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Continued from Part One in the May 1998 NEN.

Continued in Part Three in the July 1998 NEN.

By FIC Staff

From: NEN, Vol. 6, No. 2, June 1998, pp. 2-17.
New Energy News (NEN) copyright 1998 by Fusion Information Center, Inc.
COPYING NOT ALLOWED without written permission.


April 1998 Vancouver, BC, Canada

Program Manual and Abstracts

Proceedings will be available in July from:
ENECO, 391-B, Chipeta Way,
Salt Lake City, UT 84108.

*** As there so many abstracts listed in this NEN, I will include the printed summaries of only the ones I really liked. PB. ***

Stephen M. Hrushovez (Winnipeg, Canada), "Integer-Linked Elementary Particle Charges and the Theoretical Pole of Neutrino Oscillation in Nucleon-Loaded Metal Anomalies," p 68.

Y. Isobe, H. Fukuoka, A. Takahashi (Dept. Nucl. Engr., Osaka Univ., Japan), "Simultaneous Measurements of Neutrons, X-Rays, Excess Heat and Loading Ratio Using Opened D2O Electrolysis System," p 69, 2 refs.

In our experiments using an open type electrolysis system, measurements of excess heat, neutrons, X-rays and loading ratio have been carried out simultaneously to know the correlation between the degree of loading ratio and occurring of cold fusion phenomena and to discover the correlation between excess heat and nuclear products if such phenomena were observed. A new experimental system was tested in this work.

The electrolyte was 0.04M LiOD heavy water and several rod-shaped metals (2 mm x 75 mm long) were used as cathodes. Excess heat measurement were performed by using a mass flow calorimetry method. Input power was calculated from the input current and the cell voltage. The output power would be calculated by measuring the temperature of cooling water and the flow rate which kept at the entrance and the exit point of the cell. Then we could estimate excess heat production in the cell by comparing the output power with the input power, considering the heat recovery efficiency. Temperature was measured with a resistance temperature device (RTD) and a digital multi-thermometer. The degree of loading ratio is obtained by measuring the electrical resistance of the Pd cathode during electrolysis and comparing with the known calibration data (SRI International McKubre, et al.). The measured values were managed by PCS immediately and automatically. Two NE213 neutron detectors were setup in front of the cell. Neutron signals were separated from -ray signals by the two dimensional analysis of rise-time and pulse-height. As we used two detectors, the system was very reliable for the detection of anomalous neutron emission. For example if one detector observed the increase of signals and the other one detected the similar phenomena simultaneously, the signals should be true ones. X -rays were detected by two CdTe X-ray detectors. The purpose was the detection of characteristic X-rays (21 - 23 keV) that would be generated in the slowing down process of emitted charged-particles with several MeV kinetic energy in the Pd cathode. In the experiments, the step-up current mode (several tens watts maximum) was used for electrolysis.

This experimental system have been just completed. Now we are doing a series of experiments and accumulating the data to obtain some results.

Yasuhiro Iwamura, Takahiko Itoh, Nobuaki Gotoh, Mitsuru Sakano, Ichiro Toyoda (Advanced Technol. Res. Ctr., Mitsubishi Heavy Ind. Ltd., Yokohama, Japan), "Detection of Anomalous Elements, X-Ray and Excess Heat Induced by Continuous Diffusion of Deuterium Through Multi-Layer Cathode (Pd/CaO/Pd)," p 70, 2 figs.

Xing-liu Jiang (Dept. Appl. Phys., Beijing Univ. Aeron. & Astron., China), "Electrochemical Noise, Pitting Corrosion, and Cold Fusion," p 71, 3 refs.

Experimental data show that pitting corrosions are tightly associated with electrochemical noise in a electrolysis cell. Transient energy concentration in a tiny area leads to local ablation, oxidization of electrode metal, and even nuclear reaction. Most of excess heat events during heavy or light water electrolysis without nuclear products could be explained by the formation of metal oxides. As E. Storms pointed out, a critical current is required to initiate the effect of excess heat. Once initiated, excess heat production increases in a linear fashion as the current increased. From this fact, increasing of the amount of the metal oxides can be observed correspondently. Nuclear reactions occur if a critical value of energy density reaches in the sites of cathode surface, typically on the protrusions.

A model of electrical network with elements of capacitance and resistance has been proposed by the author for describing the evolution of electrochemical double layers and the generation of electrochemical noise. High energy density has been stored in the electrochemical double layers due to high conductivity of electrolyte with high concentration of solutes. The structure of electrochemical double layer collapses under condition of local field enhancement caused by tip effect or roughness of electrode surface. The energy concentration occurs in collapse point by instantaneous release of the energy stored in the capacitance of double layer network. Strong electrochemical noise with pitting corrosion has been detected at this case. The variety of observed nuclear reactions involving high-Z elements suggests the presence of a very efficient effect for overcoming the coulomb barrier by vortex, which is created by self-magnetic micro pinch of local field electron emission with high current density.

From the factors mentioned above, the excess heat can be produced by the chemical processes, such as the oxidization and hydrogenization of electrode metals under the ablation condition with no nuclear radiation, or by the nuclear processes with nuclear products. The evolution of electrochemical double layer should be intensively studied for further understanding of the so-called "cold fusion".

Xing-liu Jiang, Li-jun Han (Dept. Phys., Beijing Univ. Aeronautics & Astronautics, China), "Tip-Effect and Nuclear-Active Site," p 72, 2 refs.

X.L. Jiang, L.J. Han (Dept. Applied Phys., Beijing Univ. Aeronautics and Astronautics, China), "Anomalous Element Production Induced by Carbon Arcing Under Water," p 73, 2 refs.

There exist various phenomena for electric discharge in water, such as radiation with wide bands, collective ion acceleration, electron degeneracy and Fermi linear atoms etc. which occur in dense state of matter in stars. The arcing has been created in the gap between two purified carbon rods in de-ionized water. The carbon rods contained a few parts per million (ppm) iron, and carbon detritus produced by carbon arcing contained up to thousands ppm of iron determined by an atomic emission spectroscope. It is deduced that the plasma filaments with superdense matter due to micro pinch effect make nuclear transmutation possible. Elements of Cr, Co, Zn etc. have been also found in the carbon detritus. The excess of iron isotope Fe-58 comparing with natural iron was determined by neutron activation analysis.

Table. Elemental anomalies at the surface of Palladium cathode after electrolysis

Location             A          B          C          D          E 

Elements            Atomic %

Na                   0.2        1.95       1.82       0.28
Mg                   1.79       3.47
Al                   1.33       1.45      16.15
Si                   3.34       1.18 
Fe                  11.66       1.68       9.86                  1.72
Cu                   8.20       2.35       9.91
Pt                   3.07       9.99       4.82                  3.97
Pd                  52.83      72.84      38.01      97.45      94.31
Zn                   17.50      5.09      19.44

X.L. Jiang, C-Y- Chen, L.J. Han (Dept. Applied Phys., Beijing Univ. Aeronautics and Astronautics, China), "Anomalies of Elemental Distribution at the Surface of Palladium Cathode," p 74, 2 refs.

Palladium rectangled cathodes used to electrolyze heavy water show a protrusion and near --surface enrichment of elements Ga, Se, Rb, Zn, Cu, Fe, Si, Mg etc. The palladium cathodes after electrolysis were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscope, Energy Dispersion X-ray Spectrometer and Synchrotron Radiation Detection etc. In view of the fact that the energy concentration is associated with protrusions and cracks on the palladium cathode, the tip--effect model and related nonlinear processes are considered to account for the anomalies of the experimental phenomena. It suggests that nuclear reactions are assisted by the high electron density on the protrusions locally and temporally due to tip--effect. As control experiments, light water was used for electrolysis under same conditions. Few of elemental anomalies on the palladium cathode with light water has been detected.

K. Kamada, Y. Enokido (Energy Res. Ctr.., Wakasa Bay, Japan), Yoshio Katano (Japan Atomic Energy Res. Inst., Japan), Isao Yoshizawa (Fac. Ed., Ibaraki Univ., Japan), "Anomalous Heat Generation of Deuteron-Implanted Aluminum upon Electron Bombardment II," p 75.

In a previous paper presented in ICCF-5 held in Monaco, one of the authors (K.K) has reported an anomalous heat generation in deuteron implanted Al upon high energy electron bombardment. In the present paper, the further investigation of the phenomenon will be reported.'

Several possible mechanisms of the observed surface melting, such as the heating effects of the electron beam, size effect of the melting point of metals, difference of the depth profiles between implanted proton and deuteron, and also the possible chemical reactions due to the electron bombardment in deuterium collections, were investigated. Nuclear reactions between deuterons were also investigated whether or not the resultant nuclear products are capable of the surface melting.

The necessary energy deposition for a typical melted region is about 160 MeV. This is nearly 105 times that of the energy loss of the impinging 175 KeV electron beam through the Al foil. From numerical calculation of the energy deposition upon the surface layer due to the kinetic motion of the deuteron or deuterium in the collection, we obtained that mean kinetic energy of roughly 100 eV for each deuteron or deuterium molecule is enough to produce the observed surface melting. This amount of energy is, however, too large for any kind of chemical reactions, but on the contrary, too small, presumably to attribute the phenomenon to the result of nuclear reactions.

These results will be supplemented with further theoretical and experimental investigations.

A. Karabut (SIA "Luch", Podolsk, Moscow region, Russian Fed.). "Excess Heat Registration (up to 200 W) in D2 and H2 High Current Density Glow Discharge with Various Cathode Materials," p 76, 1 ref.

The registration of input electrical power and output heat power in experiments with a high current Glow Discharge was carried out with using a device-flowing calorimeter. The input electrical power was defined by integration of product of operating meanings of a current and voltage. The output heat power was defined by summation of heat powers of the cooling cathode, an anode and a chamber calorimeter. The system of Date Acquisition was used on the base of DAS-1400 and CTM-05 boards, and IBM PC computer. The initial processing of electrical parameters was made using analog precise boards with the time resolution more 1 MHZ. The absolute calibration of heat registration system was carried out using resistive heaters, which gave precise values of power. A special resistive heater, which was set up instead of the Glow Discharge device, was used for control tests of the thermal balance registration system. The total error of measurements of Excess Heat (according to the tests) does not exceed 3%.

The special pulsing periodic power supply, the special cathode sample design and way of its installation (using the concepts of the phonon laser theory) were used in experiments. This technology of the experiment has allowed to receive Excess Heat with reproducibility of 100% and to make comparative experiments for various systems: a material of the cathode, sample plasma forming gas (D2, H2).

The maximum value of Excess Heat (up to 3 IW at EFFICIENCY 150 %) is received for Pd-D system. The high value of Excess Heat are registered for the following systems: (Ti-D, 17W); (Ta-H, 15W); (Ta-D, 12W); (Nb-H, 12W); (V-D, 11 W); (V-H, 12W). The low value of Excess Heat (3-5W) are observed for systems Pd-H, Zr-H, Ti-H, Nb-D. Excess Heat is very small (1-1,5W) for Zr-D. The long registration of Excess Heat (during 150 hours) for one Pd sample in D2 was carried out in a mode of cycles (23 switch off and switch on ). These tests have shown 100 % reproducibility of Excess Heat production at the level of 10 W with a deviation of ( 3 W (EFFICIENCY - 130 % (5 %). The value of Excess Heat decreased monotonously by 20% to the end of the experiment.

Demonstrating Glow Discharge device of multi element was created using the results of these researches. Four cathodes - anodes pairs are placed in a vacuum chamber with volume of 350 Cm3 and had a feed from the transistor power supply. This Glow Discharge device has shown Excess Heat more 200W at EFFICIENCY of about 150%.

A. Karabut (SIA "Luch", Podolsk, Moscow region, Russian Fed.), "Registration of Impurity Elements Production with Changed Isotopes a Natural Ratio in Current Density Glow Discharge," p 77, 2 refs.

A. Karabut (SIA "Luch", Podolsk, Moscow region, Russia), "Research of Penetrating Radiation in Current Density Glow Discharge," p 78, 1 ref.

J. Kasagi, H. Yuki, T. Itoh, N. Kasajima, T. Ohtsuki (Lab. Nucl. Sci., Tohoku Univ., Japan), A.G. Lipson (lnst. Physical Chem., The Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow), "Anomalously Enhanced D(d,p)T Reaction in PdO Observed at Very Low Bombarding Energies," p 79, 3 refs.

We have started a series of measurements of the D(d,p)T reaction in metal with the bombarding energies down to 2 keV, in order to investigate whether the reaction rate in metal is really enhanced or not. Previous results on Ti and Yb, clearly show that the reaction rate is enhanced in metal and depends on the kind of host metal. However, the enhancements obtained for both metals are so small that no nuclear reactions can be observed at a room temperature.

Recently, we studied the D(d,p)T reaction in Pd and PdO. Foils of PdO/Pd/Au (50 m in thickness) and of Pd (200 m in thickness) were used as targets. For the PdO/Pd/Au foil, electrolysis was carried out as reported in A.G. Lipson, er al., Proc. ICCF-6 pp 433, prior to the bombardment in order to charge deuterium. The targets were cooled at about -160 C during the bombardments. For the PdO/Pd/Au bombardment, deuterons stop in the PdO layer of about 50 nm in thickness. Protons emitted m the D(d,p)T reaction were measured with a E-E counter telescope consisting of Si surface barrier detectors. The yield at Ed = 10 keV were measured frequently during the run, and the yield of each energy was normalized to the yield at 10 keV.
In Fig. 1, we show thick target yields of the D(d,p)T reaction in PdO (O), Pd ( ) and Ti( ) against bombarding energy. The yields for PdO are surprisingly larger than those for Pd and Ti. The dotted curve shows a thick target yield calculated with the bare reaction cross section, which corresponds to the reaction without enhancement. For PdO, the calculation completely fails to reproduce the data; about 50 times smaller than the datum at 2.5 keV! To interpret the enhanced reaction, a screening potential (Ue) which reduces the Coulomb harrier between two deuterons is naively introduced. A dashed curve which reproduces the PdO data very well is a calculation with Ue = 600 eV. This is very significant, since a simple extrapolation of the reaction rate allows us the cold fusion. Thus, it is highly desirable to investigate the origin of the anomalously enhanced reaction rate observed in this work.

Y.E. Kim (Dept. Phys., Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN), "Bose-Einstein Condensation Mechanism for Anomalous Ultra-Low Energy Nuclear Reaction in a Condensed Matter," p 80, 12 refs.

There have been persistent claims of observing 4He production with no accompanying - radiation from heavy water experiments. Since the radiation-less fusion reaction, D + D 4He is forbidden in free space, many theoretical explanations have been proposed based on condensed matter mechanisms. In this paper, we propose an alternative mechanism based on possibility of Bose-Einstein condensation of deuterons in cavities and cracks in the cathode metal.

The concept of the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) has been known for 73 years, and has been used to describe all physical scales, including liquid 4He, excitons in semiconductors, pions and kaons in dense nuclear matter (neutron stars, supernovae), and elementary particles. It is only a few years ago that the BEC phenomenon was observed directly in dilute vapors of alkali atoms, such as rubidium, lithium, and sodium confined in magnetic traps and cooled down to nanokelvin temperatures.

If (1) deuteron BEC occurs in cavities (m - mm size) and cracks (m - mm gap) in the cathode metal during the electrolysis experiment and (2) D + D 4He fusion occurs with two deuteron in the BEC, the BEC and 4He in the final state can share kinetic energy and momenta due to the Q-value of the fusion reaction, thus avoiding the need for accompanying -ray radiation. Two essential conditions for achieving the BEC of an interacting Bose system are (i) that the density of the Bose system is low, i.e., two-boson separation distance is larger than the interaction range, and (ii) that the temperature of the Bose system is low (~ nanokelvin). The condition (ii) can be realized if deuterons in a cluster are moving with (nearly) same velocity, i.e. relative velocities of deuterons are (nearly) zero. We will describe possible mechanisms for the formation of the deuteron BEC in cavities and cracks and also for reducing the Coulomb barrier of deuterons in the BEC.

Y.E. Kim, A.L. Zubarev (Dept. Phys., Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN), "Role of Continuum Electrons in Ultra-Low Energy Nuclear Reactions," p 81, 4 refs.

M.J. Klopfenstein, J. Dash (Phys. Dept.,Portland State Univ., OR), "Thermal Imaging During Electrolysis of Heavy Water with a Ti Cathode," p 82

Two closed cells in series, one with a titanium cathode and one control, and both with D2O - H2SO4 electrolyte, were electrolyzed. A thermal imaging device (Agema 900 series) was used to determine the temperature distribution from top to bottom of each cell. A video tape shows the thermal images as a function of time, as well as the temperatures at the top and bottom of each cell.

The average temperature of the experimental and control cells was nearly the same for the first 50 minutes of the experiment. After this, the temperature in the upper part of the control cell, where the recombination catalyst was (located, increased rapidly compared with the experimental cell.

The titanium cathode was characterized by SEM and EDS before and after electrolysis. Changes in surface topography and micro composition were determined. Changes in isotopic abundance were determined by high resolution (Fision, 0.1 amu) ICPMS. The ratio of Ti isotope of mass 50 to each of the other stable isotopes was 5 to 10% less after electrolysis compared with the same titanium sample before electrolysis.

Hisatoki Komaki (Inst. Biological Agriculture, Otsu, Japan), Teruo Hanawa, Yoshio Tani (Intl. Earth Environment Univ., Otsu, Japan), "The Observations on the Non-Radioactive Biological Cold Fusion, Using Saccharomyces Cerevisiae," p 83.

In 1960s, Prof. C. Louis Kervran suggested the probable occurrence of the biological transmutation of elements in various organisms. In order to confirm the phenomena (non-radioactive biological cold fusion, we should say), under more controlled condition, one of us [Hisatoki Komaki] determined the amount of potassium, magnesium, iron and calcium in the cells of Aspergillus niger, Penicillium chrysogenum, Rhizopus nigricans, Mucor rouxii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Torulopsis ulitis, Saccharomyces ellipsoideus and Hansenula anomala, cultured in normal medium and media deficient in one of potassium, magnesium, iron or calcium, and suggested the biological formation of these elements. In order to confirm the phenomena, under more controlled condition, using ultra-violet fluorescence analyzer and PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission) analyzer, we determined the amount of the all elements in the cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cultured in normal medium and media deficient in one of iron, manganese and magnesium. The experimental results led us to conclude the biological formation of iron and magnesium: The non-radioactive biological cold fusion.

H. Kozima (Dept. Phys., Fac. Sci., Shizuoka Univ., Japan), "The TNCF Model for the Cold Fusion Phenomenon," p 84.

Yan Kucherov (ENECO, Salt Lake City, UT), "Nuclear Acoustic Resonance Amplification," p 85, 2 refs.

Nuclear acoustic resonance (NAR) is the interaction of nuclear hyperfine levels with AC electric field induced by solid state lattice oscillations (phonons). When a strong magnetic field is applied to such a system, it can reach a resonance, when magnetic field energy is lost or gained. A change in magnetic field can be detected, allowing to measure the coupling line width etc. It is known that the presence of a stable charge vacancies in TaH lattice results in the anomalous NAR effects. To get this anomaly, the lattice must have two components - light and heavy sublattices. The nucleus does not have a dipole electric moment in its ground state, but some of the nuclei have quadrupole moment, which can interact with phonons. Normally the light sublattice has higher phonon frequencies and heavier nuclei can have larger quadrupole moment, which are the preferences for NAR. The lattice also must have stable charge vacancies.

NAR effect is one of the few realistic ways to excite a nucleus with a low energy interaction. To do that the effect must amplified. There are a lot of obstacles on this path. The most prohibitive are magnetic decoupling and a modified form of the Anderson's Localization theorem. The first problem can be dealt with by orienting nuclear spin in a DC magnetic field. The second one requires extremely strong phonon mode to allow lattice / nucleus energy transfer. The ways to create a strong phonon mode using phonon focusing effects are discussed in the present paper.

If all the conditions are met, semiclassical calculations give energy transfer rates of up to 105 eV per nucleus, exceeding possible decoupling mechanisms rates, except for the nuclear events. The quantum mechanics model of this effect is too complex, and so far was not successful.

X.Z. Li, S.X. Zheng, H.F. Huang, G.S. Huang, W.Z. Yue (Dept. Phys., Tsinghua Univ., Beijing China), "New Measurement of Excess Heat in a Gas-Loading D/PD System," p 86.

As reported in ICCF-6, the excess heat has been observed in a gas-loading D/Pd system in terms of the comparison between a pair of twin systems. The temperature of the D/Pd system is always higher than or equal to that of a H/Pd system while there is essentially no power input into these twin systems. It can be explained as an evidence of excess heat in the D/Pd system if the heat transfer coefficients are essentially same for these twin systems. Some questions were raised about the measurement of heat transfer coefficients. Because the heat conductivity is known to be smaller in deuterium gas, one may expect a smaller heat transfer coefficient in a dewar filled with deuterium gas. One way to solve this problem is to conduct the excess heat measurement in a single dewar filled with deuterium gas only instead of twin systems. That is what we have done after ICCF-6 in the same apparatus. There is no electrodes or electrolyte for electrolysis. The gas-loading process is completed with no high pressure and cryogenics because a tungsten filament is heated to dissociate the hydrogen molecules. The unique feature is to maintain a high loading ratio after the filament is turned off in a dewar system, which contains a long palladium wire (0.234 cm3), and has a low heat transfer coefficient (0.1 W/Deg. C).

The temperature of the D/Pd gas-loading system(TD) is carefully monitored every 60 seconds for more than one month while the bath temperature(TB) is monitored in parallel as well. If there is no excess heat, when the bath temperature is higher than that of the D/Pd system, the temperature of the D/Pd system increases; when the bath temperature is lower than that of D/Pd system, the temperature of the D/Pd system decreases, because the D/Pd system is immersed in this bath tank. Consequently, the temperature of the D/Pd system must equal to the temperature of the bath temperature at the points where the temperature of the D/Pd system takes its maximum or minimum value. This behavior was observed indeed in our experiment. However, we have observed also that the temperature of the D/Pd system increases while its temperature is higher than that of the bath. This is a very strong evidence showing the excess heat in the D/Pd system, because it is based on the Second Thermodynamic Law.

The highest temperature difference of ( TD -TB ) was 3.8 Deg. C, and lasted more than 14 hours. It corresponds to an excess power of more than 1 W/cm3 in palladium wire. We are currently searching for the condition (loading ratio ,temperature, and cooling rate, etc.) in order to keep this excess heat behavior for a longer period. If we are able to succeed in keeping this amount of excess heat for more than one month, or we are able to increase this excess power, there will be an opportunity to show that this excess heat is from non-chemical sources.

The gas-loading system has the features of safety (no explosive gas-mixture), economy (no deuterium gas released), high Carnot efficiency (no constraint from the boiling temperature of electrolyte) as a future energy source; it also has the advantage of essentially no power input (good for excess heat measurement), and less contamination (good for nuclear transmutation test). This is why our gas-loading experiment has continued for more than 7 years. The detail of gas-loading method will be discussed in conducting this series of experiments.

X.Z. Li H.F. Haung, S.X. Zheng, G.S. Huang (Dept. Phys., Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China), "Selective Resonant Tunneling Model for Low-Energy Induced Nuclear Reaction in Solids, (1)-- Analysis of the Failure of the "Excess Heat" Experiments in Terms of "FineTuning" Parameter," p 87.

Selective resonant tunneling model has been proved to be useful in explaining the low-energy induced nuclear reaction in solids, and in guiding the experimental search for excess heat. The only assumption in this model is the existence of an energy level in the deuteron-deuteron nuclear well with a very narrow width, and this assumption is supported by the experiments of "Heat after Death" and "Heat after Life". After the ICCF-6, three major steps have been made in developing this theoretical model. These are: (1)analyzing the failure of NHE in reproducing "excess heat"; (2) including the low-energy induced nuclear transmutation in this model; (3) comparing with the spin resonant tunneling phenomenon which has been well identified as the resonance between very narrow energy levels.

The resonant tunneling model was first proposed in ICCF-5 to explain the major feature of the cold fusion phenomenon: i.e., excess heat without commensurate neutron and Gamma radiation. However, there was a question of "fine tuning". How can we tune on such a narrow resonant energy level? In ICCF-6 a "fine tuning" mechanism was proposed to answer this question. Indeed, the D/Pd system may keep itself in a resonant state if the cooling rate is not too strong, and if the density of states in solid is decreasing with the energy.

During ICCF-7, it was claimed that the NHE-FCS could not reproduce the excess heat observed in the Fuel Cell Type Electrolysis System. However, having looked at their calorimetry in details, we have found the salient difference between the NHE-FCS and the Fuel Cell Type Electrolysis System. In the view of the "fine tuning" mechanism there is a key parameter to describe the capability of keeping itself in resonant tunneling state. That is the ratio of the volume(V) of palladium cathode to the heat transfer coefficient(k) ,i.e. V/k. Since same electrodes were used in NHE-FCS and in the Fuel Cell Type Electrolysis System, the volume of the palladium is supposed to be same for both system(V 0.188cm3). The difference in heat transfer coefficient is evident. The k 0.75W/ C in the NHE-FCS, and k = 0.1 W/ C in the Fuel Cell Type Electrolysis System. Based on the experimental data in the past 7 years, if this "fine tuning" parameter, V/k, is greater than 0.6 cm3 C/W there would be a positive excess heat effect. Consequently, the D/Pd system in NHE-FSC might lose its capability in keeping itself in resonant tunneling state. The "fine tuning" parameter for NHE-FSC is V/k 0.25 cm3 C/W, and V/k = 1.88 cm3 C/W for the Fuel Cell Type Electrolysis System. It is understandable that there is no excess heat observed in NHE-FCS and the excess heat was observed in the Fuel Cell Type Electrolysis System . The same analysis was applied to Kunimatsu's experiment in IMRA. The "finetuning" parameter, V/k~0. 18 cm3 Deg. C/W for their mass-flow calorimeter, and V/k 1.16 cm3 C/W for the isoperibolic calorimeter, respectively. Indeed the NHE and IMRA reproduced the Australian experiment (Green & Quickenden in 1994-1995), where the "fine tuning" parameter was as small as 0.0354, and the excess heat effect was proved to be within the experimental error, although they were using isoperibolic calorimeter. It suggests that greater palladium volume and less flow rate of cooling water might reproduce the excess heat even if in the NHE-FSC.

Andrei G. Lipson, Shigeru Miyashita, Ryoichi Shimada, Naoto Asami (Inst. Applied Energy, New Hydrogen Energy Lab., Sapporo, Japan), Tadahiko Mizuno, Tadashi Akimoto (Hokkaido Univ., Dept. Nucl. Engr., Sapporo, Japan), Boris F. Lyakhov (Inst. Physical Chem., The Russian Acad. Sci., Moscow, Russia), "Nuclear Emissions in Au/Pd/PdO:D(x) System Induced by Exothermic Deuterium Desorption," p 88.

It was shown earlier in experiments being carried out in Russia (Inst. Physical Chem. of RAS, Lebedev Phys. Inst. of RAS ) that exothermic deuterium desorption from Au/Pd/PdO:D (D:PdO/Pd/PdO:D ) - heterostructure is accompanied by emissions of neutrons, gammas & charged particles ( protons and alphas ). The emissions were observed in air conditions in the process of D - desorption stimulation after electrochemical loading of a thin hetrostructure sample (0.002 - 006 cm thickness ) in 1M - NaOD solution in a heavy water. The samples used were produced in IPC RAS from vacuum annealed Pd foils, oxidized in an oxygen flame ( PdO thickness within 20 - 50 nm ) and had on one side electrodeposited layer of Au.

To test nuclear results in such a kind of system the experimental set up has been designed based on high vacuum NHE - facility. Nuclear measurements have been conducted using simultaneously 2 SSB detectors, 2 Cd Te - X - ray detectors, gamma HPGe & NaI detectors. The neutron measurements were carried out in air atmosphere with the help of detector consisting of 2 independent big NE - 213 counters with total efficiency of about 8%. The initiation of D - desorption from the sample has been provided by both heating and self- deformation (strain) in the vacuum chamber as well as in air atmosphere.

The neutron charged particles and X - ray spectra from the Au/Pd/PdO samples loaded with deuterium have been obtained and studied. The charged particles spectra consist of two peaks: the first with position ~ 1.5 MeV and second, broad within 4 - 6 MeV. The peak between 1 - 2 MeV is attributed to protons from dd - reaction with taking into account an energy losses during their escape from heterostructure. The broad peak in a high energy interval (4 - 6 MeV) possibly is a signature of a multibody dd - reaction. The process of charged particles emission in vacuum in some cases was accompanied by X - ray emission, possibly Au - K alpha line.

In the neutron spectra the peaks located near the 2.5 ( for both independent detectors) and between 4 - 5 MeV interval are obtained.

Andrey G. Lipson. Elliot B. Kennel, Shigeru Miyashita, Ryoichi Shimada, Naoto Asami (Inst. Applied Energy, New Hydrogen Energy Lab., Sapporo, Japan), Ivan I. Bardyshev, Vladislav A. Kuznetsov (Inst. Physical Chem., The Russian Acad. Sci., Moscow, Russia), "Change in Thermal Neutron Cross-Section for Pd and Cu Cathodes During the Electrolysis under Irradiation by a Weak Thermal Neutron Flux," p 89.

The spectrum of gamma - emission generated during electrolysis of Copper - cathode in the light water electrolyte has been studied. 2 sorts of Cu have been used: 1) nominally pure Cu - foil ( cold-rolled ) with purity 99.9 % and 0.2 mm thickness; 2) hard commercial copper (cold - worked) doped with 0.14% Si, 0.3 mm thickness. The 1 - M solution of KOH in light water was used as an electrolyte. Anode was Pt - plate. The gamma - spectra detection has been carried out with pure Ge - detector, having energy resolution of about 2.0 keV. To create neutron flux the Cf- 252 neutron source with intensity of about 2 x 103 n/s in 4 pi solid angle has been used. For thermalization of neutrons inside electrolytic cell all set up with detector was surrounded by of about one metric ton of moderator ( polyethylene and water).

The experiments showed that during electrolysis of Cu (1) under thermal neutron irradiation there were no excess gamma - emission in all spectral intervals within the energy 0.1 - 5.0 MeV. For Cu samples (2) and (3) some increase of gamma counting rate in the foreground runs was detected within the energy interval 1031 - 1047 keV that corresponds to Cu - 66 1039 keV gamma peak's position. Simultaneously, the decrease of 2.225 MeV peak due to thermal neutron capture by hydrogen has been observed.

The results of background subtracting from foreground counts are presented within the energy interval that corresponds to 1039.4 keV peak location. For foreground runs with duration (electrolysis time) less then 5000 s the positive significant effect ( N) = (1.30 0.35) 10-3 c / s has been obtained with appearance of peak having position close to 1039 keV. In the same time for long foreground runs ( t > 12000 s ) the negative result was established. These data confirm that the peak near the 1039.4 keV position is really a signature of Cu - 66 generation (because the half - life for Cu -66 is about 5.1 min).

The effect of Cu - 66 generation (with the total mean rate v = 1.70 at. Cu -66/s) is connected with increase in thermal neutron' s capture cross section of copper (decrease in 2225 keV line intensity in foreground runs) during electrolysis under the thermal neutron irradiation.

The similar experiments with 100 micron thickness Pd foils in 1M - NaOD electrolyte have been carried out and showed significant increase in thermal neutron cross section for these foils during electrolysis. The result obtained will be discussed.

G. Lonchampt, J.-P. Biberian, L. Joncourt, L. Bonnetain (Commissariat a L'Energie Atomique, France), "Excess Heat in Palladium Cathodes at Boiling," p 90.

G. Lonchampt, J.-P. Biberian, L. Joncourt, L. Bonnetain (Commissariat a L'Energie Atomique, France), "Excess Heat and Nuclear Ashes in Nickel Palladium Beads," p 91.

In collaboration with CETI, we have started a research program on excess heat and transmutation on beads. Experiments have been performed in two types of electrolytic cells: the Rifex cell as such has been used for excess heat and transmutation work, and a new cell has been measured in the two types of cells without possibility of errors, and we give our nuclear transmutation results by ICP and SIMS.

Runbao Lu (Inst. Applied Phys.& Comp. Math., Beijing, China), "Some Problems in Solar Physics and Astrophysics," p 92.

The problem on solar flare mechanism is still open. On the basis of model of "electron-ion bound state and its introducing of nuclear fusion" it is given that there are two kinds of x-ray emission processes in solar flares: soft x-ray emission with energy ~12.5 kev x-ray (p-e-p) and hard x-ray emission with energy ~25 kev (d+ -e- d+) and -ray. Meanwhile there are (d,d) fusion in hard x-ray burst events.

On the basis of measurements of x-ray spectrum the author points that x-ray emission from CYG x- 1 (black hole candidate), 4U0115 + 63 (neutron star), and SN 1987A (supernova) may be like it from the solar flare. In the high state of black hole it may correspond to soft x-ray flare, and in the low state it may correspond to hard x-ray flare. In the 4U0115 + 63 events, it may not be absorption lines at 12 kev and 23 kev, but the emission lines at ~12.5 kev and ~25kev. In the SNI987A, x-ray source comes from p-e-p ~12.5 kev and d+ -e- d+ ~25 kev and -ray. The author suspects where so many atoms of 56Ni and 56Co come from. I think the x-ray spectrum of SNI987A is similar to the x-ray spectrum in solar flare.

Runbao Lu (Inst. Applied Phys.& Comp. Math. Beijing, China), "Where Does the Excess Heat Come From in the "Cold Fusion" Experiment?" p 93.

Eugene F. Mallove (Cold Fusion Technology, Inc., Concord, NH), "Hydro-Nuclear Reactions and Electro-Alchemy: Evidence and Prospects," p 94.

The evidence for a variety of low-energy nuclear reactions and nuclear-scale energy production has been confirmed in a variety of systems. Some of these systems have already reached commercial prototype stage for both energy production and the transmutation of nuclides (radioactive and non-radioactive).

In this paper, we review the classes of experimental evidence and relate these to possible empirical models and theoretical insights that may clarify the large variety of phenomena in the "hydro-nuclear" or "electro-alchemy" field--possibly a more encompassing name than the original term, "cold fusion." Armed with these insights, it is possible to project the directions along which rapid commercialization of these new technologies will occur. These go far beyond the ability to produce the often requested warm "cup of tea."

U. Mastromatteo, SGS-Thomson (R & D Lab., Cornaredo, Italy), "Nickel Submicron-Thick Layers Heated over Curie Temperature Show High Temperature Spots if Exposed to Hydrogen Atmosphere," p 95.

A prototype microcell has been designed using a silicon chip of about 10 mm2 size. On one side of the chip it has been realized a structure including a low electrical resistance polysilicon heater (anode), a high Hydrogen content dielectric layer and a 0.2 microns thick Nickel resistor (cathode). The total thermal resistance of the cell (under vacuum and package for electrical connections included) was so high that 70 mW were enough to overcome the Curie temperature.

Several experiments using that cell prototype with a very thin Nickel layer have pointed out that it is possible in a certain conditions of temperature and electrical biasing, the activation into the metallic lattice of Hydrogen absorption able to modify the electrical resistivity of the layer. In all the experiments where Hydrogen was present it has also detected large fusion spots in the Nickel layer due to high and fast temperature rising. This high temperature is not explained by chemical exothermic reactions or by external power input instability.

If those should be led, as calculation about specific power needed to have such fusion spots say. to cold fusion phenomena, then a different configuration of the cell, more suitable for heat extraction and robustness of Nickel layer should be easy to prepare for excess power measurements and quantification.

We are actually working on the design of a new cell configuration with a completely integrate calorimeter (microbolometer) able to detect any small temperature increase (even locally) trough thermal emissions measurements. This control system may be in the same cell environment and electrically connected to the input power control system to guarantee maximum system stability.

The actual cell dimensions are in the range of a small integrate silicon chip, because the purpose of the experiments is to realize a power generation device suitable for portable electric apparatus, but it is in principle completely scalable for high power generation.

K. Matsui, N. Asami, M. Sumi, H. Kamimura, A. Kubota, R. Shimada, S. Miyashita (R&D Center for New Hydrogen Energy, Inst. Applied Energy), A. Lipson, P. Tripodi, M. Miles, H. Watanabe (New Energy and Industrial Technol. Div. Organization), "Excess Heat Measurements and Nuclear Detection Experiments in the NHE Program," p 96.

A research and development project, referred to as the "New Hydrogen Energy" project, was started in Japan in November 1993 with the main goal of reproducing and verifying the existence of excess heat generation, and of nuclear products during electrolysis in Pd-LiOD systems.

Four credible prior acts of excess heat measurement systems have been introduced, namely the ICARUS system developed by Fleischmann-Pons, I/J-fuel cell type system developed by Kunimatsu et. al, the SRI type mass flow calorimetry system (SRI-FCS) developed by McKubre et. al, and the INFN type electromigration mass flow calorimetry system (INFN/EM-FCS) developed by Celani et aI. Numerous and detailed experiments have been conducted using these reported systems together with many Pd material modifications. Simultaneously, a NHE type mass flow calorimetry system (NHEFCS) having long period stability and reliability has been developed to confirm and verify absolute excess heat effects.

Excess heat levels of 8 ~ 18% of the input power have been observed with the I/J-fuel cell type system with relatively high reproducibility as reported in ICCF-6. To verify this excess heat measurement at the same electrolysis conditions, the NHE-FCS has been applied. However, these experiment confirmed the fact that the measured excess heat by the I/J-fuel cell type system was not absolute excess heat. The temperature of the measured point in the I/J cell was certainly increased, but no net heat output was observed by the mass flow calorimetry. The sensitivity and accuracy of the NHE-FCS and systematic error factors of the I/J-cell have been examined.

Detection of nuclear products such as -ray, X-ray, neutron, charged particles, and QMS analysis for T, He-4, and He-3 have also been performed to identify whether nuclear reactions were happening or not. Two parameter X-ray measurement system has been employed in-situ to detect any X-ray generated during electrolysis. Detailed QMS measurements of the out-gas from heated specimens of deuterated Pd have been conducted to detect any nuclear products. However, no anomalous amounts of T were detected.

These experimental results will be summarized and discussed.

T. Matsumoto (Dept. Nucl. Engineering, Hokkaido Univ., Japan), "Mechanisms of Electro-Nuclear Collapse," p 97, 3 refs, 1 fig.

Many astrophysicists now believe that nuclear collapses occur far in the universe by the gravitational force. Since the force is the weakest one, a huge mass should be required for the collapse. However, the electromagnetic force is 40 orders stronger than the gravitational force so that the nuclear collapse can be easily induced in a laboratory by using various methods of discharges. The collapse could be called "Electro-Nuclear Collapse(ENC)." Here the mechanisms of ENC will be discussed based on the Nattoh Model,

1. Experiments inducing ENC
2. Processes for ENC
3. Tiny white hole
4. Regeneration of conventional elements
5. Ball lightning
6. ENC during earthquake
7. Super elementary particles
8. Miscellaneous.

It should be particularly emphasized that during ENC, conventional elements such as C and O can be regenerated. This fact has enabled us to discuss super elementary particles which could hardly sustain those structures during passing through a worm hole with a diameter of 10-33 cm.

T. Matsumoto (Dept. Nucl. Engr., Hokkaido Univ., Japan), "Carbon Tubes and Films Produced in a Pb Electrode," p 98, 3 refs, 2 figs.

Experiments of underwater spark discharges were performed with thin metal wires of Pb. Discharges were made under two modes of DC and pulsed AC. Ordinary water mixed with potassium carbonate and hydroxide were used as electrolyte solutions. Products were observed with SEM, and those elements were analyzed with EDX and EPMA.

Many remarkable products were obtained: interconnected electrons, transmuted products, thin C tubes, thin C films and hollow Pb balls. Here two processes of nuclear transmutation were separately observed: sequential e/p captures and nuclear collapse.

The C tubes and films were produced by the nuclear collapse in the Pb balls. It would be amazing that the conventional light elements such as C, O and Fe were regenerated by the nuclear collapse.

The mechanisms of the regeneration of elements by the electro-nuclear collapse will be discussed by the Nattoh Model elsewhere at ICCF-7(3).

T. Matsumoto (Dept. Nucl. Engr., Hokkaido Univ., Japan), "Feasible Schemes of Electro-Nuclear Transmutation in Compressed Hydrogen Clusters," p 99, 1 ref.

Nuclear transmutation easily takes place in a compressed hydrogen cluster that is formed during cold fusion experiments such as electrolysis or electrical discharges in water. Since the hydrogen cluster is at time in a special state, the "itonic" state, the schemes of the nuclear transmutation are significantly different from the conventional schemes with an isolated single nucleus. Here the feasible schemes will be described for the nuclear transmutation in the itonic state, that include the captures of electrons and/or protons, the emission of alphas and so on.

As examples, the feasible schemes are explained for the electrodes of nickel, titanium and iron, and the electrolytes of sodium and potassium. Furthermore, a multibody fission reaction will be discussed for uranium.

M. McKubre, S. Crouch-Baker, F. Tanzella (SRI Intl., Menlo Park, CA), "Materials Issues of Loading Deuterium into Palladium, and the Association with Excess Heat Production,"p 100.

The hypothesis central to the SRI experimental calorimetry program is that maintenance of high D/Pd loadings at high cathodic current densities or currents, is an important factor in the generation of heat apparently in excess of known input heat sources. The results of more than 50,000 hours of electrochemical calorimetry experiments have been re-evaluated to determine:

i) the effect of current and electrochemical current density on the absorption of H and D into Pd, as inferred form the measured resistance ratio.

ii) the correlation between deuterium uptake and the appearance of anomalous excess power.

On first inspection, the results obtained appear to be highly irreproducible, signaling the presence of uncontrolled variables, at the electrochemical interface and, potentially, in the phases on either side: the electrolyte and the bulk metal phase. When appropriately normalized to exclude resistance changes not affected by deuterium uptake, it is clear that two extreme modes of resistance response to current (density) can be observed to occur under nominally identical conditions: Mode A, an approximately linear decrease of resistance with logarithmic increase of current; Mode C, a shallow decrease in resistance and symmetric increase with increasing (log) current. An intermediate category, Mode B, combines features of both Modes A and C.

We will discuss the reasons for, and significance of these behaviors, and the phenomenological association of the observed Modes of resistance/current response, and with excess heat production.

Melvin H. Miles (Chem.& Matls. Branch, Res.& Technol. Div., Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Div., China Lake, CA), Benjamin F. Bush ( Dept. Chem., Univ. TX, Austin), "Radiation Measurements at China Lake: Real or Artifacts?", p 101, 2 refs.

Anomalous radiation at China Lake was first detected by the exposure of dental X-ray films in two experiments producing excess power. There was no exposure of the film used in a control study during these experiments. There was also no exposure of similar films in more than 20 experiments where no excess power was present.

Anomalously high radiation counts were observed using several different Geiger-Mueller (GM) detectors as well as a sodium iodide (NaI) detector when electrolysis experiments using heavy water were in progress. These high radiation counts were often observed in co-deposition experiments where palladium metal is deposited from a D2O solution onto a copper cathode in the presence of evolving deuterium gas. The anomalous radiation counts reached valves as high as 73 sigma above normal background counts. Most experiments, however, gave normal radiation counts. No anomalous count rates were ever observed when experiments were turned off. There was always a decrease in the anomalous radiation when the detectors were moved away from the electrolysis cells. There was no observable change in the anomalous radiation when the scalar rate meters used in these experiments were switched to battery power and disconnected from the electrical lines. Finally, the appearance of the anomalous radiation always correlated with the expected time periods required to load the palladium with deuterium. For example, the anomalous radiation would appear within a few hours in the co-deposition experiments where the palladium is loaded with deuterium as it deposits from solution. In contrast, the appearance of anomalous radiation required days of electrolysis for the palladium rods that load much slower.

The question whether these anomalous radiation measurements are real or experimental artifacts stems from the fact that two similar detectors often gave different results in monitoring the excess radiation. One GM-detector would measure anomalous radiation while another GM-detector would be "blind" to any anomalous effect. A few experiments, nevertheless, gave simultaneous anomalous effects from two different radiation detectors.

G. Miley, G. Narne, M. Petra (Univ. IL, Fusion Studies Lab., Urbana), J. Patterson (CETI, Sarasota, FL), "Energetics of Nuclear Transmutations During Thin-Film Electrolysis," p 102, 5 refs.

Prior electrolytic cell experiments using thin-film (~500-2000) metallic coatings identified a number of possible nuclear transmutation products following a several week run. Products with high concentrations were generally localized in four mass ranges covering A ~ 20-35; 50-80; 105-130; and 190-210. The excess heat measured during these runs was typically low for single coatings ( 0.5 W) and higher for multiple coatings. To explore the reaction energetics, results from runs using Ni, Pd and Ti coatings are examined in the context of RIFEX theory. The reactants are assumed to involve (p + metal film) reactions, forming short-lived intermediate nuclear "complex" states. These intermediate states then decay by a "slow" fission process creating the observed array of products. An overall energy balance is obtained by calculating by calculating the total binding energy associated with the measured product yields, less the total binding energy associated with the reactants, assuming conservation of nucleons. Assuming reacting p/metal atomic ratios of 0.5 to 1.0, the calculated output powers for the three coatings cited are in reasonable agreement with the experiment, especially considering the various error limits in the experimental measurements. This result corresponds to an excess energy of about 104 - 105 eV metal atom reacted -- also in reasonable agreement with a 2 x 104 eV/Pd reported by Arata, but are higher than the 300 eV/Pd reported for typical Pons-Fleischmann-type experiments.

While the agreement of the overall RIFEX reaction energetics with our prior thin-film experiments using a variety of coatings is encouraging, an unambiguous confirmation of the mechanism involved requires additional benchmarks. Other relational aspects between theory and experiment include the characteristic mass ranges for high yield elements and the predominance of stable isotopes. These phenomena plus other characteristic reaction "signatures" will be discussed in terms of RIFEX theoretical predictions.

G. Narne, G.H. Miley (Univ. IL, Fusion Studies Lab.,Urbana), J. Patterson (CETI, Sarasota, FL), "Quantification of Isotopes using Combined Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry and Neutron Activation Analysis," p 103, 5 refs.

Thin-film metal coated microspheres have been processed in the Patterson Power CellTM and analyzed for possible nuclear transmutation products. Various metal coatings (Ni, Pd, Ti, etc.) employed were within 500-2000 thick, and required high precision analytical techniques to characterize the yields and isotopes in the base coating prior to and after a run.

A combination of Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) and Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) was selected for analysis. The NAA requires irradiation and counting of a calibration standard in parallel with the test sample for every isotope. Thus it is time consuming and was limited to measurement of select elements where standard procedures had previously been developed to give high degree of trace concentration. SIMS with ultra low detection limits could detect all the known isotopes in a sample relatively rapidly, but giving relative concentrations and isotope ratios more precisely than absolute values. NAA, with comparably low detection limits (~0.1 ppt at best) offers immunity from matrix effects and provides a measurement of bulk quantities vs the local characteristic of SIMS. To calibrate the SIMS sensitivity, results were correlated (employing an empirical relative sensitivity factor (RSF) approach) with the measured NAA yields.

The SIMS typically probes an area of 125 m x 125 m, but the bead surface-area is three orders of magnitude larger necessitating a statistical approach. In addition an image quantification approach is being applied to average over variations in isotope concentration. A separate problem involves isotope fractionation which can distort the isotope shifts (SIMS vs. Natural) up to 4% for the light elements and to 1% for the heavier elements. However, for example in Ti film run, about 51 isotopes have statistically significant deviations from natural and are not within the uncertainty due to isotope fractionation effects. Also the measured increase in concentration of isotopes/elements after the run cannot be explained in terms of known impurity sources or chemical effects, even considering statistical uncertainties.

Mizuno Tadahiko (Fac. Engr., Hokkaido Univ.), Ohmori Tadayoshi (Catalysis Res. Cntr., Hokkaido Univ.), "Measurements of Transmutation Elements on Several Metals by Strong Cathodic Electrolysis in Heavy Water Solution," p 104.

Many elements on Pd, R, Zr and Au electrodes were confirmed by several analytic methods after long time electrolysis in heavy water solution. For example, the reaction products on a Pd cathode with the mass number up to 208 are deposited which were subjected to electrolysis in a heavy water solution at high pressure, temperature, and current density for prolonged time. Extraordinary observations were the changes of their isotopic distributions in the produced elements; these were radically different from the natural ones on the Pd electrode. It means that a nuclear reaction had taken place during the electrochemical treatment. It is suggesting that a role of new interactions working between a proton and an electron, should explain the new phenomenologies that are experimentally observed in this study.

These masses were composed of many elements ranged from hydrogen to lead. The Elements were changed by metal and electrolysis conditions. For example, natural chromium is 4.3% Cr50, 84% Cr52, 9.5% Cr53 and 2.4% Cr54. But the Chromium found on the Pd surface was 14% Cr50, 51% Cr52, 2.4% Cr53 and 11% Cr54. Natural Isotopic distribution varies by less. than 0.003% for Cr. Essentially the same phenomenon was confirmed more than ten times with high reproducibility at high cathodic current density, above 0.2 A/cm2. All the possibilities of contamination had been carefully eliminated by several pretreatment for the sample and electrolysis system. It may be concluded that a reaction can be taken during the electrochemical reaction.

D.W. Mo, Q.S. Cai, L.M. Wang, X.Z. Li (Dept. Phys., Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China), "The Confirmation of Nuclear Transmutation Phenomenon in a Gas-Loading H/PD System using NAA(Neutron Activation Analysis)," p 105, 2 refs.

Phenomenon of nuclear transmutation in a gas-loading Pd/H(Pd/D) system has been studied for a long time by us. In past several years, we concentrated our attention to search charged particles, precursors and got some positive results. But it is difficult to repeat them every time. Recently, We concentrated our attention upon nuclear transmutation of metal Pd in Pd/H system. Through a long term treatment, nuclear transmutation happened in Pd of Pd/H system. For confirmation of it, a lot of experiments have been done. This paper reports about using NAA methods to confirm the nuclear transmutation phenomena.

Six Pd samples were tested. No. 1,3,4,5 came from Pd/H system, No.2 is original Pd. No.6 is pure zinc. The weight of each sample is about 10 mg. Each sample was cleaned, sealed in a small quartz ampule, respectively; then, put into reflector of Tsinghua University pool-reactor where the thermo-neutron fluence is 1012n/sec cm2. They were irradiated for one and half hours; then, were taken out from reflector ,and cooled for 72 hours. Their activity were measured with pulse-height(energy) spectroscopy with a HPGe Gamma Ray detector produced by EG&G ORTEC. The results was shown in Table 1.

Table l Activities of 65Zn and 69Zn

[Omitted here.]

These results told us:

(l) Zinc is the dominate product of Pd nuclear transmutation;
(2) The ratio of area different from No.6 sample (pure Zinc) means that every sample shifts its ratio of isotope(64Zn/68Zn), i.e. products of Pd nuclear transmutation have different ratio of isotope in companion with that of the natural Zinc;
(3) The experiment is reliable. Zinc is not a contamination and does not come from natural environment;
(4) There are some other peaks of Gamma Ray, for example 187W, 192Ir etc. These elements were not found in No.2 sample (original Pd).

R.A. Monti (Ist. TESRE-CNK, Italy, Burns Div.., Canada), "Nuclear Transmutation Processes of Lead, Silver, Thorium, Uranium," 106, 4 refs.

The possibility to cause nuclear transmutations of stable isotopes by means of ordinary chemical reactions suggested the possibility to cause nuclear transmutation of unstable isotopes.

A first series of experimental tests was made from 1993 to 1995 with positive results .

In 1996 an industrial reactor was built in Canada and sent to Italy for a new series of independent tests at ENEA (Italian National Laboratories).

In these tests the production of Silver form Lead was used as a driver of the nuclear transmutation of Thorium and Uranium.

After the positive results of this independent tests (1997) a second series will be performed at the ENEA Laboratories, starting October 1997.

Detailed quantitative results of all these experiments and a description of the industrial reactor will be reported at ICCF-7.

R. Notoya, T. Ohnishi, Y. Noya (Catalysis Res. Cntr., Hokkaido Univ., Japan), "Products of Nuclear Processes Caused by Electrolysis on Nickel and Platinum Electrodes in Solutions of Alkali-Metallic Ions," p 107.

A series of the phenomena providing the evidence of transmutation, i.e., tritium generation, nuclear reactions of alkali-metals and nickel, and positron annihilation occurring in electrolytic cells have been reported by many scientists, as well as anomalous large heat evolution. The aim of this work was to observe more detailed information of the nuclear reactions by longer duration of electrolysis and the simultaneous observation of gamma-ray spectra.

The experiments were carried out by use of the similar procedure as in our previous papers. An electrolytic cell used for the experiment was equipped with a porous nickel cathode and a platinum wire anode. Each electrolyte was a light, heavy water or a mixed water solution (20 or 30 ml) of 0.1 to 0.5 M alkali metal carbonate or sulfate. The cell was directly put in a measuring box for gamma-ray spectra equipped with a Ge-detector. The spectrum of the back- ground was observed in the same condition of that of the test except for use of electrolytic current. Each observation of gamma-ray spectrum without electrolysis (background) or with electrolysis (test) was continued for 6 to 100 hours.

The gamma-ray spectra revealed the presence of several new products in particular generated by transmutation from platinum, for example, Os-193 with peak energy (73.0 k eV), Ir-192 (296 k eV), Pt-191 (351.2 k eV), Pt-197 (77.4 k eV), Pt-199 (186 k eV) and Au-199 (49.8 k eV). These species can be easily generated by the following nuclear reactions well known occurring in a nuclear reactor and the successive decay of the products:

Pt-190s (n, ) Pt-l91 EC .Ir-191s, (1)
Ir-191s (n, ) Ir-l92 EC Os-192s, (2)
Os-192s (n, ) Os-193 (3)
Pt-196s (n, ) Pt-197 (4)
Pt-198s (n, ) Pt-199 - Au-199 (5)

where s means stable.

A liquid scintillation spectro-analyzer was available for determination of nuclear species which peak energy of gamma-ray was very small, for example, Ba-l33m (12.3 k eV) observed after electrolysis in Cs+ solution.

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July 30, 1998.