ABSTRACTS FROM ICCF-7, Part One
Continued in Part Two in the June 1998 NEN.
Continued in Part Three in the July 1998 NEN.
By FIC Staff
ABSTRACTS FROM ICCF-7
April 1998 Vancouver, BC, Canada
Program Manual and Abstracts
Proceedings will be available in July from:
ENECO, 391-B, Chipeta Way,
Salt Lake City, UT 84108.
K. Sasaki, M. Muraki, T. Nakagawa (Lab. of Nagaiki, Tokyo, Japan), C. Akbar (Kushi Foundation, Brookline, MA, U.S.A.), "Iron from Carbon and Oxygen Under Electro-Discharge," p 21.
George Andermann (Dept. Chem., Univ. HI, Honolulu), "Nuclear Electron Capture and Entrapment as Precursors for Nuclear Transformation Events with Deuterated Metals," p 22.
G. Andermann, E. Hajime (Univ. HI, Chem. Dept., Honolulu, HI), "Rationalization of Cold Fusion Transmutations Via Thermal Absorption of Complex Neutron Aggregates," p 23.
G. Andermann (Dept. Chem., Univ. HI at Manoa), "Unified Theory for Cold Fusion Phenomena," p 24.
The observed phenomena in cold fusion may be separated into three phases. The first phase is the deuterium phase, since it was believed that D was essential. During this phase the observable included low energy events, such as, excess heat, UV and X-ray radiation, electrons, and high energy events, such as neutrons, Tr, He-3 and 4, charged particles and gamma rays, as well as the irreproducibility of these events. The most puzzling phenomena were the dominance of low energy over high energy events and the near total absence of gamma rays. The second phase showed that H was also capable of leading to cold fusion. The third phase demonstrated transmutation of elements in the lattice coupled with frequent changes in the isotope ratios of the transmuted elements. Theoretical rationalization has met serious difficulties since to-date no single theory could explain satisfactorily all of the observable [experimental results]. The objective here is to suggest a unified theory which may rationalize all observables for all three phases.
For Phase I events the model suggests the capture of electrons to create dineutrons 2n*, which are stipulated to be stable. However, it is also possible to create relatively unstable quasi-stationary dineutrons 2n* as well, if the electroweak interaction is 'incomplete'. ... The production of excess heat is ascribed to cooperative phenomena involved in low energy solid state electron physics. The absence of gamma ray production is rationalized on the basis of solid state controlled nuclear magnons coupled to lattice electron magnons which provide nuclear spin states with a wide array of total spin quantum numbers. Since the electron spin states are coupled to electron orbital states there is a set of electron exciton states which provide the ultimate degradation of gamma rays to a series of lower energy photons and then through the coupling of these excitons to phonons.
The rationalization of Phase II phenomena stipulates the creation of a neutral particle involving chemically bonded hydrogen to the counter element, Ni, for example. In this case, the proton cannot capture an electron, but it can still 'hug' the electron similar to the 2n* case, creating a quasi-neutron n* but even with a more limited lifetime than that of 2n*.
Phase III modeling requires the stipulation that all nuclei in the reaction zone can absorb any kind of neutral particle. However, the tremendous changes in Z indicate that n*-s, 2n*-s and 2n-s may be insufficient. Thus, it is suggested that the conditions of the experiments can allow for the creation of polymers made up out of the above three substances and of polyneutrons. It has been possible to demonstrate, for example, that starting with a lower valued Z element in the reaction zone, any number of schemes involving the above species can lead to an increase in Z, where the aufbau principles of closed nuclear sub-shells tend to hold true. Conversely, for the cleavage of higher Z elements the use of relatively small neutron configurations can yield products which are in agreement with the results of various experiments. Isotope ratio changes appear to follow different rules than aufbau processes.
George Andermann (Dept. Chem., Univ. HI, Honolulu), "Excess Heat in Cold Fusion Via Dineutron Models," p 25.
N. Asami, T. Senjuh, T. Uchara, M. Sumi, H. Kamimura, S. Miyashita and K. Matsui (R&D Center for New Hydrogen Energy, Inst. of Applied Energy), "On the Material Behavior of Highly Deuterated Palladium," p 26.
Yu. Bazhutov ('Erzion' Center, Moscow, Russia), "Influence of Spin and Parity Preservation Laws on Erzion Model Predictions in Cold Fusion Experiments," p 27.
Yu.N. Bazhutov, V.P. Koretsky ("Erzion" Center, Moscow, Russia), "Neutron Generation at Ultrasonic Cavitation of Some Liquids," p 28.
Neutrons were registered during 20 hours on the level of 30-100% background excess and statistical reliability no less then 3æ after 131 hours of ultrasonic cavitation of some salt water solutions and liquid mixtures. Neutron generation changed in 0. 5 - 8 hour region. The event trust was confirmed with the impulse spectrum of the He-3 neutron counter.
M. Bertolotti (Dip. di Energetica, Univ. di Roma "La Sapienza", Roma - Italy), G.L. Liakhou (Technical Univ. Moldova), R. Li Voti, S. Paoloni, C. Sibilia and V. Violante (ENEA/INN/NUMA Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome, Italy), "Non-Destructive Evaluation of the Thermal Properties of Palladium-Hydrogen Compounds by Photothermal Techniques," p 29.
J.-P. Biberian, G. Lonchampt, L. Joncourt, L. Bonnetain (Commissariat a L'Energie Atomique, Grenoble, France), "Excess Heat in Solid State Electrolytes," p 30.
At ICCF-5, we have shown results of experiments exhibiting excess heat during electrolysis of solid electrolytes in a deuterium atmosphere at high temperature. One of the major difficulties in this approach of cold fusion is the manufacturing of the samples. We have been able to make new ceramics with known concentrations of vacancies. We show the results obtained with these new sample.
E. Botta (1), T. Bressani (1,2), C. Fanara (1), F. Iazzi (1,3) [ (1) INFN, Sezione di Torino, Italy), (2) Dip. Fisica Sperimentale, Univ. di Torino, Italy), (3) Dip. di Fisiea, Politeenieo di Torino, Italy], "Correlated Measurements of D2 Loading and 4He Production in Pd Lattice," p 31.
Ben Bush, J.J. Lagowski (Univ. TX, Dept. Chem., Austin), "Methods of Generating Excess Heat with the Pons and Fleischmann Effect: Rigorous and Cost Effective Calorimetry, Nuclear Products Analysis of the Cathode and Helium Analysis." p 32.
The results from a growing number of laboratories suggest that the Pons and Fleischmann effect (the production of "excess heat" during the electrolysis of D2O at palladium electrodes) is real. Moreover, data from these laboratories indicate that excess heat events are accompanied by 4He production. Excess heat generation appears to depend on a number of factors: the quality --nature-- of the cathode, chemical species present in the D2O / LiOD electrolyte, the conditions surrounding the electrolysis process -- current density, potential, time, and the previous history of the cathode. Methods for obtaining useful cathodes will be described.
Calorimetric problems have dominated the excess heat measurements. There is little standardization of methods employed by different laboratories and the performance characteristics of the various methods are obscure. We have settled upon high performance Calvet calorimetry as a cost effective, but highly reliable method for measuring excess heat. A 3 x 3 x 9cm device provides a dynamic range from milliwatts to hundreds of watts (depending on water bath capacity). Conceptually, the high performance Calvet calorimeter is a box with each of the six walls being a thermal flux transducer. Thus, the series sum voltage of the thermal flux transducers represents all the heat flow that occurs during an experiment. Thermal homogeneity (the isoperibolic assumption) is unimportant as long as the water bath temperature is stable. With multiplexed computer data acquisition high performance Calvet calorimetry (AKA Seebeck[TM]; Geoscience, San Diego) is very labor efficient. The Calvet devices can be made in any size or shape, and they combine the fastest time response and largest dynamic range with the most fundamental method of calorimetry known.
We entered the field with concurrent heat versus helium analyses. Subsequent quantitative helium analyses showed that the excess heat appeared to be generated by the D + D 4He + 23.82 MeV (heat) reaction pathway. The helium was found in the electrolysis off-gas indicating a surface reaction. As the electrolysis proceeds a non-conductive film of oxyhydroxides builds up on the cathode surface. This film acts as a temperature sensitive activity step up transformer; in the Pons and Fleischmann type isoperibolic calorimeter excess heat causes the cell temperature to rise which decreases the degree of hydration (hence decreases deuteron mobility) so fewer deuterons carry the current and their activity increases which increases the excess heat...in a cycle that goes to thermal run-away and boil down. In highly active cathodes one should expect. multiple nuclear reaction pathways, hence the nuclear products analysis of the cathode will shed light on the reaction mechanism. Secondary ion mass spec. is a non-ideal method due to ion fractionation of the light isotopes, and sensitivity is dependent on the ionizability of the elements. Neutron activation analysis is sensitive to a few elements, but renders the sample radioactive. Prompt gamma activation analysis using a cryogenic neutron beam is ideal because of reasonable sensitivity, analyzes the entire sample and doesn't render it excessively radioactive.
Robert T. Bush (Phys. Dept, California State Polytech. Univ. Pomona, CA), "Consequences of Lattice Occupational Symmetry for Cold Fusion," p 33.
A one-dimensional statistical mechanical model is considered in which the stoichiometry, S, determines the relative probabilities for the two production scenarios: (i) He4 + phonons and (ii) (t,p) and (He3, n), with (t,p)-production linked to (He3,n)-production by a branching ratio of about 10-9 favoring (t,p). The model shows that He4 production in Pd is linked with d-on-d reactions for which two nearest-neighbor reactant d's each have an additional nearest neighbor. In contrast, lacking one, or both, of these two additional nearest neighbors favors [(t,p), (He3,n)]-production. Thus, a highly symmetrical interstitial lattice with regard to occupation (high S, S > 0.82) favors scenario (i): He4 production and detectable excess heat. On the other hand, "broken symmetry" with regard to occupation of the interstitial lattice with a fraction of empty interstitial sites specified by 0.6 < S < 0.8 leads to scenario (ii).
Among the predictions of the model are: (1) Excess heat production (associated with He4 production) typically first begins to be large enough to be detectable in the range of S = 0.82 to S = 0.85 (McKubre). The greater the value of S above 0.82, the more scenario (i) dominates (ii). (2) Tritium (t) production peaks at about S = 0.7 and plunges rapidly with increasing S. Thus, the Bockris curve, which implies an excess heat production roughly a thousand times greater than can be accounted for by the observed tritium production, corresponds to an approximate S value of 0.8. (3) Item (2) also explains the anti-correlation reported between neutron flux and excess power (Takahashi, Bush and Eagleton). (4) Boundaries, such as grain boundaries and surfaces, automatically "break" the occupational lattice symmetry since a d occupying a lattice site nearest the boundary can have only one nearest neighbor along the one-dimensional model axis. Thus, unannealed samples are superior to annealed samples for tritium production (Claytor). (5) In connection with (4), dendritic growths, sometimes observed to precede tritium production in Pd (Bockris) provide a large surface-to-volume ratio. However, as the diameter of the dendrites increases, this ratio would go down, favoring an increasing ratio of He4 production and excess heat relative to tritium production (Bockris) [See (2)]. (6) Spectacular autoradiographs produced at the surfaces of deuterium-loaded titanium samples have been presented (Srinivasan) [See (4)]. (7) Production of H and He3 at the surface of carbon black with the ratio of the latter to the former considerably exceeding their natural abundance ratio (Arata) [See (4) (5)].
Robert T. Bush (Phys. Dept., California State Polytechnic Univ. Pomona), "Cold Fusion / Cold Fission Reactions to Explain Mizuno's Electrolytic Experiment Employing a PD Cathode and PT Anode," p 34.
A nuclear model with specific nuclear reactions for cold fission and cold fusion is hypothesized to account for the experimental findings of T. Mizuno, T. Ohmori, and M. Enyo (University of Hokkaido) in an experiment employing a Pd/Pt electrolytic cell. While the model shows that cold fusion products make a contribution to their results, it predicts that cold fission predominates. For both cold fusion and cold fission, the reactions are "catalyzed" by electrons. However, for cold fission the electrons are relatively more numerous. Thus, the nucleus finds itself with a reduced number of protons and an augmented number of "neutrons" (at least, cargoes). Fission occurs to produce nuclear products with neutron-to-proton ratios placing them nearer to the well known nuclear stability curve.
According to Mizuno et. al, the major stable products produced are isotopes of Xe and Mg, with smaller amounts of K, Ca, Ar, CI, and Ti. (Ar production, however, cannot be studied due to the fact that their mass spectrometer employs Ar ions.) The model explains the large amount of Xe produced in the experiment as the result of three principal reactions: (1) Cold fission of the platinum that plates over from the Pt anode onto the Pd cathode, (2) cold fusion involving the addition of a deuteron to I134 and I129 to produce Xe136 and Xe131, respectively, and (3) cold fission of the Pd of the cathode. The production of Mg, K, Ca, and Ti results in the model from nuclear reactions associated with the production of Xe from the cold fissioning of Pt and Pd.
A stunning result of the experiment by Mizuno et. al are the abundance shifts among the stable isotopes of Xe, and of Mg, K, Ca, and Ti. For example for Xe: Xe136: Natural Abundance: 8.87%, Mizuno: 25%, Model: 21%; Xe134: 10.44%, 12.5%, 11%; Xe132: 26.89%, 18.5%, 16%; Xe131: 21.18%, 28%, 23%; Xe130: 4.08%, ?, 2.8%; Xe129: 26.44%, 18%, 18%; Xe128: 1.92%, ?, 2.3%; Xe126: 0.09%, ?, 2.6%; and Xe124: 0.096%, ?, 3.4%. A similar picture emerges for the comparison of the abundance shifts for the stable isotopes of Mg, Ti, Ca, and K. The general pattern, then, is one of significant shifts of Mizuno's results from the natural abundances, and reasonably good agreement of the model predictions with Mizuno's results.
Finally, G. Miley has indicated that his analysis of the nuclear reaction products for a Pd/Pt Patterson cell yields results similar to those of Mizuno. Thus, the agreement between the two sets of experimental findings and the predictions of the model provide a composite picture with some credibility. Moreover, it strongly suggests that the model is on the right track.
Bruce L. Cain (Mississippi State Univ.), Anne B. Cheney, J. Michael Rigsbee (Univ. Alabama at Birmingham), Roger W. Cain (Somerville, AL), Lonnie S. McMillian (Huntsville, AL), "Thermal Power Produced Using Thin-Film Palladium Cathodes in a Concentrated Lithium Salt Electrolyte," p 35.
During investigations to analyze the electrolytic loading of hydrogen and deuterium in thin-film palladium cathodes, significant thermal power (near 200 watts sustained over a 20 hour period) was observed from a 1.2 liter electrolyte cell of 2.5 molal LiOH-H2O salt in D2O. Features of the experiments included a flow calorimeter using a 2 liter tempering beaker, calibrated RTD sets on the inlet and outlet manifold, variable coolant flow rates from 0.5 to 4.0 Ipm, PID controlled flow loop temperatures from 5 to 60ø C, a 5 cm x 7.5 cm platinum gauze anode, and 7.5 cm2 cathodes made up of sputter deposited palladium on alumina substrates. The experiments were further instrumented with pH and reference electrodes, two PTFE coated RTD's to measure electrolyte temperature, anode and cathode potential probes, PTFE coated platinum leads at 4 corners of the palladium film to measure the 4-wire resistance of the film during loading, and computer controlled data acquisition of process parameters during each run.
The palladium coatings were prepared by DC magnetron sputtering of a palladium target (99.95%) in an Argon working gas at 5 mTorr, with substrate cooling to keep deposition temperatures below 70ø C. Films were deposited onto 2.5 cm x 5 cm x 0.127 cm (thick) conductor grade aluminum oxide (99.67%) during 45 minute runs which produced film thicknesses of about 5 microns. Both the alumina substrates and the Pd target were sputter cleaned at several hundred watts using an Argon discharge before opening shutters to begin the deposition. The as-deposited films exhibited typical microcrystalline structure with randomly oriented micro-grains with maximum size of nominally 1-2 microns. The films had good uniformity and porosity less than 1%.
Although the experiments were originally designed for extended cathodic charging of the films to induce deuterium loading, by measuring the film resistance as the initial solution was added to the cell we observed a prompt film resistance increase of 20% followed within minutes by thermal power near 150 watts from the cell. Subsequent addition of electrolysis current (0.1 amps/cm2, 6 watts electrolysis power) promptly increased the film resistance by 70% with a further increase of thermal power to near 200 watts. This power level continued for over 20 hours with the cell temperature maintained near 60ø C by the calorimeter temperature controller. The thermal power ceased after reducing the cell temperature to 30ø C. Subsequent runs have exhibited similar sustained periods of thermal excursions near 100 watts, normally after a very brief electrolysis charging and subsequent heating of the cell from 30ø C to 60ø C.
We conclude that significant thermal power is possible from this palladium catalyzed electrolyte arrangement, although details of its excitation mechanism are unclear. These results and corollary thin-film and electrolyte analysis details will be presented, along with discussion of possible catalytic mechanisms for the power observed.
Bruce L. Cain, Trace C. Scrivner (Mississippi State Univ., Mech. Engr. Dept.), Anne B. Cheney, J. Michael Rigsbee (Univ. of Alabama at Birmingham, Matl. & Mech. Engr. Dept.), "Electrical Resistance and Morphology of Palladium Thin-Film During Hydrogen Loading," p 36.
L.C. Case, Sc. D., "Catalytic Fusion of Deuterium," p 37.
After much experimentation, I have found specific conditions under which D2 gas catalytically fuses to He4. Some of the prior cold fusion work may have adventitiously depended on such a catalytic effect.
In my process, D2 gas is contacted at super-atmospheric pressure and a temperature of about 130 to 275 deg. C, with a supported metal catalyst. I have looked at many such catalysts, and found that a platinum-group metal supported on activated carbon, at a loading of about « to 1% on the substrate, seems to be preferred. Pd, Pt, Ir and Rh all work, and Pd seems preferred. Other supported catalysts may ultimately be found to also work.
The process does not produce neutrons, or tritium, but two analyses of long-term tests have found about 100 ppm. of He4 in the fuel gas.
Suitable equipment for this process is displayed. About 50 to 100 g. of candidate catalyst is loaded into the vessel, and the apparatus is sequentially tested with H2 and gas at the same power input into the heating mantle. If the catalyst is active for D2 fusion, the temperature reached with D2 is more than 5 deg. C higher than with H2.
This process shows promise for cheap, large-scale energy production for the future.
F. Celani, A. Spallone, P. Tripodi, D. Di Gioacchino, S. Pace, G.A. Selvaggi (INFN-LNF, Frascati, Italy), P. Marini,V.Di Stefano, M. Nakamura (EURESYS, Roma, Italy), A. Mancini (ORIM, Italy), "The Effect of Alpha - Beta Phases Interface on H(D) / Pd Overloading," p 39.
Swe-Kai Chen (Matls. Sci. Center, Natl. Tsing Hua Univ., Taiwan), "Observations of Cell Temperature Drops and High Vapor Temperatures in D2O Electrolysis of Pd," p 40, 5 refs.
I.P. Chernov, N.N. Nikitenkov, L.N. Puchkareva, Yu.R. Kolobov, M. Krening, H. Baumbach (Phys. Dept. Tomsk Polytechnical Univ., Russia), "Change of Isotopic Composition of Metals at Deuterium Charge," p 42.
The aim of the given work was the receiving of new experimental data on isotopic composition change of metals under their deuterium charge finding out the condition of isotope exchange at diffusion. Isotopic composition of palladium, niobium, titanium (~0.4 um films on ceramics) and admixtures in these materials was studied during deuterium charge and also isotopic copper composition change under its thermostimulated diffusion in nickel.
Saturation of samples by deuterium was produced in electrochemical cell using LiOD+D2O electrolyte. Copper diffusion in nickel was studied by thermomechanical (and simply thermal) load in temperature interval of 423-873 C. The load was 20-25 kg/mm2 and lasted for three hours. Isotopic composition of sample was measured by SIMS.
The studies had shown the significant isotopic composition change of elements matrices as well as admixtures. In particular, for titanium samples content of 48Ti was decreased by 33,3%; at the same time a content of the other isotopes increases. 49Ti and 50Ti contents increase in the greater degree, by 8,6 and 17,8% correspondingly.
The most significant deflection of isotopic composition from natural one was in surface region of samples. While removing from the surface to the sample volume this deflection decreases. And on the certain depth depending upon the time of deuterium charge isotope composition comes natural level.
To understand a mechanism of this phenomenon copper isotopic composition was studied under its thermostimulated diffusion in nickel during presence and absence of mechanical stress in the sample. Thermostimulated diffusion of atoms in metal under the load imitates the processes occurring at saturation by hydrogen, since migrating hydrogen promotes diffusion of atoms matrices and admixtures, but its accumulation leads to significant stresses in metals. The significant isotope exchange takes place under mechanical loading samples. 63Cu content was decreased by 44% and 65Cu was increased by the same value. At the same time the absence of mechanical loading isotopic composition is not differ from natural one. The results obtained sufficiently proved that isotopic composition change of metals at saturation by deuterium was reached due to not only nuclear processes occurring under low energy, but also due to diffusional ones. Thus, the discussion on the problem of isotopic exchange mechanism must be extended.
Dan Chicea (Phys. Dept., Univ. "Lucian Blaga", Sibiu, Romania), "About Deuterium Nuclear Reaction Rate in Condensed Matter ," p 43.
Dan Chicea (Phys. Dept., Univ. "Lucian Blaga", Sibiu, Romania), "The Role of the Energy Fluctuations in the Possibility of Nuclear Reactions in Condensed Matter," p 44.
Scott R. Chubb, Talbot A. Chubb (Oakton International Corp., Arlington, VA), "Periodic Order, Symmetry, and Coherence in Cold Fusion," p 45.
Solids are distinctly different from plasma's or high temperature environments that are usually associated with conventional fusion. Solids, at room temperature, "do not like" disruption. High temperature plasma's (HTP's) "like" disruption. Periodically ordered solids can coherently absorb momentum, all at once at a point, discontinuously, and through recoil processes in which the solid, as a whole, moves in response to a collision at an isolated location. As a result, in ordered solids, very often not only is the initial momentum of "colliding" particles not conserved by the particles during "collisions," but at low - intermediate temperatures, these kinds of "collisions" play a dominant role in the following important effects: 1. the conduction of heat and electricity 2. diffraction of neutrons, electrons and X-rays, and 3. the Mossbauer effect. Because the idealized limit of stoichiometric PdD is periodically ordered, not only is there reason to believe, as we have discussed previously, that further D-loading will result in the occupation of ion band states by D-nuclei, it is probable that the potential nuclear reactions and transport of ion band conserving process involve indistinguishable particles (as in the case of D) and occur completely elastically, distinctly quantum mechanical forms of coherent internment become possible in which periodic order is preserved, and it can become "virtually" impossible to identify both the location of the interaction and the participating entities involved with the resulting release of energy. The paper provides a brief tutorial that summarizes the origin of this interaction, using well-known examples cited from solid state physics, and an overview of the predictions of the associated Lattice Induced Nuclear Chemistry (LINC) theory of Cold Fusion.
Scott R. Chubb, Talbot A. Chubb (Oakton Intl. Corp., Arlington, CA), "Really Cold, Cold Fusion," p 46, 5 refs.
Talbot A. Chubb and Scott R. Chubb (Oakton Intl. Corp., Arlington, VA), "Deuteride Induced Strong Force Reactions," p 47.
T.N. Claytor, M.J. Schwab, D.G. Tuggle (Los Alamos Natl. Lab., NM), "In-Situ Measurement of Tritium Concentration Variations During Plasma Excitation of Deuterium Loaded Palladium and Palladium Alloys," p 48.
A number (22) of pure palladium samples and palladium alloys have been loaded with a deuterium or hydrogen plasma in a system that allows the in-situ measurement of tritium. By carefully controlling the plasma conditions, the plasma can be constrained to only contact palladium surfaces and to only lightly sputter the palladium. Long run times (up to 200 h) result in an integration of the tritium output and this, coupled with the high intrinsic sensitivity of the system (~ 0.1 nCi/l), enables the significance of the tritium measurement to be many sigma (> 10). In addition to the real time tritium measurement, the deuterium gas can be combined with oxygen, at the end of a run, resulting in water samples that were counted in a scintillation counter. The results of these confirmatory measurements of the tritium, in these water samples agree quantitatively with the decrease in tritium as measured by the gas ionization gauge. The energy spectrum and the half-life of the radioactive species are also in agreement with the assumption that the material is tritium: Magnetic fields, different types of pulse and RF excitation and the addition of noble and other gasses have shown some effects that are difficult to reproduce. However, we have continued to investigate the effect of hydrogen additions on the output of tritium in these types of experiments and find that hydrogen additions always suppress tritium production. We will show the difference in tritium generation rates between batches of annealed palladium, as received palladium and the palladium alloys (Rh, AI, W, Co, Cu, Ni, Be, B, Li, Hf, Hg and Fe) of various concentrations to illustrate that tritium generation rate can vary from alloy to alloy as well as within between batches of the same (ostensibly) alloy. Other metals (Pt, Hf, Ni, Nb, Ta, V, W, Zr) have also been run in the system as background samples and to determine if tritium could be detected in the gas analysis system. In nearly all cases, they have produced results very close to background drift rate.
W.J.M.F. Collis (Strada Sottopiazzo, Italy), "ENSAP - A Software Tool to Analyze Nuclear Reactions,"
Updated 1 November 1997, p 49.
Wang Dalun, Chang Zheng, Jiang Li, Chen Shuhe, Yang Ke, Li Yijun, Fu Yibei (Inst. Nucl. Phys. & Chem., China Acad. Engineers Phys.), Zhang Xinwei, WuJun (Beijing Inst. Appl. Phys. & Comp. Math., Beijing , China), "X-Ray in Glow Discharge," p 50.
A. De Ninno, M. Vittori Antisari, C. Giangiordano (ENEA, Frascati, Rome, Italy), "Material Science Studies Aimed to the Excess Heat Experiments Reproducibility Improvement," p 51.
We have studied the influence of the microstructure of Pd samples on the features of the hydrogen(deuterium) loading process in order to improve the reproducibility of excess heat experiments.
We have found that the Pd grain size is a significant parameter affecting in a strong way both the loading kinetics and the maximum concentration. A careful control of the microstructure appears necessary in order to obtain high loading ratios. We make the hypothesis that this can be related to the role of the grain size both on the density of short circuit paths for fast diffusion and on the mechanical properties of the material, which influence the metal ability in relaxing the stress field generated at the sample surface by the solute concentration gradient.
We started also the investigation on thin Pd films and multi layers (Ni/Pd). Our main goal is to prepare, in a reproducible way, Pd/D samples with a very high loading ratio (greater than 0.9) in order to systematically approach the main experimental problems of the excess heat production such as the calorimetric system improvement and the possible nuclear ashes production.
A. De Ninno, A. Frattolillo, V. Violante, F. De Marco, F. Scaramuzzi (ENEA/ERG/FUS, Fascati, Italy), "Cold Fusion at ENEA Frascati: Progress Report," p 52.
D.D. Dominguez, P.L. Hagans, E.F. Skelton, S.B. Qadri, A.C. Ehrlich, D.J. Nagel, S. Crouch-Baker (U.S. Naval Res. Lab., Washington, DC), "The Dynamics of PD-D(H) Phase Formation Monitored Using Synchrotron-Wiggler Radiation," p 53.
Jacques J. DuFour, Jacques H. Foos, Xavier J.C. DuFour (Lab. des Sciences Nucl., Paris, France), "Formation and Properties of Hydrex and Deutex," p 54.
Veniamin A. Filimonov, Vitaly Yu. Solov'yov, Vyacheslav A. Kobets, Alia V. Skitovich (Inst. Physical Chem. Problems, Minsk, Belarus), "Self-Organization Processes Under Metals Loading by Hydrogen Isotopes - Materials Science Basis for Cold Fusion and Transmutation Technologies," p 55.
Veniamin A. Filimonov, Vyacheslav A. Kobets (Istituto per la Ricetea di Base, Monteroduni, Italy, and Inst. for Physical Chem. Problems, Minsk, Belarus), "Nuclear Transmutation and Scalar Fields Generation under Chemical Detonation of Solids," p 56, 5 refs.
137Cs radioactive isotope accelerated decay and scalar (torsion) fields (SF) generation were observed while ammonium dichromate and trinitrophenol detonated in press form under complex action of "pressure and shear". Decrease of 137Cs activity was 50 to 100% after single detonation event of about 1 æs duration.137Cs quantities of about 100 uCu was included into above noted explosives content by ion exchange together with non-radioactive Cs background. Scalar fields were detected using an electrically shielded probe as a shoulder of Witston direct current bridge, and electrical output of the latter was connected with electronic oscilloscope input.
Earlier we suggested a possibility of Cold Fusion and Transmutation processes occurring under action of chemical detonation of solids. These processes were also observed independently by R. Monti. A task of scalar fields detection under the same was inspired by the known but unexplained fact that a part of detonation heat effect is lost as related to burning of the same substance. We suggested that detonation of solids generate scalar (torsion) fields which may be detected using suitable techniques.
Gamma radiation of samples was measured by AMA 3000 multichannel analyzer before and after runs. Calibration using standard 137Cs gamma source was also performed. Laboratory press having 4 metric tons capacity and 50 mm Plexiglas shielding and steel press forms of 5 mm and 9 mm inner diameter were used for pressurizing. Witston direct current bridge with electrical input voltage of 9 V, electrically shielded bifilar copper coil having 100 double turns of 7 mm diameter as working shoulder and carbon resistors as reference shoulders connected with input of C8-17 electronic oscilloscope in regime of triggered sweep with time-base of 1 to 10 us.
So, our a priori. suggestion that synergetic activation (SA) taking place while detonation of solids provides high-energy excitations of atoms needed for transmutation seems to be proved. However, share of scalar fields generated might be evaluated taking into account that the latter imply intensely on radioactive species time of decay. It may be concluded that both SA and SF work in parallel for the same result.
Veniamin A. Filimonov, Alexandre N. Lavrenov (Istituto per la Ricerca di Base, Monteroduni, Italy, & Inst. Physical Chem. Problems, Minsk, Belarus), "Dynamical Model of the Synergetic Activation for Cold Fusion and the Novel Concept for the Free Energy 'Generation,'" p 57.
John C. Fisher (Carpinteria, CA), "Liquid Drop Model for Extremely Neutron-Rich Nuclei," p 58.
John C. Fisher (Carpinteria, CA), "The Role of Polyneutrons in Cold Nuclear Reactions," p 59.
M. Fleischmann, "Cold Fusion: Past, Present and Future," pp 60-61.
In 1983, Stanley Pons and I posed ourselves the following two question:
i) Would the nuclear reactions of deuterons confined in a lattice be faster and different from the fusion of deuterons in a plasma?
ii) Could such nuclear reactions be detected?
In the first part of this paper I will outline part of the background which led us to pose these seemingly senseless questions. This background can be summarized by the statement: "the behavior of ions in condensed phase systems above absolute zero (of which D+ in a Pd - type lattice is an example) can only be explained by Quantum Field Theory, QFT." (it is likely that this statement applies even to gas phase systems). It has frequently been asserted that the explanation of Cold Fusion would require a Paradigm Shift. I believe that this is incorrect: the Paradigm Shift is well-known; the real difficulty lies in the application of this shift to the Natural Sciences.
We therefore believed that the two questions were sensible but, nevertheless, we expected the answers to be "Yes" and "No". At that time we listed possible systems for study under five headings:
(a) Systems based on the electrodifusion of D+ in host lattices (especially Pd wires);
(b) Systems based on the electrochemical charging of host lattices (especially of Pd electrodes);
(c) Chemical Systems based on superacid/ highly oxidizing conditions: the link to "Hot Fusion";
(d) Chemical Systems based on superbasic/ highly reducing conditions;
(e) Hybrids of these systems.
We started work on (b) as a preliminary to (a).
As is well-known the outcome of our experiments was radically different from our expectations. It became evident that there were markedly enhanced rates of nuclear reactions as shown by the generation of excess enthalpy at levels far above those which can be accounted for by chemical reactions. Moreover, this generation of excess enthalpy was not accompanied by the expected levels of the "nuclear ashes", tritium and neutrons.
The present state of knowledge of this section of the field can be summarized as follows:
1) Excess enthalpy generation can be detected provided "correct" electrode materials are used:
2) The early development of excess enthalpy generation can be detected provided experiments are carried out with adequately high levels of precision and accuracy;
3) In the normal conditions of operation, the systems show "negative feedback"; at longer times one can detect the onset of "positive feedback" which exceeds the effects of "negative feedback" (as shown, for example, by the increase in the rates of excess enthaIpy generation with increases of temperatures);
4) "Positive feedback" appears to be associated with regular or chaotic oscillations;
5) "Bursts" in the production of excess enthalpy can sometimes be detected; during such "bursts" the rates of excess enthalpy generation far exceed the rates of enthalpy input even for the energy inefficient systems in current use;
6) The performance envelope is different before and after the onset of "positive feedback;"
7) "positive feedback" leads to the generation of high levels of excess enthalpy provided the systems are driven sufficiently rapidly through the region of the onset of "positive feedback". the outcome of experiments depends on the experimental protocol adopted;
8) high levels of excess enthalpy generation can be maintained for prolonged periods of time;
9) 4He is the principal "nuclear ash"; tritium and neutron generation can be detected especially under non-equilibrium conditions;
10) the systems in use have been diversified to include the use of powders and electrodifusion in fine wires; the latter systems are especially promising.
(this survey will exclude investigations using light water).
Aspects of the Sociology of Science will be considered. While Cold Fusion is certainly interesting from the point of view of Science, it may now be appropriate to devote more effort to other topics which can only be explained in the framework of Q.F.T. in an attempt to ensure the required Paradigm Shift.
Finally, the Social Implications of this field of research will be considered. While it is still too early to say whether (and, if so, how) excess enthalpy generation can be maintained and used, it is clear that Cold Fusion could become a significant energy source in the next century provided identifiable technological obstacles can be resolved.
L. Forsley (JWK Intl. Corp., Emerging Technology Div.), R. August (Naval Res. Lab., Condensed Matter Div., Radiation Effects Branch), J. Jorne (Univ. Rochester, Dept. Chemical Engr), J. Khim (JWK Intl. Corp.), F. Mis (Health Physicist), G. Phillips (Naval Res. Lab., Condensed Matter Div., Radiation Effects Branch), "Analyzing Nuclear Ash from the Electrocatalytic Reduction of Radioactivity in Uranium and Thorium," p 62, 6 refs.
A proprietary electrolytic system for the reduction of radioactivity in uranium and thorium was evaluated. An exhaustive analysis of reaction materials taken before, and reaction products taken during and after the experiments, was carried out. These tests involved trace metals analysis via neutron activation analysis (NAA), energy dispersive atomic x-ray (EDAX) analysis and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy ICP/MS). Additional tests involved high resolution mass spectroscopy of evolved gasses and reaction products, allowing isotopic dffferentiation, and high resolution gamma spectroscopy. Neutrons were searched for via 235U fission fragments and n-gamma reactions.
The results of over 10 series of runs were ambiguous. However, the definitive test: operating a system in a low background cave wilt high resolution gamma spectroscopy, failed to show any radioactive reduction of the system as a whole. Regardless of these results, the testing protocols developed define the standard and rigor by which any proposed catalytically reduced radioactive system must be subjected. Careful attention must be taken to maintain statistically significant results.
J. Gruber (Chair of Stats. & Econometrics, Dept. Economics, Univ. Hagen, Germany), "Economic Effects of New Energy Technologies (NET)," p 64.
New Energy Technology (NET), also called Space Energy Technology (SET) and related (among others) to Cold Fusion (CF), taps a previously unknown, "renewable" source of energy: Space energy (SE), also called zero-point energy (ZPE), vacuum field energy (VFE), free energy, or ether (’ther) energy. SET-devices are usually based on new theories (still to be developed further), also published in peer-reviewed journals of (e.g.) mainstream physics. They usually have been thoroughly tested by independent experts and/or in replicated experiments. SET-devices are now subject to developmental research, some of them seem to be already close to commercialization.
The exact input-output relations of SET-devices for large-scale use (needed for mathematical modeling) are not yet known. Therefore, simple scenarios have been developed for using SET-devices on a large scale, e.g. in the transport sector and for electricity and heat production.
SET-devices have properties which make them not only economically viable but even highly competitive: They work permanently (24 hours per day, all year) and everywhere (on Earth and in space). Relatively small units suffice, only little or even no storage of energy is needed.
The widespread use of SET-devices (for which there are strong incentives) has tremendous economic, social, environmental, fiscal and monetary effects at various levels: for the individual consumer and producer, for local and regional governments and at the international level. The most desirable effect is that humankind can reach, at least as far as energy is concerned, a sustainable development. Of unbelievable advantage may also be SET-related procedures for the transmutation of elements (e.g. for reducing radioactivity and for producing new elements and/or materials).
Peter L. Hagelstein (Massachusetts Inst. Technol.,Cambridge, MA), "Models for Anomalous Energy Transfer," p 65.
Peter L. Hagelstein, Louis D. Smullin (Massachusetts Inst.Technol., Cambridge, MA), "A Search for Anomalies in Vdx," p 66.
Heinrich Hora, Jak C. Kelly (School of Phys., UNSW, Sydney, Australia), George H. Miley, Y. Marne (Fusion Studies Lab., Univ. IL, Urbana), "Nuclear Shell Magic Numbers Agree with Measured Transmutation by Low-Energy Reactions," p 67.
An evaluation is presented for the measured low energy transmutation of metals such as nickel and palladium into numerous other elements, using SIMS and NAA where some of the new elements detected do not have the normal isotopic abundance that would have been seen if they were merely impurities. Up to 10% of the original metal layers were converted into other elements. Following our model, the protons or deuterons in the host metals are considered as an exotic Maxwellian Plasma. We have proposed a "swimming electron layers" mechanism which partially shields the usual nuclear Coulomb repulsion and allows the nuclei to approach each other more closely, thus greatly increasing the rate of long range nuclear reactions. Recent low energy measurements of the fusion of DD to 4He by Arata et al., agree with our previous estimates of the reaction distance of a few pm. This theoretical model is based on: a) a low energy nuclear interaction in the eV range contrary to high energy interaction models; and b) on non-localized states (exotic plasma state) of the reacting protons or deuterons in contrast to fixed states within the lattice.
This precludes the attempts of numerous models which try to preserve the status quo by asserting that cold fusion is only hot fusion in disguise. One example is the suggestion that internal cracks in a crystal are produced by the phase transitions. This is not the case as known from the measured DD reaction with very high tritium and helium production compared with neutron generation.
Our analysis of the measured abundance of the new elements results in an exponential law for the transmutation probability N as a yield curve with several maxima as a function of the atomic number Z. This new type of nuclear reaction is similar to pycnonuclear reactions and K-shell electron capture. The nuclear magic numbers are applied to the maxima of N(Z) and we derive a 3n-law for the ratio of the maxima. This agreement is not a simple numerical speculation but based on the measured exponential increment of Z' = 10. This is an expression of a basic consistency of the fully independently gathered experimental results with a well established fundamental property of nuclei.
To the question how low energy multi body events can occur for generating very heavy nuclei we consider a three particle interaction as a model for generating very heavy transuranium nuclides which subsequently decay into the very heavy nuclei we have observed. The possibility of three particle interactions is supported also by the following aspect of a nuclear surface force model for explaining nuclei of the known density (H. Hora, Model of Surface Tension of Nuclei and the Phase Transition to the Quark Gluon Plasma, CERN-PS-Note 91/05, August 1991). This double layer model referring to the Fermi energy of hadrons also explained how, at six times normal nuclear density, the formation of separate nuclei is inhibited due to the relativistic change of the Fermi energy of the hadrons explaining also the large decay length for the nuclear charge as measured since Hofstadter's work on the subject. Using Lorentzian instead of Gaussian radial profiles for the decay of this nuclear density gives overlapping wave functions for the two nuclei out to distances of pm for transition times in the cold fusion range of minutes to years. On a solid surface then why should a paired proton and a palladium nucleus not combine with another palladium nucleus? It is at least interesting to note that the following reactions are highly exothermic:
2 106Pd + p = 2 56Fe + 101Nb + 35 MeV = 2 52Cr + 109Rh + 23.6 MeV = 2 66Zn + 81As + 38.3 MeV
As an application, we discuss the possibility of adding radioactive atoms to the near surface or interface reaction areas, which may be a low cost method for eliminating long lived nuclear waste and plutonium.
FIC Staff, "New Energy Partners," p 38.
[Also saved as: NEN_6_1_3.html]
New Energy Partners (NEP) is a venture capital limited partnership that was established in December, 1997 to invest in companies that are in the process of commercializing revolutionary new energy technologies. One of the initial technology areas of focus is new hydrogen energy. Because the participants at ICCF-7 are quite familiar with this technology, we will not detail it in this abstract.
NEP will focus on investing in companies that have demonstrated prototype products that are within two years of commercialization. The products must demonstrate dramatic new approaches to energy production, not just increment improvements in energy efficiencies. Specifically, we are looking for over unity devices that demonstrate the potential of 200% + over unity with 1-2 kilowatt outputs for a commercial product.
NEP is in the process of building an investment fund of $15 million. It is estimated that these funds will be invested in approximately 10 to 15 companies over the 7-10 year life of the portfolio. Since its inception, NEP has invested in two promising companies.
Mr. Daniel J. Cavicchio, Jr. manages the General Partner of NEP. For the past 14 years he co-managed Greenwich Venture Partners, a buy out firm specializing in turnarounds of technology-based companies. Prior to that he was with McKinsey and Company as an Engagement Manager consulting for technology-based companies, such as General Electric, AT&T, and Corning Glass. In addition, he served as Director, Business Development at American Can Company, where he managed new business, new product, and acquisition programs. Mr. Cavicchio holds a Bachelors Degree from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, where he graduated first in his class, and Masters and Ph.D. degrees from the University of Michigan.
NEP Will also consider licensing technologies that have strong commercial prospects. In this case, NEP will set up a new company to commercialize the technology with the original inventor receiving license payments and/or an equity position in the new company. In any event, Mr. Cavicchio will be closely involved with the progress of each portfolio company, and many cases will serve on the Board of Directors.
Return to the INE Main Page
July 30, 1998.