially the same phenomenon was confirmed more than ten times under the. ... We concluded from above results that some transmutation reactions take place during the electrolysis and above elements with anomalous isotopic distribution is the products of the nuclear transmutation reaction. This suggests that some new interaction works among protons, electrons and electrode material atoms, which becomes the origin of the new phenomenologies observed in this study.
M. Okamoto, Y. Oya (Dept. Quantum Sci. & Energy Engr., Graduate School of Engr., Tohoku Univ., Japan), H. Ogawa, M. Aida (Res. Lab. Nucl. Reactors, Tokyo Inst. Technol.., Tokyo, Japan), "Material Conditions to Replicate the Generation of Excess Energy and the Emission of Excess Neutrons," p 110.
The reproducibility of the anomalous phenomena occurred in Pd-LiOD electrolysis has been very poor, resulting many severe criticisms. The key parameters for occurrence of the anomalous phenomena, especially the excess heat generation and the emission of the excess neutrons have been investigated thorough a series of electrolysis in Pd-LiOD(H) systems. The key parameters have been selected as follows.
1. Purity of Pd cathode 2. Shape and size of Pd cathode 3. Processes of pretreatment of Pd cathode 4. Electrolysis mode 5. Electrolyte 6. Purity of the medium 7. Initial Open-Circuit-Voltage
The light water and the heavy water were purified by distillation with potassium per manganese as a strong oxidation reagent. The initial open-circuit-voltage was examined in the course of experiments and was found to be low for the replication of the anomalous phenomena. The lower and constant initial open-circuit-voltage can be realized by the present pretreatment of Pd electrode and the purification of the medium. Under these experimental conditions, the anomalous phenomena with appreciable correlation between the excess heat generation and the excess neutron emission could be replicated successfully. The details will be presented and discussed in the presentation.
R.A. Oriani (Dept. Chem. Engr. & Matls. Sci., Univ. Minnesota, Minneapolis), "Anomalous Heavy Atomic Masses Produced by Electrolysis," p 111.
Ken-ichiro Ota, Taichi Kobayashi, Naobumi Motohira, Nobuyuki Kamiya (Chem. Energy Lab., Fac. Engr., Yokohama Natl. Univ.), "Heat Measurement During the Heavy Water Electrolysis Using Pd Cathode," p 112, 1 ref.
Y. Oya, M. Okamoto (Dept. Quantum Sci. & Energy Engr., Graduate School of Engr., Tohoku Univ., Japan), H. Ogawa, T. Saburi, M. Aida (Res. Lab. for Nucl. Reactors, Tokyo Inst. Technol., Tokyo, Japan), O. Odawara (Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Sci. & Engr., Tokyo Institute of Technol., Yokohama, Japan), "A Role of Alkaline Ions for Dynamic Movement of Hydrogen Isotopes in PD," p 113.
Thomas O. Passell (Electric Power Res. Inst., Palo Alto, CA), "Search for Nuclear Reaction Products in Heat Producing Palladium," p 114.
EPRI has sponsored several research projects to check the claims of cold fusion made in the 1989 announcement of Pons and Fleischmann. The evidence obtained indicates that the claimed amounts of excess heat in highly deuterated palladium are indeed present under conditions difficult to achieve but successful in some 30 to 50% of the serious attempts. While the excess heat appears confirmed, the source of the heat is unclear. By inference it must be from some reaction with at least ten times chemical reaction heat outputs per atom present, well above 200 electron volts per atom. The only known reactions in this category are ones involving the nucleus. ...
G.S. Qiao, X.L. Han, L.C. Kong, S.X. Zheng, H.F. Huang Y.J. Yan, Q.L. Wu, S.L. Lei, X.Z. Li (Dept. Phys., Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China), "Nuclear Products in a Gas-Loading D/PD and H/PD System," p 115.
Helium-4 was observed in a gas-loading D/Pd system using high resolution mass spectroscopy, and nuclear transmutation evidence was found in a gas-loading H/Pd system using electron probe microanalysis after the excess heat measurement.
High resolution mass spectroscopy is able to reach the resolution of (M / M) ÷ 770, which is high enough to distinguish the Helium-4 peak from the D2 peak in the mass spectrum ((M / M) ÷ 156 is necessary to distinguish He-4 from D2). The ratio of He-4 to Ne-20 is measured to avoid any contamination from the air. The ratio of He/Ne in the D/Pd gas-loading system is 0.55 ñ 0.02 after one year gas-loading process. The ratio of He/Ne in the air is 0.32 ñ 0.02. The ratio of He/Ne in the original deuterium gas is 0.32 ñ 0.02 also although the helium-4 components there is very low in the absolute value. This is an evidence showing that there is a helium-4 source inside the deuterium gas-loading D/Pd system after one year loading and de-loading processes. ...
In order to avoid the possible contamination from the environment, a careful search along the total length of palladium wire (250 cm) was conducted to identify any new elements which do not exist in the environment. A lot of elements were identified such as Cu, Ni, Fe, Ca, Sn, K, CI, Pb, S, P, Si, A1, and Tb etc. The most interesting element is the rare-earth element Tb (Terbium), which does not exist in the environment at all. Tb was found by EDX spectrum first; then, searched along the Pd wire surface by WDX image method.
As a conclusion, we might have reproduced the nuclear transmutation experiment in our gas loading system. This provides a better technique to identify any possible nuclear products in addition to Helium-4.
Zhang Qingfu, Chen Licai, Sun Yue, Liu Fusheng (Inst. Atomic & Molecular Sci. High Temperature & High Pressure, Sichuan Union Univ. P.R. China), "The Crystal Structure Transition of Ti-cathode Owing to the Electrolysis in Water," p 116.
Prof. Gou Qingquan has shown that the cold fusion may occur easily when the crystal of Ti-cathode absorbs sufficient amount of D atoms and then changes its structure from hexagonal to face-centered cube of TiD2 owing to the electrolysis in D2O.
... This means that in order to get the ionic crystal TiD2 from Ti-cathode in D2O, the electrolysis experiment must also endure long time at about 20 days. According to this rule, we use Ti-cathode and Pt-anode to electrolyze D2O. After 20 days, the ionic crystal of TiDz in Ti-cathode and "excess heat" are measured. The prediction of prof. Gou is verified.
Gou Qingquan (Inst. Atomic & Molecular Sci. at High Temperature & High Pressure, Sichuan Union Univ., P.R. China), "Cold Fusion Mechanism and Cold Fusion Materials," p 117.
V.A. Romodanov, V.I. Savin, Ya.B. Skuratnik, V.S. Barashenkov, B.F. Kostenko, M.Z. Yuriev (State SRI SPA "LUTCH", Moscow Reg.), "High-Temperature Nuclear Reactions in Condensed Media," p 118, 3 refs.
V.A. Romodanov, V.I. Savin,.Ya.B. Skuratnik, V.N. Majorov (State SRI SPA "LUTCH", Podolsk, Moscow Reg.), "Tritium Generation in Metal by Thermal Activation," p 119, 3 refs.
V.A. Romodanov, V.I. Savin,,Ya.B. Skuratnik, M.Z. Yuriev, (State SRI SPA "LUTCH", Moscow Reg. Russia), "Nuclear Reactions in Condensed Media and X-Ray," p 120, 3 refs.
Dana Rotegard (Advanced Energy Technology Corp., St. Paul, MN), "The Case for "New Energy" Technology: Low Energy Nuclear and Over Unity Devices Compared to Conventional Energy Technology," p 121.
"New energy" science has advanced and diversified since 3/23/89. Large constituencies exist for rival alternate energy technologies including "hot" fusion, wind, photovoltaic, biomass, geothermal, ethanol and others. Conventional energy technologies such as coal, petroleum, natural gas, and conventional fission dominate the current market. These technologies are compared in a variety of parameters including their (present and potential) external costs: risks: scalability; passive/active nature; entrepreneurial appeal; constituencies; time line evaluation of these rival technological visions demonstrate the economic and environmental importance of the new energy technologies and provide some insight as to why constituencies with rival visions have attacked cold fusion and over-unity devices as a political threat.
A.S. Roussetski (P.N. Lebedev Physical Inst., Russian Acad. Sci., Moscow, Russia), "Observation of (DD)-Fusion Reaction Products in Electrolytically Deuterized PDO/PD-Structures," p 122.
S.V. Vakarin, A.L. Samgin (Inst. High-Temp. Electrochemistry., Acad. Sci., Ekaterinburg, Russia), "An Explanation for Positive and Negative Results Concerning Anomalous Effects in Superionic Crystals," p 123.
Considerable recent attention has been focussed on the experiments with oxide bronzes and other superionic materials. We elaborated a criterion which permits us to predict neutron generation from oxide bronzes. At first it was associated with the existence of the perfect structure channels, in which a fast ionic transport occurs. ...
Then a necessary condition for a positive result is in sufficient number of perfect channels. ... We emphasize that the channel structure of bronzes acts as "working" deuteron accumulator. Man-made capillary systems may play a similar role. Our model is adaptable also to anomalous effects in ceramics.... Deuterium may also interact with other metals positioned in the neighborhood of breaking of bonds inside the channel.
A. Samgin (Inst. High-Temp. Electrochemistry, Ural Branch of Russian Acad. Sci., Ekaterinburg, Russia), "Quantum-Biological Approach to the Study of Anomalous Effects in Deuterium-Solid System," p 124, 3 refs.
C. Sanchez, F. Cuevas and J.F. Fernandez (Dpto. Fisica de Materiales, Univ. Autonoma de Madrid, Spain.), "On Neutron Emissions from the Titanium-Deuterium System," p 125, 2 refs.
The possible occurrence of nuclear reactions in solids (NRS) has been tested in two well-characterized experimental conditions by using the Titanium-Deuterium system. In one of them, samples of titanium deuteride (TiDx x ÷ 2.0) have been thermally cycled, paying special attention to this process as a possible triggering mechanism of NRS. Thermal cycles have been run from -60ø C to 60ø C in order to force the sample to suffer the ë - î phase transition. In a second set of experiments a well-characterized iodide-titanium film has been used after being highly loaded with deuterium. This film proves to have a higher purity than common samples used in NRS experiments. ....
Neutrons are monitored while doing all these experiments and no clear evidence of the nuclear fusion. reaction D + D 3He + n is detected. It is confirmed that NRS, whatever they are, are producing a very low level of neutron emissions.
Lev Sapogin (Dept. Phys.,Technical Univ. (MADI), Moscow, Russia), "The Theory of Excess Energy in Abnormal Glow Discharges (Correa's Reactor)," p 126, 3 refs.
Before in investigations Paulo and Alexandra Correa had obtained generated electrical current which did not connect with nuclear reactions. Maybe these processes can explain with help of energy generation in Unitary Quantum Theory. In report is offered theory of processes taking place in Correa's reactor. These processes confirm Unitary Quantum Theory. In future solve all power problem must be tied with these processes.
I.B. Savvatimova, V.Ul. Korolev (SIA LUTCH, Podolsk, Moscow region, Russia), "The Heat Effect Comparative Analysis in Ion Irradiated Various Cathode Materials Glow Discharge," p 127.
I.B. Savatimova (SIA LUTCH, Podolsk, Moscow region, Russia), "Transmutation Effects on Glow Discharge Cathode. Nuclear Phenomena or Ion Irradiation Results?" p 128, 1 ref.
Cathode materials elemental and isotopic structure before and after experiments in low energy ions Glow Discharge were compared. The cathode materials were analyzed after experiment and after post-experimental annealing.
The isotope shift tendency of the Pd, Pd alloys (PdPtW, PdRu; PdNi; PdCu) and in other cathode materials (V, Ag) was observed for matrix and impurity elements.
It was shown that the change of impurity elemental and isotopic composition after irradiation of the cathode by glow discharge plasma ions depends up on the structure of the cathode material and the working environment, ion flux density and the location of the analyzed layer relative to the surface. SNMS, EDS and SMS were used.
The dependence of the isotope ratio of impurity and matrix elements and its concentration upon the type of irradiating ions (protium and deuterium) has been noted But the groups of a certain impurities were repeatedly observed after irradiation under similar conditions: light -masses 6, 7, 10, 11, 19, 20, 22; middle masses 0, 5 matrix; near matrix (Ag, Yn, Cd, and others ) and heavy masses 120-140 (Sn, Te, Ba) by SNMS method. ...
Such elements increasing as Cd, Sn was observed for any Pd based materials usually after Glow Discharge experiments with their different concentration. We found 138, 132 and 167-175 isotope series (Er, Tm, Yb...). These masses with equal amplitude peaks were noticed in two analyzing layers - the. first layer near the surface and the second layer, that was got after 1 micron sputtering. It means that it is not ion bombardment or diffusion process consequence.
We discovered only Cd isotopes group formed (a few backgrounds) in Ag cathode. These masses were repeated in the second scanning layer too.
The quantity of additional impurity elements after ion irradiation decreased in the following order: Pd, alloys PdPTW, PdNi. Additional impurity elements minimum quantity in pure metals was observed for Ag cathode.
The maximum increase of impurities correlated with the maximum excess heat during ion irradiation of palladium cathodes in the glow discharge.
D.S. Silver, J. Dash (Phys. Dept., Portland State Univ., OR), 129. "Surface Studies of Palladium After Interaction with Hydrogen Isotopes," p 129.
Several pairs of cold rolled palladium cathodes (40 pm thick) were electrolyzed in series for various times up to six minutes. One of each pair was in light water electrolyte and the other in heavy water electrolyte. After electrolysis these cathode-, were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS).
The AFM studies of the heavy water electrolyzed cathodes revealed asperities, craters, and nodules, suggesting that localized melting and recrystallization had occurred, as we reported previously on specimens electrolyzed for longer times. AFM studies 1.5 years later revealed loose, nanometer-sized particles, indicating that these cathodes continued to change during storage, long after electrolysis was performed, which we also reported previously on other cathodes. The morphology of palladium cathodes electrolyzed in light water electrolyte remained nearly identical to that of the unelectrolyzed control, even after 1.5 years.
SIMS profiles of six palladium isotopes for a cathode electrolyzed for six minutes in heavy water showed inversions of isotopic abundance compared with the control. These results are similar to those which we reported previously on another palladium cathode electrolyzed for a longer time.
Roman E. Sioda (Inst. Industrial Organic Chem., Warszawa-Zeran, Poland), "Hot-Spot Mechanism of Hypothetic "Cold Fusion" Phenomena," p 130, 5 refs.
G. Stoppini (Phys. Dept., Univ. Pisa, Italy), "Nuclear Processes In Hydrogen Loaded Metals," p 131.
G.H. Miley and G. A, Patterson and independently T. Mizuno, T. Ohmori and M. Enyo claim to observe nuclides produced in Ni (z -- 28) when used in electrolytic light water cell. They used thin layers of Ni (5 10-6 cm) and claim to observe the effect in a reproducible way.
The secondary nuclides are distributed in a wide range of Z and A and show nuclides with Z < 28 and accumulations at Z = 48 and 78 that recall Ni-Ni fusion.
If the nuclides at Z = 48 and 78 are Ni-Ni fusion they can be produced only when the original Ni nuclei gain enough kinetic energy to overcome the repulsive Coulomb barrier. We discuss this data in terms of current physics. In particular we assume that the gain of kinetic energy derives from an impulsive increase of absolute nuclear binding energies (b.e.) due to high rate orbital capture of electrons, from Ni nuclei. ...
The model discussed implies emission of secondaries like neutrons, gamma rays, X rays etc.
E.K. Storms (Santa Fe, NM), "Use of Loading Efficiency, D/PD Limit, Deloading Rate and Excess Volume to Judge the Value of Palladium for use in Cold Fusion Studies," p 132.
The challenge is to find a simple method to identify palladium which will eventually make excess energy without need for the time consuming process of calorimetric examination. Past methods have relied solely on achieving a critical average composition. A large number of palladium samples treated in a variety of ways and containing physical properties can be used in conjunction with the average composition for this purpose.
Loading efficiency is combined with the open-circuit-voltage to give an indication of whether barriers are present to deuterium uptake. The deloading rate and excess volume are used to indicate the presence of paths for deuterium loss. Achievement of the highest D/Pd limit occurs when a barrier is absent and when the number of exit paths is small. These quantities are highly variable even within a batch of palladium having the same treatment.
E.K. Storms (Santa Fe, NM), "Relationship Between Open-Circuit-Voltage and Heat Production in a Pons-Fleischmann Cell," p 133.
A concentration gradient forms within palladium when it has fully loaded with hydrogen using the electrolytic method. Because the largest concentration is formed on the surface, the necessary critical concentration of deuterium for "cold fusion" is expected to first occur within this region. Because the surface composition depends on many factors, its value is not consistently related to the average, bulk concentration of deuterium. Therefor, the average composition is no the best predictor for excess energy production. A better indicator is the open-circuit-voltage (OCV).
The OCV is proportional to the deuterium activity in the surface region. This value must be above 1.06 V (referenced to clean Pt) before excess energy will be seen regardless of the average composition. The behavior of the OCV indicates that deposition of elements other than deuterium is necessary for the energy-active-state to be produced.
R. Stringham (E-Quest Sciences, Mountain View CA), "Cavitation in D2O with Metal Targets Produces Predictable Excess Heat," p 134.
Acoustically generated transient cavitation bubbles, TCBs, are created in D2O and characteristically collapse violently on surfaces of target metal lattices in the M3C device. During the one micro second collapse process of a pseudo-adiabatic nature, the bubble contents are dissociated and ionized with a portion of the contents accelerated via the formation of a bubble jet which is directed through the target surface into a lattice. The bubble jet produces local super loading of deuterons within the metal lattice a few micro seconds in duration before diffusion quickly dissipates these deuterons throughout the lattice. These TCBs are natural dense plasma micro accelerators in the range of 100 ev. ... Both the calibration and cavitation experiments are run at steady state temperatures for about 24 hours as the Q(x) cannot be determined until steady state conditions are reached (about 2 hours).
The experimental objective was to gather the results of 150 runs and deduce relationships that are not obvious with just a few experimental results. Parameters such as pressure, temperature and metal targets can. be changed for each run. ... The metal foil targets were titanium, silver, copper, nickel titanium alloy, stainless steel or empty reactor. ... The excess heat, Q(x), was often greater than 3 times the heating from the piezo input. ...
The target metal Cu is of special note as it produces the highest ratio of Q(x) to (A+B) of 6 to 1.
Hiroshi Sugiura (IMRA Europe, France), Eiichi Yamaguchi (on leave from NTT Basic Res. Lab.), "Calorimetric Analyses of the Excess Heat generated from Pd:D and Pd:H by the 'In-vacuo Method," p 135.
More than 100% of excess heat was observed with 100% reproducibility from Pd:D set in a vacuum system.
All the operations to the Pd sample (30 x 30 x 1 mm3) were performed in vacuo throughout the experiment. First, we cleared gases out from the sample by heating up to 600ø C for 2 hours in the vacuum chamber. Second, we introduced D2 (or H2) gas into the same chamber at room temperature. The loading ratio was found to be typically 70%. Third, we transferred the sample to the second vacuum chamber through a vacuum tube connection, and deposited Au (1500 A) on a surface of the Pd:D (Pd:H) plate. The sample was again transferred to the third vacuum chamber through another vacuum tube and was heated up to 70 - 80ø C by applying the constant electric power through W needle. Several hours after keeping to apply the power, we observed the anomalous increase of the sample temperature. ... We will discuss the detailed method for estimating the excess heat in this 'in-vacuo' technique.
Mitchell R. Swartz (JET Energy Technol., Inc., Massachusetts), "Comparative ã-Notch [0ptimal Operating Point] Characteristics of Solid State Nuclear Systems," p 136, 1 ref.
Several years of investigations of nickel light water systems using noise-analyzing thermal power spectroscopy has revealed a reproducible excess enthalpy achievable through driving these systems only at their optimal operating point or region [ã-notch]. These optimal operating points (relative peak output along the input power drive axis) appear to be characteristic behavior of each active nickel electrode.
This analysis is now extended with data from others' reports of excess heat and nuclear ash production in palladium-heavy water systems. There appear to be similar optimal operating points for palladium-heavy water production rates of excess heat. tritium and helium-4.
It is important that attention of investigators in this field consider the fact that isotopic fuel loaded systems may exhibit such an optimal input power drive for maximal product production at intermediate input power levels. The impact of the existence of such optimal operating points is important because, in addition to the problems of achieving adequate loading of active electrode materials, off-peak system operation may contribute to the difficulty in observing the phenomena via failure to achieve significant reaction rates.
Mitchell Swartz (JET Energy Tech., Inc., Wellesley Hills, MA, & MA Inst. Tech., Cambridge, MA), Peter L. Hagelstein (MA Inst. Techn., Cambridge, MA), Gayle Verner (JET Energy Tech. Inc., Wellesley Hills, MA), Kenneth Wright ( MA Inst. Tech., Cambridge, MA), "Vacancy-Phase Nickel Cathodes," p 137, 2 refs.
Mitchell Swartz (JET Energy Tech., MA), Hal Fox (Fusion Information Center, Salt Lake City, UT), "Metanalysis of the Cold Fusion Literature," p 138.
Since the announcement of the discovery of cold fusion (CF) in March 1989, we have reported on CF as it has been replicated and demonstrated in laboratories in over thirty countries. This considerable effort by the scientific community has resulted in a massive and developing volume of cold fusion papers; many published in peer-reviewed journals, and others presented at technical conferences or published in technical publications. ...
The annual rate of published articles in CF continues unabated in this field (mean 227 papers/year; range 100-400). We have examined this steady increase in scientific papers output in this field, and have analyzed the efforts on a country, and state, basis. The main countries contributing to cold fusion scientific effort are Japan (110,343), United States (86,930), Russia (52,198), India (28,71), Italy (13,108), France (11,41) and China (10,81), where the numbers indicate the CF experimental paper output in 1995-1996 and the cumulative scientific CF paper output from 1989 through 1996 including theoretical and peripheral papers. Although the United States leads with more than 900 articles published, Japan with a third of this amount has a greater number of experimental articles published (110 vs. 86 in the 1995-1996 time period). .... Despite an unprecedented reluctance on the part of many peer-reviewed [journals to publish] publications in the field continues, although it is down from the 1989-1990 peak.
Akito Takahashi (Dept. Nucl. Engr., Osaka Univ., Japan), "Results of Experimental Studies on Excess Heat vs. Nuclear Products Correlation and Conceivable Reaction Model," p 139, 3 refs.
To study possible correlation of excess heat phenomenon and nuclear products in "cold fusion" experiments, we have done three kinds of experiments, i.e., open and closed electrolysis of D2O/Pd cells and D-ion implantation into Ti and Pd metals. This paper summarizes results of 5 yrs (1993-1997) studies at our laboratory under the NHE Basic Research Project, and proposes a conceivable reaction model of three body deuteron fusion.
Results of open and closed cell electrolyzes experiments have concluded that, in relation to excess heat phenomenon, there are no neutrons, no characteristic X-rays (no major high energy charged particles) and, however, marginal level of possible He-4 generation. ...
Ryoji Takahashi (Univ. Tokyo, Japan), "Excess Heat Caused by Electrolysis for Drilled Charcoal Cathode and Heat Without Power Input by Immersion of Charcoal in Heavy or Light Water at Elevated Temperatures," p 140.
Ryoji Takahashi (Univ. Tokyo, Japan), "Proposal of Microdrop-In-Bubble Model for Cold Fusion and Related Phenomena," p 141, 1 table.
F. Tanzella, M. McKubre, S. Crouch-Baker (SRI Intl., Menlo Park, CA), P. Hagelstein (MA Inst. Tech., Cambridge, MA), "Methods for Observing Anomalous Energy Transfer in Solids," p 142.
Several researchers have reported evidence of anomalous energy transfer in solids. Credible reports have been made of ambient temperature charge ejection, atomic hydrogen emission, tritium production, induced radioactivity, fast ion emission, 4He production, and excess heat associated with 3He production. We have assembled the instrumentation required to conduct experiments similar to some of these reported and to observe the effects of the associated anomalous energy transfer. Candidate mechanisms for the associated reactions will be discussed in association with the theory presented by Hagelstein. ...
Experiments also have been performed to study the effects of interstitial diffusion barriers, hydrogen isotope loading of vacancy-laden Pd, and on-line gamma spectroscopy of PdHxDy. We have produced and measured hydrogen isotope loading of Pd cathodes with interstitial diffusion barriers in an attempt to measure lattice-induced alpha or beta emission. Alpha, beta, and/or gamma spectroscopy may be performed on electrochemically loaded Pd cathodes which have electron irradiation induced vacancies to test the hypothesis that vacancies are central to anomalous energy production. We have also performed gamma-ray spectroscopy on PdHxDy cathodes during in-situ electrolysis experiments and on the post-experiment cathodes.
The results of these experiments will be reported as well as descriptions of the emission apparatus and spectrometers used in these studies.
S. Tsvetkov, E. Filatov, V. Khokhlov, "Thermal Effects at the Titanium Anode in Molten (LiCI-KCI) + LiD Mixtures During Electrolysis," p 143.
The electrolysis of lithium deuteride dissolved in molten alkali halide mixtures under both inert and deuterium atmospheres has been carried out. The obtained results show the heat release at the titanium anode during the run. The thermal effects observed were found to be greater than those calculated for supposed electrochemical reactions with the known thermodynamic data.
S.A. Tsvetkov (Sverdlovsk Branch Res. & Dev. Inst. Engr., Russia), "Experimental Data for Initiation of Cold Fusion by Oxygen," p 144.
An other approach to the cold fusion phenomenon based on deuterium interaction with oxygen in solid is considered. Experiments carried out by other authors are analyzed from the indicated point of view. Results of evaluational experiments on enhanced frequency and magnitude of defected neutron pulses via deuterium interaction with oxygen in titanium are presented.
S.A. Tsvetkov (Sverdklovsk Branch Res. & Dev. Inst. Power Engr., Russia), A.G. Lipson (lnst. Physical Chem. RAS, Moscow, Russia), "Necessary Conditions of Cold Fusion," p 145.
On the basis of nine-year experience of work attempt to formulate conditions is made, which need to be observed for realization of experiments on cold fusion for reception of positive results.
As positive results registration redundant are considered is excess power, neutrons, gamma-radiation, operating time tritium, helium and other elements during experiments.
Experiments carried out by authors and other scientists are analyzed. On the basis of this analysis necessary conditions of cold fusion are formulated. They are
1. Phase transition solid by deuterium interaction and very more area solid are needed,
2. Optimum phase transition. time in deuterium-solid system is needed,
3. Background neutrons in solid is needed,
4. Oxygen in deuterium-solid systems is needed,
S. Ueda, K. Yasuda, A. Takahashi (Dept. Nucl. Engr., Osaka Univ., Japan), "Study of Excess Heat and Nuclear Products with Closed Electrolysis System and Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer," p 146.
B. Drag , Z. Mari , J.P. Vigier (Univ. Pari VI, France), "Interpretation of "Cold Fusion" in Terms of New Bohr Orbits Resulting from Spin-Spin and Spin-Orbit Couplings in External Magnetic Fields. Theoretical and Experimental Evidence," p 147.
V. Violante (Erg/Fus CRE ENEA Fraseati, Italy), "Extended Analysis of the Lattice Ion Trap as Possible Collision Mechanism Between Nucleus in Condensed Matter," p 148.
James T. Waber (Res. Prof. Phys. (Retired), Michigan Technological Univ., Emeritus Professor of Matl. Sci., Northwestern Univ.), "The Synthesis of Nuclear Theory of dd Fusion with Solid State Theory of Bipolarons," p 149.
The study of the R-Matrix method of treating fusion cross sections as studied by Hale et. al. revealed that low energy d-d fusion could lead to the formation of an excited state of the alpha particle, namely the O+ state. The shadow poles indicate the significance of the body potential in the extranuclear region. The transition to the ground state would not occur by photon emission since the state involved an EO monopole nor by the emission of various fermions, but by excitation of energetic phonons. That is the nuclear energy, as suggested by Schwinger. would be dissipated throughout the lattice as in the Mossbauer effect.
The quantum mechanical requirement for the fusion involves the body potential in which the repulsive d-d potential is neutralized by the surrounding electrons. The solid state model involves the occupation of a single lattice site by two spin-paired deuterons as envisioned in the current bipolaron theory of superconductivity. This is not forbidden by the exclusion principle but is energetically favored as Ranninger has shown. He and Robin have developed a self consistent theory of quasi-free fermions and boson occupation. ...
J.L. Waisman, R.H. Summerl (Irvine, CA), "Practical Application of X-Heat," p 150.
Since its discovery in 1989, Pd/D X-Heat has been shown to be "real" by dozens of Lab's worldwide. Heating events produce much more heat than any previously known reactions, with negligible side reactions. Most of the experiments have used electrolysis at ambient pressure and temperature, to "load"a palladium cathode with deuterium. Generally, several watts / cm.3 of cathode have been produced. ...
However, the authors believe (also with good reason) that electrolytic loading at ambient conditions is limited in power-density and reproducibility, and will not lead to applications cost-competitive with fossil fuels. But the same pattern of thinking, the same technologies, and the same experimental data, point to a path which will generate reproducible high power-densities, in a range of temperatures and pressures which will lead to practical applications. X-Heat will replace fossil fuel at the same use temperatures, without significant pollution and at competitive costs. ...
This presentation includes an overview of:
- The new pattern of thinking.
- The useful known technologies.
- The experimental evidence.
- The design method and examples.
- Proposed confirming experiments.
Tieshan Wang (Inst. Modem Phys., Chinese Acad. Sci., Lanzhou, China), Kentaro Ochiai, Toshiyuki lida, Akito Takahashi (Dept. Nucl. Engr., Osaka Univ., Japan), "Nuclear and Atomic Cluster Effect of Deuterium Molecular Ions (D3) Implanted into Palladium," p 151, 6 figs, 5 refs.
Tieshan Wang (Inst. Modem Phys., Chinese Acad. Sci., Lanzhou, China), Kentaro Ochiai, Toshiyuki Iida, Akito Takahashi (Dept. Nucl. Engr., Osaka Univ., Japan), "Study of Possible Indirect Fusion Reaction in Solids," p 152, 6 refs, 8 figs.
A very broad unknown peak, which appeared between triton peak (1 MeV) and proton peak (3 MeV) of D-D reactions, was frequently observed in our deuteron beam implantation experiments with large current into palladium. The peak could be seen in almost every run of experiment. Because the counts in this peak kept almost constant ratio (about 0.15), compared with those of normal proton peak of D-D fusions which took place within the implanted deuteron range near the surface 'of palladium target, the peak was considered as proton peak of the D-D fusion occurred deeply (beyond the deuteron range) inside the palladium target plate. Compared with the direct D-D fusion of well known beam-target reaction, the fusion deeply inside the target was named as the indirect fusion reaction in solid which should be induced by some other trigger conditions than the direct beam-target effect of deuteron implantation.
... Both of molecular ion (D3+) beam and mono-atomic ion (D+) were applied to the experiments. The results have shown that the deuteron atomic ion beam could induce higher rates of the indirect fusion reaction, compared with the deuteron of molecular ion beam.
By analyzing above experimental results, it was found that the indirect fusion had some kind of dependence on target material type, temperature, deuterium loading ratio, etc....
Tieshan Wang, Zhiguo Wang (Inst. Modem Phys., Chinese Acad. Sci., Lanzhou, China), Kentaro Ochiai, Toshiyuki Iida, Akito Takahashi (Dept. Modem Phys., Osaka Univ., Japan), Yubo Piao (Inst. Nucl. Phys., Lanzhou Univ., China), "Anomalous Radiation Induced by 1-100 KeV Deuteron Ion Beam Implantation on Palladium," p 153, 6 refs, 8 figs.
1-100 keV deuteron beam was implanted into palladium target, in order to study the interaction of deuteron ion beam and solid. X-ray, -ray, charged particle and neutron was measured. A series of anomalous experimental phenomena was observed.
The experimental phenomena are so mysterious and can not be interpreted by any existing physics theory. The further investigation is needed and ongoing.
Norio Yabuuchi (High Scientific Res. Lab., Japan), "Low-Temperature Nuclear Fusion Outside of Solids," p 154.
Eiichi Yamaguchi (on leave from NTT Basic Res. Labs., Japan), Hiroshi Sugiura (IMRA Europe, France), "Progress Report on the Study of Excess Heat and Nuclear Products by the 'In-vacuo' Method Run at IMRA Europe," pp 155, 2 refs.
A pre-annealed Pd plate (1000ø C, 24 hours) was immersed in D2 (H2) gas at room temperature. A thin Au film was deposited on one side of the Pd:D (Pd:H), and the sample was transferred to the analysis chamber without braking the vacuum. A constant electric power was then applied through a W needle to the sample. After applying the electric power, temperatures at various points were measured in order to evaluate the excess heat generation from the samples. ... During this measurement, the observation for the generation of He-4, charged particles, neutron- spectra, neutron counts and X-ray spectrum were continuously performed by the mass-spectrometer, Si SSD's, BC-501A liquid scintillator, He-3 neutron counters and CdZnTe SSD, respectively.
We have observed the excess heat generation with 100% reproducibility not only from Pd:D but from Pd:H. ... The total amount of excess heat was approximately 2.5 kJ for any case, indicating that the energy generated was approximately 1 eV.per D (H) atom. The excess heat generation has also been found to be strongly correlated to the sample distortion. Nevertheless, none of the nuclear products seemed to be detected clearly. This result suggests that the highly reproducible excess heat observed in the present experiment is related to the lattice distortion. We will discuss this origin under the condensed matter physics.
Zhongliang Zhang, Minghong Zhong, Fuming Liu, Jun Liu (Inst. Chem., Academia Sinica, Beijing, China), Xingzhong Li (Dept. Phys., Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China), "A Right Calorimetric System Needed in the Studying Electrolysis System in the "Cold Fusion" Field," p 156, 5 refs.
Zhongliang Zhang, Minghong Zheng, Yuming Liu,Jun Liu (Inst. Chem., Acad. Sinica, Beijing, China), "Examination of the "Excess Heat" Generated During Electrolysis of D2O and H2O on a New Type Calorimetric System," p 157, 4 refs.
After the results of "excess heat" generated during electrolysis of D2O had been obtained by us, it seemed to be worthwhile for us to make another such investigation on a new type calorimetric system, which is a microcalorimetry system 2107, LKB-producer in Sweden. It should be necessary to know the change of elements of the cathode used before and after electrolysis. A microcomputer was used to acquire and digitize the calorimetric and electrolytic signals.
Details are presented.
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July 30, 1998.