ARTICLES IN COLD FUSION TIMES
By Dr. Mitchell Swartz
ARTICLES IN COLD FUSION TIMES
Courtesy Dr. Mitchell Swartz
The primary theme of vol 7, no 2, Spring 1999 issue of Cold Fusion Times is the Second Decade of CF and CF Theories. It is now reasonable to assume that there is no single explanation for the array of experimental evidence found with a variety of experiments on cold fusion and other low-energy nuclear reactions. In "The TNCF Model of Cold Fusion," by Hideo Kozima (page 1) it is suggested that trapped neutrons in the metal lattice participate in the nuclear reactions. [Comment: When heavy elements fission, there are excess neutrons that must be explained. The fission of a heavy nucleus into lighter nuclei either ejects the extra neutrons or creates elements which are unstable and reduce to stable elements by emitting a high-energy electron (beta emission) which converts a neutron to a proton. In CF very little neutron emission is detected. The suggestion is that Kozima's trapped neutrons may have a source within the cathode.]
Russ George, "Production of 4He From Deuterium Using Nano-Particle Palladium," shows that the helium-4 is gradually produced by finely divided palladium with pressurized deuterium and elevated temperatures. Three-body deuterium reactions are proposed by Kjeld C. Engvild, "Nuclear Reactions By Recombination of Deuterons and D2 Nuclei." Mitchell Swartz presents a thoughtful formula to help explain palladium surface reactions with deuterons produced by electrolysis in "Deuteron Flow At An Electrode Surface." [Not mentioned is this editor's favorite explanation of cold fusion energy by the production of high-density charge clusters by fracto-emission, the acceleration of deuterons, and the nuclear reactions upon impact with the palladium.]
Ohmori, et al., "Transmutation In A Gold-Light Water Electrolysis System," (page 4) reports "The Au cathode also showed some pits, cracks, and microcraters..." Olayo, et al., "Absorption Of Deuterium In Titanium Plates Induced By Electric Discharges," (page 4) reports "...high voltage discharge led to further loading ... and some heating. ... Some slight neutron emission was found..." Mizuno, et al., (page 4), "Confirmation Of Changes Of Isotopic Distribution For Elements on Palladium Cathode After Strong Electrolysis in D2O," reports, "As expected, a wide range of elements was found, ... these were concentrated at the surface, notably in cracks and holes." Ohmori, et al., (page 4) "Nuclear Transmutation Reaction Occurring During The Light Water Electrolysis On Pd Electrode," reports that the abraded Pd surface produced nuclear reactions. Mizuno, (page 10) "Condition Of The Metal Surface After Use As A Cathode," reports, "...surface was sprinkled with white spots ... objects shaped like lilies ... The lilies had only appeared in areas that had been heavily [abraded] ... [especially] in samples that had been electrolyzed repeatedly ... [metal surface] has grain boundaries, defects, protrusions, contaminants...". [Comment: Mizuno mentions the voltage increase from protrusions but does not mention the enormously greater voltages that can occur in lattice fractures.] Note that in this paragraph, this reviewer has selected those comments that could be cited to support the concept of nuclear reactions by the lattice fracto-fusion (production of charge clusters).
Dr. Swartz and Gayle Verner perform an excellent service for their subscribers in reporting the latest information from the exciting and progressing world of low-energy nuclear reactions. See their Web Home Page: http://world.std.com/~mica/cft.html
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Aug. 25, 1999.