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32nd IECEC 1997 INTERNATIONAL ENERGY TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE

32nd Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference
July 27 - August 1, 1997
Honolulu, Hawaii

Innovative Concepts Sessions (CT-06) Abstracts


From: NEN, Vol. 5, No. 4, August 1997, pp. 4-11.

The following are the abstracts of some of the papers presented at the 32nd IECEC "International Energy Technology" (27 July - 1 August 1997, Honolulu, HI).

The full papers [the proceedings of all of the 418 papers] from the conference are available for $210.00 from: the American Inst. of Chemical Engineers, GPO Box 29496, New York, NY 10087-9496, 1-800-242-4363, 9:00 AM - 5:00 PM, EDT.

[You can also email Rosa Serrata at the AIChE, at rosas@aiche.org.]

[The abstracts below are from the four "Innovative Concepts" (CT-06) sessions of the "Conversions Technology Topic Area" of this IECEC, and have been re-arranged from the NEN to be in the proper sessions and paper order that they were presented during the conference.]

[All of the main author's contact information data, including formal mailing addresses, telephones, FAXes, and Email addresses, are all available by contacting the INE at halfox@slkc.uswest.net.]


Session CT-06-1: "Innovative Concepts I - New Concepts I"
Chaired By: P. Bailey, Institute for New Energy, Los Altos, CA

Michael G. Gilman (Lowe, Price, LeBlanc and Becker, Alexandria, VI), "Licensing Patents and Technology by the Developer of the Technology," IECEC 1997 Proceedings, paper #97190.

AUTHOR'S ABSTRACT

A patent and technology license is a complicated document requiring careful consideration by everyone involved. It especially requires a substantial input from the technologist-licensor. While Intellectual Property attorneys should always be employed to draft proper license agreements, their work product is only as good as the input that they receive from the person they represent, the technologist-licensor or the buyer-licensee.

Several areas of a license agreement should have great input from the technologist-licensor, such as: the technological field or fields of the license; the scope of the license; the exclusivity of the license and reversionary interests, if any; whether the license is limited to patent(s) or if it also includes know-how (technology); grant backs of further developments by the licensee in the field of the license; up front payments, running royalties and other forms of remuneration; right of first refusal for later developed technology and/or patents of the licensor; indemnification by the licensor in the event that the licensee is charged with infringement of other patents by practicing within the field of the license; and the licensor's obligations, if any, to enforce the licensed patents against infringing competition.

While the perspectives of the licensee and the licensor are clearly different, the same problems are addressed by both and the final agreement that is hammered out is the result of a meeting of the minds on all of these basic issues.


Peter A. Gibas, Friedrich Greilinger, Jean-M. Lehner, Werner Rusterholz (RQF Inst., Switzerland), "Free Energy by Space Quanta Manipulation (RQM)," IECEC 1997 Proceedings, paper #97145.

AUTHORS' ABSTRACT

RQM - i.e. the Space (German: Raum) - Quanta - Manipulation stands for purposeful dilution resp. [sic] compression of the space quanta medium and thereby resulting interactions with the matter contained within the influenced space volume.

RQM aggregates containing a system of electromagnets set in a specific geometric arrangement are capable of converting mechanical pressure differences within the space quanta medium (gravitational waves) into electric energy. The RQM technology was made possible as result of new scientific discoveries in the fields of electromagnetism, electrostatics, gravitation and magnetic flux dynamics as well as implosion techniques.

The RQM-effect (i.e. the pulsed emission of charge carriers from RQM base unit) was achieved for the first time on June 2, 1995. At that time the perceived energy peaks similar to avalanche effects were reduced and brought under control. The experimental installation was then modified for battery operation and the proprietary, newly developed electronic control was also integrated.

From there on it was possible to always accurately control the RQM installation.

The RQM Experimental Installation shown and demonstrated in the laboratory near Rapperswil Switzerland at the end of September 1996, enabled a stable energy yield with a factor of approx. 6 to 7.5 at 225 Watts. The efficiency is calculated by means of recharging the batteries. It is important to know that, for those tests and measuring works, only the less efficient RQM sectors were activated because of security reasons.

We are now improving the efficiency and thus increase the useful energy by activating all RQM sectors. The problem of excessive resonances while adding the more powerful RQM sectors is continually reduced. We expect that the efficiency as well as the yield of energy will increase exponentially.

The RQM tests and experiments are continuously monitored by high sensitivity measuring instruments. At no time have any significant radiation fields and wave emissions been detected, therefore, environmental compatibility is assured.

The achieved effects and the theoretical predictions - based on Crane's theory (causal physics) - led to a good number of relations with the established physical fundamentals. This refers particularly to results in the field of quantum electrodynamics as well as other areas of modern particle physics and findings concerning the structure of matter.


James J. Hurtak, Ph.D. (AFFS Corp., Los Gatos, CA), Patrick G. Bailey, Ph.D. (Inst. New Energy, Los Altos, CA), "RQM Technologies: Summary and Status," IECEC 1997 Proceedings, paper #97175.

AUTHORS' ABSTRACT

An overview and critique is given of a new energy generation technology of Raum-Quantum-Manipulator (RQM, here referred to as Space Quanta Manipulation) currently under development by the Swiss Corporation Raum Quantem Motoren AG (RQM AG). RQM AG is testing several prototypes of a clean, noiseless, C02-free motor-generator as the beginning stage towards confirming the existence of Space Quanta Manipulation (RQM). On September 25, 1996, the RQM Experimental Installation was shown to demonstrate in their laboratory at Neuhaus, Switzerland, for the first time a stable energy output factor greater than 100% at 225 Watts.


Hal Fox (Fusion Information Center, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT), Patrick G. Bailey (Inst. New Energy, Los Altos, CA), "High-Density Charge Clusters and Energy Conversion Results," IECEC 1997 Proceedings, paper #97230.

AUTHORS' ABSTRACT

Several recent developments of devices that produce low-energy nuclear reactions are explained by the deliberate or fortuitous production of high-density charge clusters. Some and perhaps most of the nuclear reactions in a variety of fluids and devices including the Pons-Fleischmann cold fusion discovery (palladium/heavy water systems), in nickel/light water systems, in Patterson Power CellsTM, in low-pressure deuterium gas devices, in sparking-in-hydrogen devices, in exploding fire balls, and in the Neal-Gleeson Process are explained by the creation, launching, and impingement of high-density charge clusters on a target element or elements. This paper presents evidence of the application of the control and use of high-density charge clusters for Plasma-Injected Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions in the production of low-cost, nonpolluting, abundant thermal energy.


Patrick G. Bailey (Inst. New Energy, Los Altos, CA), Toby Grotz (Wireless Engineering, Craig, CO), James J. Hurtak (Academy for Future Science, Los Gatos, CA), "Survey and Critical Review of Recent Innovative Energy Conversion Technologies," IECEC 1997 Proceedings, paper #97215.

AUTHORS' ABSTRACT

A summary review is presented of the experiments, motors, generators, devices, and demonstrations that have been reported in the past several years to produce near-unity or over-unity operation. The concepts of free-energy, zero-point energy, and over-unity devices are not new, and many examples of such devices have been built within the last 100 years. Several researchers are reviewed and a few are selected for immediate interest and support. Whether new forms of potential energy can be demonstrated and successfully utilized within the near future for the ultimate benefit of the human race remains to be seen.


Patrick G. Bailey (Inst. New Energy, Los Altos, CA), Toby Grotz (Wireless Engineering, Craig, CO), James J. Hurtak (Academy for Future Science, Los Gatos, CA), "Review and Status of Reported Innovative Energy Conversion Technologies, Contrasted Using a Consistent R&D Ranking Scale," IECEC 1997 Proceedings, paper #97212.

AUTHORS' ABSTRACT

A summary review and status is presented of the experiments, motors, generators, devices, and demonstrations that have been reported in the past several years to produce near-unity or over unity operation. The concepts of free-energy, zero-point energy, and over-unity devices are not new, and many examples of such devices have been built within the last 100 years. Several devices are reviewed and ranked by a consistent research, development, and commercialization ranking scale. Those devices nearest to commercialization are identified and summarized. Whether new forms of potential energy can be demonstrated and successfully utilized within the near future for the ultimate benefit of the human race remains to be seen.


Session CT-06-2: "Innovative Concepts II - New Concepts II"
Chaired By: P. Bailey, Institute for New Energy, Los Altos, CA

David E. Reisner, T. Danny Xiao, Peter R. Strutt (US Nanocorp, Inc., North Haven, CT), Alvin J. Salkind (UMDNJ- Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Bioengr. Div./Surgery Dept., Piscataway, NJ), "Nanostructured Materials for Energy Storage and Energy Conversion Devices," IECEC 1997 Proceedings, paper #97501.

AUTHORS' ABSTRACT

US Nanocorp, Inc. (USN) has developed an aqueous solution reaction (ASR) technique scalable for high volume production of nanostructured materials (n-materials) for a wide range of applications. By definition, nanophase materials have at least one physical dimension less than 10 nanometers (nm) in length, an attribute which imparts exceptional properties to them because the particle dimensions are close to atomic dimensions and there are a very high fraction of atoms residing at nanocrystalline grain boundaries. The high surface area of these materials has significant implications with respect to energy storage devices with electrochemical active sites (batteries, ultra capacitors) and energy conversion devices depending on catalytic sites or defect structure (e.g., fuel cells and thermoelectric devices).

Potential application areas in both energy conversion and energy storage are discussed. Morphological studies of manganese dioxide have revealed the existence of both nanoporosity and mesoporosity within unusual superstructures comprised of nanorod building blocks. Nanophase nickel hydroxide has also been synthesized. Preliminary electrochemical studies are reported.


Giacomo Bisio (Energy & Conditioning Dept. Univ. Genoa, Italy), "Thermodynamics of Magnetic Systems and Some Applications," IECEC 1997 Proceedings, paper #97001.

AUTHOR'S ABSTRACT

Until quite recently, the theory of continuous media dealt mainly with diamagnetic and paramagnetic fluid. The researchers did not consider magnetizable fluids, probably because such media had not yet been discovered in natural conditions and did not exist until recently as manufactured products. However, in the early 1960s magnetic fluids (MF) could be synthetically prepared, since then technological interest in MF has grown rapidly.

Besides, magnetic refrigeration has been used for over 60 years as a technology to achieve temperatures below 1 K, employing magneto caloric effect of some solid material. However, in the last twenty years, the technology has been developing for refrigeration application above 1 K up to and including heat pumps at above room temperature. The work has been multinational in scope and has focussed on the analysis of magnetic thermodynamic systems, investigation of magnetic material suitable for refrigerants, and development of prototype refrigerators.

After a synthetic review of the basic properties of MF, and of magnetic refrigerators and heat pumps, the aim of this paper is a thermodynamic examination of these systems in comparison with the relations usually applied to fluids. Three independent variables are generally considered, whereas usually only two variables have been considered till now for what is known to the author. Furthermore, some application of MF are taken into account; in particular, possibilities of converting thermal into mechanical energy are examined.


Patrick G. Bailey (Inst. New Energy, Los Altos, CA), Nancy C. Worthington (AUM Foundation, Redwood City, CA), "History and Applications of HAARP Technologies: The High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program," IECEC 1997 Proceedings, paper #97216.

AUTHORS' ABSTRACT

A serious review of HAARP is presented. On the surface, HAARP appears to be a nice military "scientific endeavor aimed at studying the properties and behavior of the ionosphere." Upon further investigation, HAARP appears to be filled with secrecy and fraught with possible severe dangers. Attempts to reopen an official assessment of this program and its old out-dated unclassified Environmental Impact Statement have thus far failed. HAARP appears to be in use by ARCO to sell natural gas to the military that would otherwise be trapped in Alaska. The HAARP patents imply that Billions of Watts could easily be used to power HAARP, with no or few equipment upgrades. The patents are now owned by a major military contractor. Many of the possible applications, as stated in the actual patents supporting HAARP, would be classified. An Independent Review Committee needs to be formed to access the possible dangers of the various real and possibly classified HAARP projects. This Committee needs to be independent from US Federal politics, Alaska state politics, the US military, and ARCO oil interests, and would probably need to report to both the Congress and the Senate. There is a great need to form this Review Committee, and the time to form it is NOW!


James J. Hurtak (AFFS Corp., Los Gatos, CA), Patrick G. Bailey (Inst. New Energy, Los Altos, CA), "Cold Fusion Research: Models and Potential Benefits," IECEC 1997 Proceedings, paper #97163.

AUTHORS' ABSTRACT

Observations have been made of deuteron-deuteron fusion at room temperature during low-voltage electrolytic infusion of deuterons into metallic titanium or palladium electrodes. Neutrons with an energy of approximately 2.45 MeV have been clearly detected with a sensitive neutron spectrometer at a rate of 2 x 10-3 n/s which cannot be accounted for by ambient-neutron background variations. The reaction has been known to yield excess (or "latent") heat, where D + D yields 4He and 23.8 MeV. This paper will examine the latest experimental results from several international researchers and summarize several new theories of nuclear model interactions that have been put forth to explain these intriguing results.


Hal Fox (Fusion Information Center, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT), Patrick G. Bailey (Inst. New Energy, Los Altos, CA), "Possible New Applications of Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions," IECEC 1997 Proceedings, paper #97231.

AUTHORS' ABSTRACT

Now that we understand the importance and nature of cold fusion, it is time to nominate B. Stanley Pons, Martin Fleischmann (Fellow of the Royal Society), and Kenneth R. Shoulders for a Nobel Prize. Pons and Fleischmann deserve the prize for their fundamental discovery of cold fusion. Kenneth R. Shoulders deserves a part of the prize for his excellent work in discovering and revealing how nuclear reactions take place in both the palladium-heavy-water system and in the sono-fusion system. A further degree of experimental information about nuclear reactions has been added by the Neal-Gleeson Process. A summary of these fundamental discoveries illustrates how important these discoveries have been and will be in the rapid advancement of the treatment of radioactive wastes (especially radioactive slurries); the production of thermal energy without neutrons; and probably the development of factory-made scarce elements.


Session CT-06-3: "Innovative Concepts III - Cold Fusion Results
Chaired By: P. Bailey, Institute for New Energy, Los Altos, CA

Patrick G. Bailey (Inst. New Energy, Los Altos, CA), Hal Fox (Fusion Information Center, Salt Lake City, UT), "A Review of the Patterson Power Cell," IECEC 1997 Proceedings, paper #97221.

AUTHORS' ABSTRACT

An independent summary review is presented of the Patterson Power CellTM, as developed by Clean Energy Technologies. Information is drawn from publicly available information, and requested information and data from CETI. It is found that this cell seems to operate as advertized by CETI and that there is a very large amount of supportive documentation available in the public domain to support its operation and capabilities. The ability of such cells to neutralize alpha radiation is fairly well understood. An ability to neutralize gamma or other forms of radiation remains to be seen.


Melvin H. Miles, Kendall B. Johnson (Chem. & Materials Branch, R. & Technol. Group Naval Air Warfare Center, Weapons Div., China Lake, CA), M. Ashraf Imam (Physical Metallurgy Branch, Materials Sci. & Technol. Div., Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC), "Anomalous Heat and Helium Production Using Palladium-Boron Alloys in Heavy Water," IECEC 1997 Proceedings, paper #97538.

AUTHORS' ABSTRACT

Reproducibility continues to be the major problem in the controversial cold fusion area. The best reproducibility for excess power was obtained using palladium-boron (Pd-B) alloy materials supplied by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), Washington, DC. Seven out of eight Pd-B cathodes produced excess power using D2O-LiOD solutions. The collection and analysis of the electrolysis gases from one PdB experiment places the helium-4 production rate at 1.0 x 1011 4He/s W. This is the correct magnitude for typical deuteron fusion reactions that yield helium-4 as a product. Results of selected papers from the Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion held October 13-18, 1996 in Hokkaido, Japan are summarized.


Mitchell R. Swartz (JET Energy Technology, Inc., Wellesley Hills, MA), "Biphasic Behavior in Thermal Electrolytic Generators Using Nickel Cathodes," IECEC 1997 Proceedings, paper #97009. AUTHOR'S ABSTRACT

Thermal spectroscopy, with attention to background noise, enables accurate determination of sample activity and has revealed a biphasic behavior to the generated excess heat. Nickel cathodes (using ohmic thermal and other metallic cathodic controls) were examined versus either platinum or gold anodes in light water systems. The peak power amplification [ OUT/ IN = Ni ] was in the range of ~2.27 (+/-1.02). Peak power outputs have been in excess of 2 watts, with power densities (nickel) of more than ~7 (+/-4.3) watts/cm3. There may be several reasons for the biphasic effect. The origin of the site of the heat shifts at different locations within the -notch.


Stanislaw J. Szpak, Pamela A. Mosier-Boss (NCCOSC RDT&E Div., San Diego, CA), "Thermal and Nuclear Events Associated with Pd + D Codeposition," IECEC 1997 Proceedings, paper #97120.

AUTHORS' ABSTRACT

An alternate method for the initiation of thermal and nuclear events by electrochemical means is to employ electrodes prepared by the codeposition process. This process assures the formation of non-equilibrium electrode structures that promote localized potential, concentration, etc. gradients. Evidence for excess enthalpy, arising from randomly distributed discrete heat sources, is presented. Their nuclear origin is supported by X-ray emission and tritium production. Emphasis is on experimental designs. We should like to suggest that theory guides - experiment decides is a preferable approach in this area of research.


J. Dash, R. Kopecek, S. Miguet (Phys. Dept., Portland State Univ., OR), "Excess Heat and Unexpected Elements from Aqueous Electrolysis with Titanium and Palladium Cathodes," IECEC 1997 Proceedings, paper # 97368.

AUTHORS' ABSTRACT

Presented here are results of research performed at Portland State University during the period 1994 to 1996.

Excess heat was produced at the rate of about 1.2 watts during electrolysis of heavy water with a titanium cathode weighing 0.0625g. Analysis of the electrodes before and after electrolysis with a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) revealed that new surface topographical features with concentrations of unexpected elements (V, Cr, Fe, Ni, and Zn) formed during electrolysis.

The morphology and micro composition of palladium after electrolysis in heavy water were studied. Fibers which appeared on the surface were observed to change with time. Evidence which supports the possibility of transmutation is presented.


T. Mizuno, T. Akimoto, K. Kurokawa, M. Kitaichi, K. Inoda, K. Azumi, S. Simokawa (Dept. Nucl. Engr., Faculty of Engr., Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, Japan), T. Ohmori (Catalysis Res. Center, Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, Japan), M. Enyo (Hakodate Natl. Coll. Technol., Hakodate, Japan), "Changes in Isotopic Distribution of the Elements on Palladium Cathode after Electrolyzed in D2O Solution," IECEC 1997 Proceedings, paper #97198.

AUTHORS' ABSTRACT

Many elements on Pd electrodes were confirmed by several analytic methods; reaction products with the mass number up to 208 are deposited on palladium cathodes which were subjected to electrolysis in a heavy water solution at high pressure, temperature, and current density for prolonged time. These masses were composed of many elements ranging from hydrogen to lead. Extraordinary observations were the changes of their isotopic distributions in the produced elements; these were radically different from the natural ones. For example, natural chromium is 4.3% Cr50, 84% Cr52, 9.5% Cr53 and 2.4% Cr54. But the chromium found on the Pd surface was 14% Cr50, 51% Cr52, 2.4% Cr 53 and 11% Cr54. Natural Isotopic distribution varies by less than 0.003% for Cr.

Essentially the same phenomenon was confirmed eight times with high reproducibility at high cathodic current density, above 0.2 A/cm1. All the possibilities of contamination had been carefully eliminated by several pretreatments for the sample and electrolysis system. It means that a nuclear reaction had taken place during the electrochemical treatment. It is indicating the role of new interactions discovered in the framework of a generalization of the usual quantum mechanics. Evidently such new interactions, due to the mutual overlap of wavepackets, should explain the new phenomenologies that are experimentally observed in this study.


T. Ohmori (Catalysis Res. Center, Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, Japan), T. Mizuno (Fac. Engr., Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, Japan), M. Enyo (Hakodate Natl. Coll. Technol., Hakodate, Japan), "Nuclear Transmutation Induced by Light Water Electrolysis with Gold Electrode," IECEC 1997 Proceedings, paper #97373.

AUTHORS' ABSTRACT

Steady excess energy evolution ranging from 0.2 to 1 W, was observed during the electrolysis in neutral and alkaline solutions. At the same time, various unexpected elements, eg. Hg, Os, Kr, Ni, Fe, Si, Mg, etc, were found to be produced in the electrodes after the electrolysis. The amounts of Fe reached some 10 g after the electrolysis for 20-30 days. The isotopic distributions of above elements were evidently deviated from their natural isotopic abundance. For example, in some cases, the isotopic content of 57Fe reached above 50 %, exceeding 20 times its natural isotopic abundance.

In addition, some 100 g of free porous precipitates were obtained when electrolyzed at a current density of > 0.2 A/cm2. The major component was Au, however, several percents of Hg, Os, Fe, Si and Mg were contained.

The appearance of the electrode surface after the electrolysis was very anomalous on which a lot of volcano-like micro craters were found. The structure of the outside wall of the craters was porous, very like the structure of the precipitates. In the inside wall, there lay layers of fine hexagonal crystallites suggesting Au(111). This shows the occurrence of the recrystallization of the Au substrate, suggesting an extraordinarily elevated heat evolution. These craters were distributed along the scraped edge of the electrode material artificially made on the rim of the micro holes and cracks, from which it is deduced that lattice defects concentrated on the edge or grain boundary of the electrode material would serve to induce the nuclear transmutation reaction.


Session CT-06-4: "Innovative Concepts IV - Additional Concepts"
Chaired By: P. Bailey, Institute for New Energy, Los Altos, CA

Ben Iverson (ITAM, Tigard, OR), "Foundations of Science, (Quantum Arithmetic)," IECEC 1997 Proceedings, paper #97096.

AUTHOR'S ABSTRACT

Fibonacci, back in the foundations of our contemporary mathematics, was wrong, superficial, and incomplete. Euclid's Geometry gave us the proper terms 1500 years before that. The number groups, taken as Euclid stated, can represent a single frequency of energy. Using musical frequencies, we are able to check the integrated operation of various frequency combinations. Historically this has always been known as "Sacred Geometry", but there is nothing sacred about it. It is absolutely non-religious, but it is Divine. Presently it is known as the "Grand Unified Field". In my work it is called "Quantum Arithmetic". The search for new energy is useless and always will be non-productive, without the truth and Law of Sacred Geometry.


Floyd A. Wyczalek (FW Lilly Inc., Bloomfield Hills, MI), "Einstein's Special Relativity - Kinematical Part 1, Einstein for Philistines," IECEC 1997 Proceedings, paper #97544.

AUTHOR'S ABSTRACT

I was motivated to read Albert Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity after viewing the NOVA presentation "Einstein Revealed." This presentation included several concepts such as: the dilation of time, the contraction of space, as functions of velocity; and the mass of sunlight radiation striking the Earth surface. As examples, clocks run slower at the equator than clocks located at the Earth poles, an object traveling at 90% the speed of light contracts to 44% of its length as viewed by an observer at rest and at a right angle to the direction of motion of the object; and, about 4.5 pounds of sunlight per second impact Earth, energy mass equivalent Einstein's E = mc2.

Prior to the NOVA presentation. I was only superficially aware of these concepts, but afterward resolved to obtain a copy of Einstein's 1905 paper published in the Annafen der Physik 1905. At my local public library, a synchronous event occurred in that the first book I selected from the many biographies on Einstein stored on the shelf was Authur I. Miller's 1981 "Albert Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity" and an appendix of Miller's translation German to English of Einstein's 1905 pamphlet of 24 pages.

Prior to reading Dr. Millers translation, I had assumed that Einstein's mathematics would be beyond my capability. Consequently, I was pleasantly surprised to realize that Einstein's paper presented the development of special relativity in very lucid and comprehensible terms.

The scope of the following summary of the bottom-line message, today's so-called news sound-byte, of Einstein's Special Relativity is limited to the Kinematical part 1 which deals with the dilatation of time or slowing down of moving clocks and the contraction of length of objects moving-in-space, relative to an observer at a resting reference point.

Lastly, Einstein's relativity is applied to illustrate current energy conversion engineering applications.


Floyd A. Wyczalek (FW Lilly Inc., Bloomfield Hills, MI), "Einstein's Special and General Relativity Energy Conversion Engineering Applications," IECEC 1997 Proceedings, paper #97552.

AUTHOR'S ABSTRACT

The mathematical concepts defined in Einstein's special and general relativity in 1905 and the years which followed, are routinely applied to many energy conversion engineering applications which are common today. Because of routine familiarity we have lost sight of the origin of the mathematical concepts. The mission of this paper is to review several applications and relate the mathematical concepts directly to Einstein's original 1905 and later papers. However, the scope of the following summary has been limited to highlighting the bottom-line equations involved in specific engineering applications.


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