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Patrick G. Bailey, Ph. D.
Vice President, Institute for New Energy
P.O. Box 201
Los Altos, CA 94023-0201.

Presented at the
Second International Symposium on New Energy (2nd ISNE)
May 12-15, 1994
Denver, CO


A review is presented from researchers that are not present at this conference of the theory and experimental evidence relating to Zero-Point Energy and Free-Energy Devices. It is found that there is increasing momentum and a growing network of researchers taking place in these fields, despite widely evident efforts to suppress this information. Nevertheless, sound theoretical foundations for understanding so-called "Zero-Point Energy" and "Free-Energy" devices have been documented and are available. There are several reports by various authors of experiments that indicate a much higher than normal operation efficiency, and even over-unity operation. Unfortunately, these results have to date not been replicated by other researchers. Since energy is conserved, pure perpetual motion cannot exist. However, several examples are known to exist where energy efficiency can appear to be "Over-Unity," and the motion can appear to us to be "Perpetual." For these types of systems, the idea of "Free-Energy" can be applied, and lessons learned. Valuable references with real mailing addresses and telephone numbers are included. Networking and replication of these encouraging results are desperately needed.


"Let God kill him that does not know, yet presumes to show the other the way!" This quote from a Persian dervish in the movie and videotape of "Meetings with Remarkable Men" by Gurdjieff (1963) pretty much summarizes my feelings toward the whole area of research science. It's a jungle out there. The dividing line between truth, fiction, what is best, and what sells has never been less clearly defined. Since the advent of the digital information explosion, the sea of information has been growing at a pace that few can follow. However, if we are to be responsible and seek the truth, we must persevere. I am dedicated to finding the truth.

To learn about the foundations and current technical knowledge in the Zero-Point and free-energy fields is to open a very large Pandora's Box. One finds non-believers, strong supporters, dissenters, and active hard-nosed suppressers. My interest was aroused as a teenager by reading about the life and contributions of Nikola Tesla, now available in the books by Walters (1961) and Cheney (1981). He is the one individual responsible for creating the entire alternating current network that powers the world today. He defied the science of his day, and designed and built the AC generator that transforms "potential" energy into "electrical" energy. Yet, he is not in many school texts, and his basic theories and ideas for larger projects and applications were nearly lost to the world. Why was he not supported? Why is Thomas Edison such a well known name and Nikola Tesla is not? Why was his research not actively continued? Why does the academic community, within the U.S., continually ignore the possible applications of his theories?

Tesla was unceremoniously thrown out of the best technical school in Yugoslavia for believing that he could build a generator that would extract electrical power from a running stream of water. His professor called it: "Perpetual Motion!" This is not so unfamiliar. We have heard other such convenient explanations, such as: "Heavier than air machines will never fly" (Lord Kelvin, 1890's); "We threw out all of the textbooks, and then we built the airplane" (the Wright Brothers); "The human body will not survive speeds of over 40 miles per hour" (early 1900's); and "Airplanes can not go faster than the speed of sound" (1940's). Other example abound, all spoken by the out-spoken "leaders" of their day. My view is that science continues to grow and mature. Nature is fixed. Only our understanding of Nature continually unfolds. Sometimes this growth has been only painful, and sometimes it has provided great shocks to the system. Fear of change is not an adequate excuse for not actively pursuing the development of our full capabilities as human beings, as individuals or as groups.


"Energy" cannot be created nor destroyed - it exists throughout space and within matter. "Perpetual Motion" does not exist - long lasting motion is easily observable, such as planetary orbits. "Stupidity" is not hereditary - and it is not a survival trait.

"Zero-Point Energy" (ZPE) is known as an energy that fills the fabric of all space. Technically the ZPE results from an electric flux that flows orthogonally to our perceived dimension or reality. The mass equivalence of this energy has been calculated by physicists to be on the order of 1093 gms/cm3. Henry T. Moray, Walter Russell, and Nikola Tesla described the nature of the ZPE and designed and built equipment to engineer its properties. It may be possible to build devices to cohere this energy. This would result in a non-polluting, unlimited supply of virtually free-energy.

"Free-energy" is a term that can have two meanings: (1) either the additional energy that can be obtained from a device at little or no additional cost, so the additional energy is essentially free; or (2) more output energy that appears to be available than input energy, such as in the case of detonating an atomic bomb. "Over-Unity Devices" are those systems which appear to produce more energy than they use. In analyzing such systems, a box is drawn around the device and energy balances are formulated to measure the amounts of energy coming into and out of that box. Whether or not the device is termed an "over-unity" device will depend upon the size of the box. When the box is drawn large enough, all systems or devices will have a net energy transfer of zero. On the other hand, when the box is drawn just small enough, the device can be said to be an "over-unity" device, and an intelligent physicist will know better.

From this point of view, examples of existing so-called free-energy devices abound: such as Hoover Dam. So then is any generator, or any nuclear reactor. More energy certainly comes out of a dam than went in to making it (by us, at least). So it is seen that these generators can be thought of as free-energy devices, while they are really only energy conversion devices, and obviously not perpetual motion machines. People who insist that they actually are, are either very ignorant or very devious. In such cases, examine the person's true underlying motives. [Another active "free-energy" device of increasingly note-worthy attention is the Federal Reserve, which is not an agency of the U.S. government and has never been audited. (Figgie 1992)] Sources of Information and Data

Ultimately, the sources for all information in these areas come from the inventors, researchers, or investigators themselves. The U.S. and foreign patent offices provide some information into new developments in these areas, yet the actual patents usually reveal very little useful information and almost no experimental results. Patent law does not require complete disclosure of all data, and patents are held nationally. An interesting area of big business today is the international transfer of patents for national corporate financial gain at no cost.

Other sources of information and data include papers, reports, books, and conference proceedings. Papers and books that are of special noteworthy attention are those by Hans Coler (1946), the Gravity Research Group (GRG 1956), Stefan Marinov (1992 and 1994), Hans Nieper (1984), and Shinichi Seike (1992). Conferences that have been recently held to collect and summarize information in these areas include the 26th, 27th, 28th, and 29th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conferences (August of 1991, 1992, 1993, and 1994) and the more recent 1st International Symposium on New Energy (ISNE) (April 1993). All of these materials are available from the sources identified in the references section.

Books and Reports

Many books and reports have been published that relate to the free-energy fields. I have listed the ones I have looked at in the references in this section. I have included almost all of Lt. Col. Tom Bearden's books and reports. It should be pointed out that Tom's book entitled AIDS: Biological Warfare (1988) probably has the best description of the pumped phase conjugate mirror wave theory model of any of his books. The book by Moray B. King (1989) gives an excellent overview of the definition of Zero-point Energy. Several books and reports have recently emerged regarding gravity and the Earth's apparent energy grid network. Books regarding the Orgonne Accumulator and ether vortex mechanics are also included. The book by Hans Nieper (1984) is a great reference book, and sometimes hard to find: use the source listed. The theories of Victor Schauberger (Alexandersson, 1982) are also very interesting, including his descriptions of Natural energy vortices, the changing properties of 4 degree C water with the phases of the moon, as descriptions of other Natural Wonders. Stefan Marinov's new book is also extremely important as it may well change the mathematics of EM theory (Marinov 1994).


I am familiar with only a few of the many technical conferences that have been held that deal with the Zero-point and free-energy fields. The one's I have recently attended are the 26th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), held in August 1991 in Boston, MA; the 1992 International Tesla Symposium, held in July 1992 in Colorado Springs, CO; the 27th IECEC held in August 1992 in San Diego, CA, and the 28th IECEC held in August 1993 in Atlanta, GA. As I organized the authors and papers for the 26th through the 29th IECECs in the "Innovative Concepts" sessions for the "New Technologies for Energy Utilization Area," I am familiar with their papers and contents. The material presented in other conferences do relate and overlap with much of the material presented in the recent IECEC conferences. It is my desire that future authors will network and exchange information before they write their next paper, so we can accelerate and converge the work that is being performed in these fields.

Societies and Publications

Some of the ones that I feel are of importance are listed in the references for your use. Make multiple photocopies of all of the references and distribute them. They are also available on disk.

ASK. If you do not personally get involved and do something, who will? Make it so.

Areas Of Related Interest

The study of the free-energy field overlaps with quite a number of other areas of science and technology, some of which are called "Fringe Areas." I believe that responsible investigations in these areas do uncover important information and data that can relate to various questions that occur in the study of free-energy. These questions include: Why is this research not conducted? Is it suppressed? Why is it suppressed? Are there other examples of such suppression? Where can I get more information? Are there any examples of such advanced related technologies? If such energy sources exist, has anyone found out how to use them? How do they work? Can I use them, and can I use them in a responsible manner?

There is a great outcry by those familiar with our current energy policy and the public electricity utility network for need of a new breakthrough in the technology of energy production. Dr. Gary Johnson (1992), a college professor and IEEE Senior Member, recently published a short review of the researchers in this area in a noted U.S. technical journal and concluded his four page report with the statement:

"There is a great deal of noise in the literature. Some concepts are obviously nonsense. Others will prove to be in error. But is there any signal in all the noise? There is if Tesla, Moray, and Bearden are correct. The potential payoff is enormous, so the search should be continued if there is any chance at all of success!"

Also, Llewellen King (1991), publisher of The Energy Daily, Defense Week, and Environmental Week Newsletters in Washington DC recently strongly and dramatically stated in a luncheon speech to an international technical audience at the 1991 IECEC:

"We have failed with energy to come up with the 'Great Big Breakthrough!' 'The Major Change.' 'The Radically Different Thing.' 'The Quantum Leap Forward.' Where is the jump from a copper wire to a fiber or to a cable? Where is the equivalent of fiber optics for electricity? ... The new technologies (discussed at this conference), such as magnetohydrodynamics, (are advancing and coming forth), and yet these things have not fostered - and we are still boiling water! It is theoretically possible that we could at some point take this 'Quantum Leap Forward.' ... And in order to do that, I believe that you will need new institutions to deploy new technology. They won't be deployed by the extant of the old institutions. ... The Challenge in Technology is to find It, and then sell It, and finally to deploy It."

Since the status and results in energy technologies and in these other fringe areas are seen differently by different persons, many misunderstandings take place, people become frustrated, emotions become heated, and eventually someone gets sorely offended. People can range from Apathy, to Denial, to Anger, and finally to Acceptance. So as to not offend anyone in this paper, I will limit the areas of my summary introduction investigations to Politics, Religion, and Sex:


"Never give a sucker an even break." I became very concerned when I became aware of first hand and second hand accounts of actual physical, emotional, and legal harassment being made to inventors, investigators, and writers in these scientific fringe areas. And I thought all of these suppression stories were nonsense. Upon investigation, harassment always follows those who promote a new paradigm. (Galileo spent a lot of time in jail. Etc.)

In my view, there is not a determined effort by the government to suppress information - because there is no government. I see instead a collection and network of vested interest groups that seem to tightly band together for mutual financial profit. The actions taken by any of these groups may be completely independent from the others. Therefore, I find the "government suppression" and "world domination" theories proposed by some to be interesting, and probably not applicable. However, some sort of control and suppression in the press seems very evident.

Two historical events are worth including here regarding possible suppression and inability to commercialize free-energy devices. These are the Device of T. Henry Moray (Resines, 1988), and the Hindershot Motor (Brown, 1988). Both of these devices were publicly demonstrated to the U.S. press in the 1930's, and carefully conducted tests were made to assess these devices. From the newspaper reports and clippings, it appears that both devices passed all tests, only to fall into oblivion. What exactly happened to the devices, their inventors, and the technology is not known. It also appears that the secrets of the devices died with their inventors.

It appears that all serious research and development activities in the energy conversion tech-nologies will continue to be closely monitored and guarded by the existing oil, transportation, and economics industries. Serious researchers in these new advanced energy areas are not allowing "the establishment" to buy them out. At the same time, there is strong evidence of aggressive suppression. The German company Becocraft specializing in the development of "new energy devices" was forcibly shut down and its president quickly imprisoned on investment fraud charges in a court case that had only one plaintiff: the Utility Company of Cologne! (Marinov 1992). All of the investors of Becocraft fought the case to no avail. Closer to home, the U.S. Patent Office has classified over 3,000 patent devices or applications under the secrecy order, Title 35, U.S. Code (1952) Sections 181-188. Where did that technology go? Why don't we have that information now? These patents would be a great place to start for a new company involved with defense conversion technologies for environmental use!


"Ask and you shall receive." Well, if this method can work to get advanced technical information - let's sincerely try it. After all, where do our ideas come from in the first place? Both Tesla and Edison are reported to have made their respective amazing discoveries while 'daydreaming' - not actually thinking! References are included for those that would like to seek and receive higher technical knowledge from higher sources, regardless of religious views. Books on how to receive higher information from other than our own conscious source have been published by the Cameron's, Hatonn, and J. J. Hurtak. Connecting Link Magazine also offers various methods and techniques to reach your higher self(s). Other books by Dion Fortune, Rashid et. al., Russell, Festinger et. al., and Findley are also worth reviewing. These methods seem to be very important, as many inventors have claimed to have received their ideas directly from "divine guidance" or in person from a well-known spiritual figure or entity.


"It takes two to Tango." Potentially, things are very interesting. It seems to take two at different potentials to make something happen: male/female, up/down, positive/negative, north/south. The view being taught today is simply given in one or two dimensions. Electricity is caused by the electrons going one way on a wire, and the holes going the other way. Electrical energy is created by chemical reactions that have a lower chemical ground state than the reactants. Chemical reactions are caused by electron bonding where electron orbits are finally filled and then higher orbits can be filled. Atomic energy is caused by electrons and nucleons dropping into lower energy states (gamma rays and lasers), or by differences in the binding energy of the nuclei (fission and fusion). The Sun gives and the Earth receives. Viva La' Difference.

For energy creation, we have developed the catch-all term: potential energy. The water behind a dam is said to have a great deal of potential energy, so the electricity is said to come out of the power plant. A battery has a stored electrical potential, so it powers your radio. Men and women all have stored potential, and we all know what trouble that can cause. However, no one ever talks about magnets and electromagnetic (EM) fields, and the possible potential energies within them. The Earth, for example is one huge oscillating field magnet! I have found only a few sources that reference the modeling of EM fields in three spatial dimensions (e.g. the works of Walter Russell 1926, 1947, 1989). The idea that energy exists in male and female vortices that form between this dimension and other dimensions is not new. The idea just hasn't been very useful - yet. Russell describes three dimensional elemental EM fields that can be classified as male and female by the spin of their 3-D EM fields, much the same way that we describe the poles of a bar magnet. Russell developed and tested counter-wound sets of coils, each in the shape of overlapping (male/female) cones. Such a coupling and cancellation of these fields would open up a whole new way of thinking about electricity and EM fields in general. Also, a new investigation of the physics of rotating permanent magnets and rotating EM fields would be very interesting. All reported research in these fields seems to stop in the early 1950's. Why?

Possible Misleading Results

"But goodness alone is never enough. A hard, cold wisdom is required for goodness to accomplish good" (Heinlein 1961).

While on one hand some researchers may possibly be overstating the capabilities and results of their experiments and devices, on the other hand many so-called "scientific experts" are very active in discounting all of the research results in these areas without investigating the details of any of them. "The Nobel chemist Irving Langmuir (1881-1957) used to give a cautionary talk on pathological science, and ... told a number of stories of pathological science and listed the features they have in common." (Cromer, Skeptical Inquirer, 1993). In his eight page article, Cromer states that there are many lessons from this: "(1) Scientists themselves are often poor judges of the scientific process; (2) Scientific research is very difficult. Anything that can go wrong will go wrong; (3) Science isn't dependent on the honesty or wisdom of scientists. (4) Real discoveries of phenomena contrary to all previous scientific experience are very rare, while fraud, fakery, foolishness, and error resulting from over enthusiasm and delusion are all too common. Thus, Glashow's closed-minded 'I don't believe a word of it' is going to be correct far more often than not." Also, I should point out that a good friend of mine recently published his concern regarding research in 'Energy Science,' and cautioned that experimenters must not lose their objectivity (Bennett 1993). A major trait of pathological science is "a readiness to discard prevailing ideas and theories."

Our sincere response to all of these arguments is: If there is no initial interest - then there will be no investigation. If there is no investigation, there will be no research to replicate. Your interest will spark the urge to replicate! If there is interest, research, and no replication, then that fact should be published and disseminated with integrity. If there are witnesses to the results and the results were or are repeatable, then we feel the fault and blame lies with the critic and not with the researcher. Therefore, given the experiments and devices referenced in these and other conference papers: Demand that they be tested with an open mind! One success out of all of the failures is more than worth the effort!

THE EARTH IS NOT FLAT! (Although the 'Flat Earth Society' is included in the references.)

Free-Energy Theory, Experiments, and Devices

To handle the mind bending thinking and theoretical insights in the Zero-Point and free-energy fields, researchers have, for better or worse (and probably for the near term worse) adopted a simple way of describing the results of their research, in terms of what they can immediately measure and see. So there are three categories that are generally expounded upon: "Free-Energy Under-Unity," "Free-Energy Over-Unity," and "Zero-Point Energy." (1) "Free-energy Under-unity" would be when I get more energy out than before and I only made a small change to my design, like to increase the overall system efficiency. An example might be using those magnets that when placed onto a car gas line give 5 miles extra per gallon. That's Free-Energy dude! This appears to be the case for several motors and generators that utilize magnets on their rotating shafts. (2) "Free-energy Over-unity" would be where I seem to get more energy out than I know am putting in. Period. An example would be pushing a car over the top of a hill. When it takes off without you, it appears additional energy is coming from somewhere. And, in all cases, of such experiments, the energy MUST be coming from somewhere in some form. It just hasn't been figured out yet, and the researcher has probably not drawn a large enough box. (3) "Zero-point Energy" can refer to the energy that comes from outside your influence: the wiring in the wall; the transmission lines nearby; a large EM signal on a specific FM radio station; the Earth's EM or gravitational field; solar EM energy; or possibly directed energy from outer space. Just because we can't measure it yet, doesn't mean it's not there!

With these definitions in mind, we see that Hoover Dam is a good example and could be considered by some Dam Engineer to be an "over-unity device." A good Dam Scientist would probably point out that the Sun evaporates the oceans and lakes, moves the vapor, makes the rain that fills the Dam, and the potential energy of the water produces the electrical power. The Dam Engineer could probably care less, and could also say that the Dam is "a perpetual motion machine that will last forever;" which means at least until he retires and his kids are out of college. The Dam Engineer would say: "The Dam thing runs on free-energy out of the air! The city of Los Angles believes it!" But - you know it won't last forever. Neither will the Sun.

So we need to be careful in our choice of words. For the purposes of this paper, a free-energy device will appear to produce more energy than it uses, because it is not known from what form of potential energy source the other required input energy comes from. Thus, we will allow system efficiencies over 100%, and over-unity energy conversion until we are either proven wrong, or we finally draw a larger box and understand what is happening inside that box.

Also: It is very important here to be a Fair Witness: That is a person who reports exactly what he or she sees - no more, no less (Heinlein 1961). Researchers and investors really do not give a (guess what) about what you think is going on. They want the facts of exactly what you observed. If a device appears to be promising: say so, and report it to be so. If it has a problem, say it seems to have a problem. Only after extensive support, testing, and cross-examination should an experiment or a device be classified or labeled a fraud or a failure. Once labeled as such, they will not easily obtain further support. Be Fair. Be Honest. Be Responsible.

Jefimenko's Electrostatic Free Energy Generators

Examples of free-energy devices and generators are clearly explained in the book Electrostatic Motors (Jefimenko 1973) where one Corona motor having a cylindrical rotor instead of a disk operates at 0.1 horse-power from a 6,000 Volt power supply as well as from an Earth field antenna. External power supplies are not necessary. These motors operate using the naturally occurring large voltage potential within the Earth's atmosphere, from the ground up. Very long running electrostatic devices have been built since the 1800's.

T. Henry Moray

John and Kevin Moray (1956, 1991) were kind to allow publication of a portion of their book The Sea of Energy: the history of T. Henry Moray and his devices, who from the early 1900's to the 1930's demonstrated to the U.S. press's satisfaction massive over-unity energy conversion.

"In 1901, T. Henry Moray theorized that energy was coming from within the earth. Through continuous experimentation and in spite of the doubts held by the scientific community of the day, he discovered that the energy was not coming from the ground but from an outside source away from the earth. The energy came in continuous surges, like waves of the sea, more in the daytime than at night. At this time Moray had enough power to light a 16-candle power carbon lamp at about one-half capacity. He labeled and defined his "Radiant Energy: The source of energy coming from the cosmos to the earth and radiating back from whence it came."

"Upon completion of his first Radiant Energy Device, many tests and experiments were conducted for the scientific and public communities. Channeling the waves of energy was done by way of an antenna. When set up and connected to the ground, priming and then tuning, the device would draw electrical energy. Results of this experimentation proved that the power generation had not originated from within the device. The device, through channeling radiant energy, produced up to 50,000 Watts of power and worked for long periods of time. For political reasons many people, organizations, and agencies of the day opposed him strongly. Despite the deliberate destruction of the R. E. Device, threats against his work and his family, and armed attacks by unknown assailants, T. Henry Moray continued with his dream of harnessing a usable energy that the world could benefit from, and the same time save the earth from the many methods of energy retrieval which now scar and pollute its land, air, and seas."

(As a side note, Moray's first germanium solid-state device (semiconductor) was submitted to the U. S. Patent Office in 1927, and was rejected on the basis that it would not work without a heated cathode.) (Boy. Am I glad times have changed. Whew!) (That's a sick joke folks! Wake Up!)

Hans Coler

Hans Coler demonstrated two major devices to many amazed witnesses and officials in Germany during 1925-1945. A 60 kW device was built in 1937, and the war bombings ended further research in 1944. A complete 32 page report declassified by the British Intelligence Objectives Sub-Committee is available from the author, PEA Research, and REX Research (Coler 1946, Nieper 1984). One of Coler's devices consisted of six ferrite permanent magnets placed in the form of a hexagon, with overlapping and reversing coil windings placed on the surface of each magnet. The coils were then wired in series as depicted in Fig. 2 of that report (Coler 1946). Reports indicate that 6 kiloWatts was produced by one device indefinitely.

Several of the free-energy devices reported historically have also reported to have antigravity effects. The theories expressed in the description of the Coler device are very similar to those presented in a comprehensive report (GRG 1956) (the latest one we could find so far) on electrogravitics systems, interactions of E-M with gravity, or counterbary control devices. These effects have also been actively studied by John Searl (who has a paper at this conference) and T. Townsend Brown.

Thomas Townsend Brown

Early in his life, Townsend Brown was demonstrating new methods of electrokinetic or space-energy propulsion, and many felt that it could lead to a new form of power generation. From the Office of Naval Research report [unclassified in 1952] on his work: "It is asserted that the force exerted upon a negatively charged body by a positively charged body is greater than the force exerted upon the latter by the former; that the force differential is [proportional to the mass of the dielectric inserted between the bodies; and that the phenomena is evidence of a new "electrogravitic" effect." "At Zanesville, Ohio in 1927, Mr. Brown at his then Laboratory of Research Physics, performed experiments on the force acting upon charged conductors. The apparatus took two forms, as described in a manuscript "Tapping Cosmic Energy," dated 28 October 1927, which was submitted at that time to Physical Review [magazine] for publication but which was rejected. Apparently no basic experiments have been performed since 1928."

An apparatus is described on page 10 of this ONR report where two sets of one foot aluminum circular disks are suspended from the ends of a six foot horizontal beam. Each disk set contains a top and bottom aluminum disk separated by a 18 inch of Plexiglas, where scallops have been indented on the leading and trailing edges of the disk and protruding wires inserted. Such wires are designed on both sides of the disk, and wired for opposite voltage potential. Reported test data indicated that when the wires were charged with 26.2 kiloVolts, the apparatus spun in the direction of the positive wires leading with a force of 8.0 +/- 0.5 grams. The writer concluded that the trust observed: "has its origin in the well-known phenomenon of the electric wind."

Later in 1953, Brown succeeded in demonstrating much better results with two-foot diameter disc-shaped air foils separated by twenty feet. When charged by 50,000 VDC with a continuous input of 50 Watts, the disks rotated in air at an observable speed of 17 ft/s, or 11 1/2 miles per hour! A later test used disks of 3 feet in diameter on a 50 foot diameter course, and the results were so impressive that they were immediately classified! As further U.S. funding for his research did not materialize, in 1955 Brown sought funding in Europe. In France, Brown succeed in flying some disks in a vacuum, and succeeded in proving that the phenomena was more efficient in a vacuum! Estimates could be made of speeds of several hundred miles per hour utilizing voltages of 1 or 2 thousand electron Volts. In 1956 all research was stopped by a French corporate merger, and Brown reluctantly returned to the U.S. He continued research on his devices and theories in these areas, and his work has gone seemingly unnoticed since then - unless it has already been applied to the B-2 bomber as suggested by Paul LaViolette in his paper at the 1st ISNE last year entitled "The U.S. Anti-Gravity Squadron" (LaViolette 1993).

T. Townsend Brown's research is also documented in his patent entitled "Electrokinetic Apparatus," U.S. Patent No. 2,949,550, filed July 3, 1957, and granted Aug. 16, 1960.

Sandy Kidd

Another inventor experimenting with an anti-gravity device is Sandy Kidd, a Scottish engineer, who say his "amazing device defies the accepted laws of physics by resisting the Earth's gravitational field and producing more energy than is fed into it. He was inspired to develop his device when as a "radar technician for the Royal Air Force, he was removing a gyroscope device from a bomber when he tried to jump from a ladder to the pavement below. The still spinning gyro flung Kidd violently to the ground. The scientific explanation is mind-numbing to most, but it launched Sandy into a new career that's kept him busy for the past 30 years." "Researchers at Edinburgh University are participating in a $1-million project to get the anti-gravity device off the ground." [Newspaper article by Arthur Dale. The newspaper reference and date were lost.]

Lester J. Hindershot

Lester Hendershot invented an electrical generator around 1928, which produced about 300 watts from what seemed to be the Earth's natural energy fields. The device consisted of old radio parts, a basket weave coil, capacitors, and a vibrator circuit that operated in the 500 kHz range. A key in the design of this device may be the use of the five inch diameter, non-inductive, basket-weave coil, similar to the coils used by Hooper (1974). Hindershot seemed to be the only person able to make his device work, and died in April 1961. The device is summarized in the Electric Spacecraft Journal magazine, Issue 7, 1992, and is documented in detail in "The Hindershot Motor Mystery" by Borderland Sciences (Brown 1988).

William Hooper

From the Preface (Hooper 1974): "This treatis presents newly discovered unique and startling properties of one of our induced electric fields. It gives this new field a new status among our force fields. Its unusual properties are possessed only by gravity. While it is too early to claim complete identification of this field and the gravitational field, the similarities are amazingly alike."

From Chapter 7, entitled "Some Confirming Experiments:" "During the years 1968 to 1969 the writer devoted his full time to the task of producing experimental sources of B x V fields which speak for themselves. Nature has the last word in any controversy in physics and when she speaks her words are final." "A generator of a motional electric field, all electric and with no mechanical motions involved, has been built and experimentally demonstrated." "One of the most fascinating aspects of our discoveries is that by the use of the phenomenon of superposition of fields, electromagnetic induction can seemingly be separated from magnetic flux energy. In other words, our all-electric motional electric field generator operates without the presence of detectable magnetic flux energy as such. It is a non-inductive device!" "It is this virtual field which produces the pure motional field in the space surrounding the generator. This newly discovered pure B x V field is the most unique phenomenon known to electromagnetism because it is devoid of the electrostatic and magnetic field characteristics we have hitherto known. It is a B x V field with the resultant B = 0. Its immunity to shielding gives it a stature and a character of its own, beautifully unique and isolated from all hitherto known spatial fields! Our generator produces nothing but this previously unknown field!"

A very interesting Appendix entitled "Similarities of the Motional Electric and Gravitational Fields," was also written and published by Hooper just two weeks before his sudden passing in 1971, that summarizes his theory and experimental work up to that time.

Hooper also found (Gibson 1983) that he was able to make specially constructed coils that could produce a field that could not be shielded and had other features in common with the gravitational field. One such coil is constructed from a long conductor folded at its midpoint then coiled into a non-inductive flat pancake form. Hooper (1974) states: " ...and electronic generator of ... the ultra-high frequency direct pulsing motional electric fields ... with its B x V field acting in the opposite direction to the Earth's B x V gravity field on the already polarized atoms in the [generator] would proceed to depolarize them and release them from the earth's gravitational pull."

Hooper was granted U.S. patent No. 3,610,971 on the "All-Electric Motional Field Generator" in 1971, and claimed to have witnessed anomalous forces when high currents and electrostatic shielding were used.

Paul Baumann: The Methernitha Free-Energy Machine

Also known as the "Swiss M-L Converter" or the "Thesta-Distatica." The spiritual and communal group of Methernitha is located in Switzerland, and a videotape may be available on loan from the Space Energy Association that summarizes their community and shows the device in operation. An English transcription of that video is also available (Methernitha, 1989). The device contains two counter-rotating disks (about two feet in diameter) that are set in motion by hand. They continue to spin thereafter, and the machine generates usable power that lights or powers small tools. The device appears to operate continuously and generates a continuous 3 to 4 kiloWatts power at about 220 Volts and about 10 Amps DC. From an analysis of Wimshurst electrostatic generators, this would require a power increase factor, or over-unity factor of about 20. Groups of investigative scientists from Europe and Japan have been allowed to examine the device in the 1980's, and have all verified these claims without understanding the machines principles of operation (Nieper 1984).

Paul Baumann is the inventor of the Thesta-Distatica, and is today the spiritual head of the Christian Community Methernitha in the village Linden, near Bern, Switzerland. He claims to have received the design and operating principles of the device while in deep meditation. Two machines have been described by a member of their community, Stefan Marinov: one machine has a disk diameter of 20 cm and delivers some 200 Watts of power, and another has a disk diameter of 2 meters that continuously gives 30 kiloWatts of electrical power. Methernitha is committed to not release details on their device, as they believe that present mankind is not ready for such advanced energy technology. Their point of view is adequately summarized in a quote from a typed letter from Methernitha in 1988 (Kelly 1988):

"To surprise present mankind with a free-energy device would literally mean to pour oil into a world which is already set on fire in too many places and domains of human life. What mankind needs is peace, peace of mind to start with, to have a chance to find back to nature and god, and not more and further technological support in his strife for pleasure, which would rather drown him in an ocean of noise, over-action and pollution in general. If you can not accept this point of view please discover a new 'free'-energy device by yourself. The responsibility for its publication with all of its consequences will then be yours only. May peace be with you. Methernitha."

From the videotape (or the transcription published in 1989), Methernitha states:

"This wondermachine is lurked from nature, nothing else. Nature is the greatest source of power as well as knowledge which man has, and it still conceals many secrets, which are only revealed to those, who approach and tie in them with highest respect and responsibility." "In order to understand nature and to perceive its voice, man is obliged to experience silence and solitude, and it was there, where the knowledge about this technology was obtained." "To the educated physicist many a thing of this machine may seem impossible, maybe even crazy. Maybe he is also offended by the conceptions used to explain the whole. Only partly we could use the concepts of conventional physical terminology in order to explain and define only approximately the functions and properties of the various parts of the machine." "It has to be remembered that the established sciences were already many times forced to change or give up some of their very fundamental concepts. Think about Galileo Galilei, in order to name only one example. Our human society almost condemned this man as a sorcerer and magician, just because he investigated and discovered a truth which seemed unacceptable by the established science of the days." "The book of knowledge is not wrong, but it is incomplete, and therefore allows to draw wrong conclusions." "We are part of a new era which brings to light many new facts and new knowledge. The clothes of nowaday science have become too tight and should be stripped off, just like the larva of an insect does with its skin. Only this will allow a true metamorphosis to take its course, and finally, at the limits and at the destination of all worldly knowledge, a universal and unlimited spiritual science, radiating and beautiful, just as the completed imago of an insect, may give its blessings and benediction to a renovated humanity."

Floyd Sweet

Floyd Sweet demonstrated his vacuum triode device to at least two expert electronics technicians that have documented their observations in sworn affidavits. A videotape was also made during a demonstration. From a nine Volt battery starter unit, nearly continuous output powers of 500 W to 50 kW have been reported to be observed. Experimentation is still in progress to further refine the device and to improve its operational capabilities.

Tom Bearden (1991) described a Vacuum Triode developed by Sweet. I have seen Tom's videotape of this device in operation, when it was operating. Tom considers the highly nonlinear nucleus of the atom as a pumped phase conjugate mirror (PPCM). He likens this effect to a triode tube since the amplified phase conjugate replica of the signal wave is much like the amplified output of a triode, and the input to a PPCM is much like a triode's grid signal input. Sweet has developed working devices based upon this vacuum triode concept utilizing paired barium ferrite magnets and resonant circuits. It should be noted that in order for the device to work, the magnets were preconditioned by an undisclosed process. Devices have been reported and demonstrated to reliable witness that have produced continuous 6, 500, and 5,000 Watts output from a nine Volt DC battery. Through Tom's theoretical suggestions, the circuit was modified to test possible antigravity effects. The test results performed by Sweet alone indicated a 90% weight reduction of the device itself, from 6 pounds to about 20 ounces on a spring scale, when the external load was increased from 0 to 10 Watts. To my knowledge, no further tests have been performed with this device, as Sweet has had severe heath and family difficulties.

On the Mathematical Formulation of EM Theory: Barrett, Bearden, and Marinov

For those that need to review the basics of electromagnetic (EM) theory and its orthodox mathematical representation, Rice gives a very good overview and derivation of the familiar electromagnetic equations in a five part magazine article (Rice 1991). However, it is increasingly obvious that these traditional EM equations just are not applicable to many of the experiments and devices that are being built and tested today. THEORY FOLLOWS FROM EXPERIMENT! Not the other way around! Our limited theories need to be expanded. One way to expand the EM equations is to go back to the original Maxwell's Equations in "Quaternions."

From the Quaternions Overview given by Barrett (1991): "The algebra of quaternions is the even subalgebra of a three-dimensional Clifford algebra with Euclidean metric. A quaternion is:

x = x0 l + x1 i + x2 j + x3 k,  where i, j, k, and l are related by

i2 = j2 = k2 = - l2

li = il = i, lj = jl = j, lk = kl = k, ij = -ji = k, jk = -kj = i, ki = -ik = j

[and in this text font form, you know that i, j, and k are all vectors]

[While i, j, and k form a normal orthogonal 3-D vector coordinate system set, we see that the l vector could be thought of as a some sort of complex vector direction, since the dot product of l with itself is opposite to those of the other quaternion components.] The set of quaternions is a division ring. It satisfies all the axioms for a field except the commutative law of multiplication.

Page 36 (Barrett 1991) is a direct reference to the theoretical operation of the Floyd Sweet Vacuum Triode Assembly over-unity device (that Tom Bearden has explained operates as a pumped phase conjugate mirror: "Higher-order oscillator-shuttle-circuit (OSC) arrangements permit more complex dynamics. For example, due to parametric process, third-order OSC device non-linear susceptibilites permit 'phase conjugate mirror' -like signal reception and communication with cancellation of noise-in-medium similar to that achieved with phase conjugate mirrors based on radiation-matter interaction."

Also, according to Barrett: "This higher topology approach is extremely important. Note that you cannot properly analyze Tesla's type of circuits with normal EE; you miss all of the higher symmetries. We can eventual do free energy with circuits and components alone, if we can only learn to analyze in this manner - quaternions are the minimum, and Clifford algebra is better." "And a normal EM analysis won't even see it or deal with it!"

In the report by Tom Bearden describing "Maxwell's Original Quaternion Theory Was a Unified Field Theory of Electromagnetics and Gravitation" (Bearden, 1988), an example of a quaternion formed by a 3-D vector with an additional potential term is presented. It is mathematically shown that the vector cross-product of the quaternion results in an additional term called a Scalar wave, that vector analysis totally ignores. This scalar wave "represents a scalar EM stress wave -- an oscillation of the local curvature of the vacuum, since it is varying the amplitude of the local energy density of vacuum as a periodic function of time." "Rigorously, this constitutes a powerful electrogravitational wave -- which I have dubbed a scalar EM wave. Applied to the highly nonlinear nucleus, this wave constitutes a pump wave in the nonlinear phase conjugate mirror for the production of time-reversed EM waves, time-reversed gravity (i.e. antigravity), and time-reversed entropy (i.e. negentropy)." "Thus there are two kinds of electromagnetics and two kinds of EM waves: (1) the normal translation force vector kind, which translates charged particles and interacts primarily with the electron shells, and (2) the artificial scalar potential kind, which does not translate charged particles, and interacts primarily with the atomic nucleus."

[For a detailed exposition of time reversal in physics, see Robert G. Sachs, The Physics of Time Reversal, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1987. For a discussion of negative energy with respect to the binding energy of the nucleons in the atomic nucleus, see C. W. Rietdijk, "How do 'virtual' photons and mesons transmit forces between charged particles and nucleons?," Foundations of Physics, 7(5-6), June 1977, pp 351-374.

Stefan Marinov has also suggested corrections to the mathematical description of Maxwell's electromagnetism equations. In his recent letter to New Energy News (Marinov 1994), he states:

"Today's physics asserts that the fundamental equation in electromagnetism is the Lorentz equation. This is a fraud. I showed theoretically and experimentally that the fundamental equation in electromagnetism is the Newton-Lorentz equation (as called by me) which is:

m u0 = - q * grad f - (q/c)  DA/Dt + (q/c) V * rot A - (q/c) * div A

[where DA/Dt represents (in this text font form) the partial of A with respect to t, and all vector notation is assumed to be obvious to the reader]

where f and A are the electric and magnetic potentials of an electromagnetic system at a point crossed by a particle with mass m, electric charge q, and velocity V. The acceleration of the charge is u0 and c is the velocity of light. THE LAST TERM IS MISSING in the Lorentz equation. And exactly this term is responsible for the rotating of the rotating Ampere bridge."

Also: "Today's physics asserts that when one has in one's hand a magnet and in the other a wire, then at the motion of the wire as well as at the motion of the magnet the same electrical intensity

Emot = (V/c) * rot A

acts on the charges in the wire. This is a fraud. The above motional intensity acts only at the motion of the wire. At motion of the magnet the motionaltransformer electric intensity I discovered:

Emot-tr = (1/c) (V * grad) A

acts on the charges in the wire. I demonstrated this by many experiments, the most eloquent of which is the quasi-Kennard experiment. When wire and magnet move together, then, according to today's physics, no electric intensity has to act in the wire. As a matter of fact the sum of the above two intensities acts and this can be observed on the famous Faraday disk. This effect was observed by Faraday in 1831 but until today physics cannot explain it."

Stefan has just completed a book entitled Divine Electromagnetism (Marinov 1994) that summarizes his most recent findings and describes many experiments that prove these findings. A recent reviewer said that: "This is one of the potentially world changing books" in its field!"

Tom Bearden

For several years, Tom Bearden (1991) has worked on an extended electromagnetics theory, involving the scalar component of the quaternion. (A scalar is a number with no vector direction, like speed. A vector has numerical values in each defined direction, like velocity. A quaternion is like a 4-component vector in a real-complex plane space. See above.) In MAXWELL'S ORIGINAL QUATERNION THEORY, this scalar component often remains when the directional components zero. Further, it enfolds vectors and functions of vectors inside, in a hidden variable manner. Specifically, Tom has patterned a unified field theory concept upon the previously unnoticed but remarkable early work of E. T. Whittaker. "In 1903 and 1904, Whittaker showed that all present day vector EM can be replaced by scalar potential interferometry, and that bi-directional harmonic EM plane wave sets could be used to produce a standing wave of force-field-free potential. In modern terms, this shows how to turn EM wave energy into electrogravitional potential energy, then how to interfere two such scalar potentials to recover the EM energy, even at a distance. This unrecognized work is of great importance: when applied to modern physics, it produces supersets of quantum mechanics, classical electromagnetics, and general relativity. Further, all three extended disciplines unify on their common Whittaker subset, in a testable and engineerable fashion." All of Tom's theories to unify electromagnetics, general relativity, and quantum mechanics are summarized in his 1991 paper, which is only six pages long! These are all available from the Association of Distinguished American Scientists (ADAS).

Bearden (1992) points out that: "By utilizing fundamental new definitions for energy, potential, and scalar potential, the mass of the atomic nucleus may be considered a powerful electrostatic scalar potential, referred to as the mass potential. The Whittaker EM bi-wave structure of the scalar potential then becomes a new and universal internal EM structure for mass, including the atomic nucleus. This structure can be directly manipulated electromagnetically, which allows direct EM alternation of the mass potential, and the nucleus itself. This totally new class of nuclear interactions is briefly explored, and several hypothesized mechanisms advanced for neutralizing or processing nuclear wastes. Additional applications are hypothesized for experimental falsification or verification. We have previously pointed out two successful experiments by Floyd Sweet, one for extracting useful EM energy from the vacuum, and one for the production of unilateral forces, including antigravity. We have also pointed out the implications of the approach for possible testable unification of electromagnetics, general relativity, and quantum mechanics. The cited Whittaker theory establishes a greatly expanded but engineerable EM, with external (spatial) and internal (hyperspatial) subsets. Scientists and engineers are urged to seriously study the two cited Whittaker papers and their implications, and to set up experiments to falsify or verify the hypotheses advanced."

Glen Rein

While not specially related to energy conversion devices, Glen Rein (1991), at Quantum Biology Research Laboratory, presented results of his research with cell culture bioassays and the effects of time varying quantum potentials. I feel this work is extremely important! A modified caduceus coil was used to test the hypothesis that bucking (opposite) electromagnetic fields can cancel their vector fields and generate a time varying quantum potential (the "A field," for those in the know). These experiments prove the existence of the "A field" that Tom Bearden and others refer to that has been excluded from the simplified EM equations (thanks to the simplifications of Heavyside) taught in physics today. The coil was shown to dramatically stimulate the growth of lymphocytes in culture cells, both directly in proximity and indirectly through storing its information in water. For those in the health fields: think very carefully about what is being said here! Then contact Glen!

Wilhelm Reich

Wilhelm Reich has become famous for his discovery of Orgone Energy, and the rather incredible effects of its use. The results and applications of his research are documented by DeMeo (1989), and further research is being carried out at the Orgone Biophysical Research Laboratory. The relationship between Orgonne Energy to the EM fields of the Earth and possibly to other fields is - at the present time - completely NOT understood.

Bruce Cathie

Bruce Cathie has made several important contributions to field energy research and is the author of several books. His paper is also contained in these 2nd ISNE Proceedings (Cathie 1994). He observes that the Earth is surrounded by several interlocking grids in a structure formed by a series of great circles around the Earth's surface. He finally discovered "that angular measure, in minute of arc values, and a time unit based on twenty-seven units for one revolution of the Earth, was the key to unlocking the grid secrets." His theories are very interesting, and are supported by various structures that can be seen constructed, even very deep underwater, at intersection points of these grids. He concludes that this grid establishes a grid of energy completely around the Earth that he feels is known by a select and powerful group of international interests and scientists. His paper includes a complete set of harmonic unified tables which "demonstrate the linkage of gravitational ad electromagnetic forces."

William Hyde

William Hyde has stated that he developed an over-unity device and patented it with full disclosure of all of its details in his U.S. Patent "Electrostatic Energy Field Power Generating System," U.S. Patent No. 4,897,592, granted January 30, 1990. Since then, several researchers have been in contact with the inventor trying to replicate this device. Moray B. King has become a central researcher in this effort, and has issued a list of technical items that are not in the patent that may be necessary for the successful operation of this device (King 1992). To my knowledge, no one has yet replicated the over-unity operation of the device as stated by Hyde.

Troy and Evelyn Reed

The Reed (1991) Magnetic Motor is an electromechanical device that Troy Reed says runs on magnetic power. The author has developed a small prototype and a larger unit that have both undergone several demonstrations and testing programs. He has also filed for a Patent with the Patent Office and the Foreign PTO/EPO. In his design, eight permanent magnets are placed on each of four disks. Two outer disks remain stationary while the two inner ones are mounted on a common shaft and are allowed to turn freely. Videotapes and other information are available.

Bruce dePalma

Bruce dePalma (1991) points out that the key to understanding and explaining the baffling situation of anomalous excess electrical energy generation in free-energy machines lies in a re-interpretation of magnetism as not being a property of the magnet, but of space itself. The Primordial Energy Field is then also distorted as a consequence of the spatial reaction to the centripetal force field existing within a ROTATING magnetized conductor. Bruce says that a N- machine/Space Power Generator is an electrical machine which has the capability of producing electrical energy with significantly less mechanical power input than the presently employed induction machines. In 1978, he constructed such a rotating device, the Sunburst machine, that was advertised to be 110% to 120% efficient (10 to 20% over-unity). In 1985, tests were per-formed under the direction of a well-known Professor Emeritus of Electrical Engineering from Stanford University. The test report quotes: "Known for over 150 years, the Faraday homopolar generator has been claimed to provide a basis for so-called free-energy generation, in that under certain conditions the extraction of electrical output energy is not reflected as a corresponding mechanical load to the driving source. During 1985 I was invited to test such a machine. While it did not perform as claimed, repeatable data showed anomalous results that did not seem to conform to traditional theory. ... dePalma may been right in that there is indeed a situation here whereby energy is being obtained from a previously unknown and unexplained source."

General Atomics (1991), a well known "high-tech" company located near San Diego, CA, has also been interested in exploring the capabilities of N-Machines. A "High Voltage Homopolar Generator" is described in a General Atomics marketing brochure dated in February 1991.

Paul Brown

Paul Brown (1991) describes a resonant circuit device containing a nuclear isotope that reportedly extracts energy from the Beta-decay from the isotope and uses it for useful work. The focus of his research has been to develop isotopic power sources in the range of 10 to 5000 milliWatts with a working life of 10 years. He states: "A phenomena known as the 'Beta Voltaic Effect' is used to directly convert radioactive decay energy into electricity without going through a thermal cycle. A great attraction of isotopic power sources is that radioactive decay energy is several orders of magnitude greater than chemical energy." Specifically Paul uses a strong beta-emitting nuclide, like Krypton-85 or Strontium-90 as the radioactive material and places it directly into a tunable LC tank circuit. He claims that results of 50% conversion efficiencies have been demonstrated, and greater efficiencies are hoped for in the future. I have heard that T. Henry Moray also had used radioactive substances in his device in the 1930's. I wonder if charged particles or charged ions play an important role in these effects. Moray King (1992) thinks they do.

Paul Brown (1992) describes recent developments in materials technology that now make it possible to fabricate non-thermal thin-film isotopic energy converters with a specific power of 24 kiloWatts/kilogram and 5 to 10 years working life at 5 to 10 Watts. He states: "This creates applications never before possible, such as placing the power supply directly on integrated circuit chips. The efficiency of the converters is about 25%, which is two to three times greater than the 6 to 8% capabilities of current thermoelectric systems."

Panos Pappas

Professor P. T. Pappas (1991) from Greece gave an informative review of the theory and his experiments with the creation of energy in sparks and discharges. Pappas points out that in Maxwell's theory, it is assumed that there is continuity and the closeness of the path for the flow of every current. He examines the Cardinal current force law of Ampere, and claims that energy creation is considered as not binding, but as possible, according to this Cardinal law as an alternative principle to the continuous creation hypothesis of Astronomy. Various inherent arc oscillations are presented as direct evidence of energy creation.

Gary Johnson

Gary Johnson (1992) reported that electrically induced explosions in water exhibiting free-energy are relatively easy to produce with a 2 micro-farad capacitor charged to 10 kiloVolts. "Expanding steam does not seem to be the main cause for the explosions. Similar explosions are obtained with significantly different peak currents, which raises questions about the longitudinal Ampere forces being the primary cause. It is therefore conceivable that we are tapping a new energy source." (Of course, this technique may not be the optimum one to extract this energy. But it could lead us toward a better understanding of this source.)

Robert Adams

The Adams motor has been of considerable interest in the past year, and many researchers have obtained the plans for the motor and have replicated its design and results (Adams 1993). Using the equations given with the plans, many claims of over-unity operation have been claimed and replicated. However, from a copy of a letter from W. G. McMurthy to Robert Adams, Harold Aspden reports (Aspden 1994 NEN) that McMurthy stressed that: "though he had replicated a working version of the motor, he could not vouch for any over-unity performance claims. He was obviously not impressed by the 'harmonic theory' that Adams was using to evolve the design concepts and had come to realize that earlier reports on how efficiency was measured by Adams were not sound. Also, he questioned the relevance of the motor remaining cool, having regard to the relatively large mass of its core system and windings in relation to power throughout." The reader is referred to the papers by Harold Aspden and W. G. McMurthy for further information and details regarding the Adams Motor and specifically the equations that are used to measure its input power, output power, and the motor's resulting efficiency.

Joseph Newman

From Newman (1984): "I question what I learn. I will not be intimidated by people. They say that the energy in a magnetic field is the result of moving a conductor through a magnetic field, a result of electrical flow within the conductor. They maintain that the energy you get is because of the energy you put into the system. I listened to that and I read the material and felt very uncomfortable." "Then I understood the mechanical essence of what I saw in that gyroscope. As soon as I understood that, I instantly understood the answer to my question of what that energy was in the magnetic field." [Interviewer: You're saying it's mechanical energy in the magnetic field?] "Yes, that's what I'm saying. What's extremely interesting is that's exactly what Michael Faraday and James Clark Maxwell stated better than 100 years ago and it's been totally ignored. ... Scientifically this analogy is exact." "Electricity is the movement of these gyroscopic particles. When you move a conductor these particles are deflected and go down that conductor." "I have spent 15 years writing a scientific document that mechanically explains gravity, electricity, magnetism, inertia, planetary motion, and a new source of energy, all by one single mechanical explanation, by this gyroscopic action. I can explain why magnets attract and repel, why electrical charges attract and repel, all of those things." [The 1999 8th Edition of his book is now available. (Newman 1999)]

[Added: March 18, 1999: Newman, J. (1999), The Energy Machine of Joseph Newman, 8th Edition is now available: Joseph Newman Publishing Co., 11445 East Via Linda, Ste. 2416, Scottsdale, Arizona 85259 (602) 657-3722].

Recent Documented Examples of Suppression

From Paul Brown's written Open Letter (Brown 1991): "I have been involved with alternative energy research since 1978, while still a college student. Over the years I have heard many nightmare stories about people who developed something significant only to be persecuted, harassed, prosecuted, and even killed. ... As time went on, and in about 1982, I became involved in work of some significance and received some minor criticism and skepticism that I found to be beneficial as well as practical ... However, things began to change, slowly and alarmingly. The more success I had in my endeavors, the more I began to attract dishonest and greedy people. In 1987 we decided it was time to let the world know what we were working on and the results we were getting. ... But this was the real beginning of the worst. Since that February 1987, I or my company have been persecuted by the State Dept. of Health; then the Idaho Dept. of Finance filed a civil complaint; ... I began to receive threats; securities fraud charges were then filed against my company and my self; then the tax man; then the SEC; then my wife was assaulted; my house was robbed three times; twice I was accused of drug manufacturing; I lost my home; and most recently my mother's car was pipe bombed. ... I am here to tell you it is not coincidence. I now understand why some inventors drop out from society. My advice to you is keep a low profile until you have completed your endeavor; be selective in choosing your business partners; protect yourself and your family; know that the nightmare stories are true." "God speed, Good Luck in your endeavors, and Never lose The Faith."

From the letter for "Urgent Appeal" by inventor and patent recent holder William Hyde (Hyde 1992): "The United States Department of Energy and various large corporations have and are attempting to suppress this new emerging energy technology. They use harassment, death threats, blackmail, extortion and employ people to file frivolous lawsuits to drain off resources to stop development and manufacture. I have been in court for five years over every conceivable frivolous matter one could think of. Unless I receive help from the American people, I will not be able to work in this important energy technology area, as the costs of fighting a cabinet level federal bureaucracy and billion dollar corporations is prohibitive. My legal costs over the last five years has been over $35,000. I have lost over 30 foreign patents because of the government action." "Again, I ask for you help in this important matter. I personally thank all of you in advance for your help. I look forward to hearing from you all."

There are other examples of evident suppression of advanced research and of newsworthy stories in the U.S. media. "Project Censored" at Sonoma State University in California publishes a newsletter and a yearly compilation of what journalism students at that university think are the most actively suppressed stories by the U.S. media. The are many theories as to the reasons for such suppression and the groups that could be performing it. A good review of such groups is given by John Coleman in his book Conspirators' Hierarchy: The Story of the Committee of 300, (Coleman 1992). Possible reasons for such control are the main subject of another book, Bankruptcy 1995, (Figgie Jr. 1992). These and other valuable books are also available from the Liberty Library - get their free catalogue using their 800 number.

Cold Fusion Over-Unity Research

The verified and repeatable over-unity effects and phenomena of 'Cold Fusion' also will just not go away. Edmund Storms of Los Alamos National Laboratory has reviewed much of the work done internationally in the so-called area of cold fusion and has documented the results of the now world-wide research in this area (Storms 1993). Carol White has documented a summary of research and repeated results presented at the 3rd International Cold Fusion Conference (White 1993). Within the U.S., Bob Shaubach at Thermacore has presented a paper entitled "Electrolysis of Light Water Produces Excess Energy - 78 Watts Output with 28 Watts Input." Also, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) research at the Stanford Research Institute (SRI) will be published this August that verifies the existence of the cold fusion phenomena, including nuclear product formation (McKubre 1994). How such cold fusion systems could be commercialized in the near future is summarized in a recent paper by Hal Fox (Fox 1993).

U.S. Patents

There are several patents of equipment and devices that are of interest and could be very important to researchers in the free-energy areas. All of the patents that I am currently aware of that relate to these areas are all listed in their own section in the references. Copy it.

It is important to note that you can quickly obtain any patent from a local U.S. patent clearinghouse, such as the one in Sunnyvale, California, by a telephone call or a FAX once an account has been set up for you. If you are not in a hurry, you can order a copy of any patent for $3.00 (three dollars) each from the Commissioner of Patents and Trademarks in Washington DC, although it may take 2-6 weeks. Just provide the long patent number with a short letter.

It is also important to know that U.S. Patents undergo a lengthy review process. Part of that process is a detailed review by a committee to see if any of the technology within the patent is applicable to "groups" in support of the national security. One panel, called the ASPAB, is set up each year, composed of members of the four armed services to perform this function. If ANY member of the panel feels that the patent information could be used "in the interest of national security," then the patent is removed from the patent process, and the inventor is sent the "Secrecy Order" reprinted at the end of this paper. The inventor is ordered: "in nowise to publish or disclose the invention or any material information with respect thereto, ... ". In other words, they say: "thank you for the information, now SEND IT IN AND FORGET IT!" Over 3,000 patents have been classified this way (MacNeill 1983). Each of these is supposed to be reviewed on a yearly basis for possible release back to the inventor. I know of only one that was.

It is also interesting to note that the recent passage of NAFTA by the U.S. Government is supposed to allow patents that have been granted in Canada and Mexico to be also immediately applicable in the U.S. Joseph Newman is actively pursuing this avenue, as he was granted a patent for his device in Mexico and has been repeatedly denied the same patent in the U.S. I strongly suggest that others contact him and their own legal councils regarding this matter.


"Woe to you, you blind leaders of a hoard of blind, who say: 'This should be done and that should not be left undone.' You only represent a false teaching and ignore the laws of Creation" (Rashid 1992).

"It has been said that science is man's futile attempt to understand Nature. While it becomes important to learn, understand, and apply science in our everyday lives, it is equally important to continue the pursuit of unraveling the secrets of Nature." (ISNE 1993 & 1994, from 'Forward').

If ignorance was a good enough reason to not try, the light bulb would have never been invented and the Earth would still be flat. Let us be judged by our work and repeatable results, and not by hasty words. If some of these works turn out to be not valid: So Be It; Let it Be Known; and Let's Move Forward with Integrity! We are all desperately looking for the next big breakthrough in modern physics to assist us in solving the escalating energy and environmental crises!

Do something to promote and encourage the continuation of these researchers and these works! If you don't do it, who will? If not now, when?

Business Plan

An international organization has been created that is committed to the study of these fields and the support of its researchers. Such an organization cannot survive within the United States alone. What is proposed is a three step plan: (1) The creation of an annual advanced energy conference to bring together those who will openly discuss ideas, experiments, and devices; (2) The use of an international non-profit corporation that would support these activities and extend and network these conferences internationally; and (3) The creation of a financial dividend structure that would allow all participants to gain from the success of others. All we need is a responsible team of researchers and repeatable results: the financial backers will come.

Research and advancement done at the expense of others must become a thing of the past.


I thank all of the researchers and authors that have promoted these ideas and have placed themselves on the line in the face of so-called "adversity." I also thank the staff and promoters of the INE, NEN, and IANS for contributing to this conference. I also gratefully acknowledge these and many other researchers, scientists, and skeptics that have contributed serious open research and documentation to boldly advance science and technology for the benefit of the human race.


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   Weapons, 225 pp, Tesla Book Company.
Bearden, Thomas E. (1988).  AIDS:  Biological Warfare, 486 pp, Tesla Book
Bearden, Thomas E. (1988).  "Maxwell's Original Quaternion Theory Was a
   Unified Field Theory of Electromagnetics and Gravitation," Proceedings of
   the International Tesla Society Symposium, 1988, 58 pp, Association of
   Distinguished American Scientists, P.O. Box 1472, Huntsville, AL 35807, FAX
   (205) 536-0411.  Also available through ITS Books and PACE.
Bearden, Thomas E. (1989).  Gravitobiology:  A New Biophysics, 2nd Edition,
   170 pp, Tesla Book Company.
Bearden, Thomas E., and Walter Rosenthal (1991).  "On A Testable Unification
   of Electromagnetics, General Relativity, And Quantum Mechanics," 26th
   IECEC, Vol. 4, pp 487-492, and Association of Distinguished American
Bearden, Thomas E. and Michrowski, Andrew, Eds. (1990), The Emerging Energy
   Science:  An Annotated Bibliography, 2nd Edition, 1990, available through
Bearden Thomas E., and Floyd Sweet (1991).  "Utilizing Scalar Electromagnetics
   To Tap Vacuum Energy," 26th IECEC, Vol. 4, pp 370-375, and Association of
   Distinguished American Scientists, 1991.
Bearden, Thomas E. (1992).  "Background for Pursuing Scalar Electrodynamics,"
   Association of Distinguished American Scientists.
Bearden, T. E.(1992), "The Emerging New Unified Science of Mind and Matter
   Interaction," 1992 Proceedings of the IANS, available through IANS.
Bearden, Thomas E. (1992), "An Interpretation of Whittaker's Harmonic Biwave
   Decomposition of the Scalar Potential and His Replacement of Orthodox EM
   Forcefield Waves by Scalar Potential Interferometry," available from the
   author through ADAS, August 1992.
Bearden, Thomas (1992).  "A Redefinition of the Energy Ansatz, Leading to a
   Fundamentally New Class of Nuclear Interactions," 27th IECEC, pp 4.303-
   4.310, and Association of Distinguished American Scientists.
Bearden, T. E. (1993), "The Final Secret of Free Energy," 1st International
   Symposium on New Energy paper, April 1993.
Bennett, Gary L. (1993), "The 'Pathological Science' Syndrome:  A Concern for
   Energy Science," 28th IECEC, pp 2.335-2.340, August 1994.
Brown, Paul M. (1991).  "Current Status And Future Research With Resonant
   Nuclear Generators," 26th IECEC, Vol. 6, pp 132-134.
Brown, Paul (1991), "An Open Letter to All Working on Alternate Energy,"
   personal written communication from Paul Brown, dated Nov. 1, 1991.
Brown, Paul M. (1992).  "Solid State Isotopic Power Source for Computer
   Chips," 27th IECEC, pp 4.345-4.350.
Brown, T. Townsend (1952), "An Investigation Relative to Thomas Townsend
   Brown" by W. M. Cady, Office of Naval Research, Pasadena, CA, undated,
   Classified Confidential, released to the USAF 18 Sept 1952 [classification
   canceled by ONR, 1 Oct 52].  
Brown, T. Townsend (undated), "Research File on T. Townsend Brown,"
   Publication No. 4501/4, William L. Moore Publications and Research, 4219
   West Olive Ave., Suite 247, Burbank, CA 91505, $15.00, undated.
Brown, T. Townsend (undated), "The Townsend Brown Electro-Gravity Device, A
   Comprehensive Evaluation by the Office of Naval Research, with Accompanying
   Documents," 15 September 1952, Publication R-503, William L. Moore
   Publications and Research, PO Box 1845, Prescott, AZ 86302, $10.00,
Brown, Tom (1988).  The Hindershot Motor Mystery, Borderland Sciences.
Cameron, Pam and Fred (1991).  Bridges of Light (A Channeled Book on How To
   Channel, Access Center, P.O. Box 2517, Pagosa Springs, CO 81147-2517,
   $12.00.  [Highly Recommended.]
Cathie, Bruce L. (1990).  The Energy Grid - Harmonic 695:  The Pulse of the
   Universe, 1990.
Cathie, Bruce L. (1994), "Harmonics and the Unified Field Theory," 2nd ISNE,
   1994;  Quark Enterprises LTD, 158 Shaw Road, Oratia, Auckland, New Zealand,
   Phone 818-4291.
Cheney, Margaret (1981).  Tesla:  Man Out of Time, 1981, Prentice Hall
   Publishing, NY.
Childress, David H. (1992).  Anti-Gravity and the World Grid, 1992, ITS Books.
Childress, Hatcher (1985).  The Anti-Gravity Handbook, 1985, Adventures
   Unlimited Press, IL.
Cleaver, A. V. (1957), "Electro-Gravitics:  What it is - or Might Be," Journal
   of the British Interplanetary Society, Vol. 16, No. 2, April-June 1957, 
   pp 84-94.
Coleman, Dr. John (1992).  Conspirators' Hierarchy:  The Story of the
   Committee of 300, 1992.
Coler, H. (1946), "The Invention of Hans Coler, Relating to an Alleged New
   Source of Power," British Intelligence Objectives Sub-Committee report No.
   1043 Item 31, 32 pp, Now Unclassified, Summer 1946.  (Available from the
   author for $5.00 per copy)
Cromer, A. (1993), "Pathological Science: An Update," Skeptical Inquirer, Vol.
   17, pp 400-407, 1993.
DeMeo, James (1989).  The Orgone Accumulator Handbook:  Construction Plans,
   Experimental Use, and Protection Against Toxic Energy, ITS Books.
dePalma, Bruce (1991).  "Magnetism As A Distortion Of A Pre-Existent
   Primordial Energy Field And The Possibility Of Extraction Of Electrical
   Energy Directly From Space," 26th IECEC, Vol. 4, pp 429-432.
Festinger, Leon, Henry W. Riecken, and Stanley Schachter (1956).  When
   Prophecy Fails, Harper Torchbooks, Harper and Row Publishers, NY.
Figgie, H. E. Jr. (1992), Bankruptcy 1995:  The Coming Collapse of America and
   How to Stop It, Little, Brown and Company, U.S. and Canada, 1992.
Findley, Paul (1985).  They Dare to Speak Out, Lawrence Hill Books, IL.
Fortune, Dion (1957).  Psychic Self-Defense, The Aquarian Press, England.
Fox, Hal (1993), "Commercialization of Enhanced Energy Systems," 28th IECEC
   paper, pp 2.321-2.328, August 1993.
Fox, Hal, Ed., (undated), Impact Articles on Cold Fusion, Fusion Information
   Center, P.O. Box 58639, Salt Lake City, Utah 84158-0369, TEL (801)
   583-6232, FAX (801) 583-6245.
General Atomics (1991), "High Voltage Homopolar Generator," described in a GA
   marketing brochure 2-28-91.
Gibson, F. G. (1983), "The All-Electric Motional Field Generator and its
   Potential," Second International Symposium on Non-Conventional Energy
   Technology, Atlanta, GA, Sept. 1983, [available from Hathaway Consulting
GRG, Gravity Research Group (1956), "Electrogravitics Systems:  An Examination
   of Electrostatic Motion, Dynamic Counterbary, and Barycentric Control,"
   Feb. 1956:  Gravity Research Group report GRG-013/56, Wright Patterson AFB
   Technical Library, Catalog No. TL 565 A9, WPAFB, Ohio 45433.
Gurdjieff, G. I. (1963).  Meetings With Remarkable Men, page 185, E. P.
   Dutton, NY.
Hathaway, G. D. (1991), "From Anti-Gravity to Zero Point Energy:  A Technical
   Review of Advanced Propulsion Concepts," IEPC-91-127, AIDAA/AIAA/DGLR/JSASS
   22nd International Electric Propulsion Conference, October 14-17, 1991,
   Viareggio, Italy (Hathaway Consulting Services, 39 Kendal Ave., Toronto,
   Ontario, Canada M5R 1L5.
Hatonn and St. Germain (dharma) (1991).  Phone Home E. T. - Reach Out and
   Touch Someone - Like God, Tehachapi Distributors, 1991.
Heinlein, Robert (1961).  Stranger in a Strange Land, Ace/Putnam Books, NY.
Hooper, W. J. (c1974), "New Horizons in Electric, Magnetic, and Gravitational
   Field Theory," 86 pp, Electrodynamic Gravity, Inc., 35 W. Tallmadge Ave.,
   Akron, Ohio 44310.
Hooper, W. J. (1971), "Similarities of the Motional Electric and Gravitational
   Fields,"  22 pp, Appendix to the Hooper report, c1974 
Hurtak, J. J. (1978).  The Book of Knowledge:  The Keys of Enoch, Acad. for
   Future Sciences.
Hyde, William (1992), "Appeal to the American People for Help with Government
   and Big Business Suppression of New Emerging Technology," written
   communication from William Hyde April 1992;  William Hyde, 1685 Whitney,
   Idaho Falls, ID 83402-1768.
Jefimenko, Oleg D. (1973).  Electrostatic Motors, Their History, Types, and
   Principles of Operation, ITS Books.
Johnson, Gary (1992).  "Electrically Induced Explosions in Water," 27th IECEC,
   pp 4.335-4.338.
Johnson, Gary L. (1992).  "Searchers for a New Energy Source," IEEE Power
   Engineering Review, pp 20-23, January 1992.
Kelly, Don (1988), Letter to Don Kelly from Methernitha, dated 9.2.1988.
Kelly, Donald A. and Patrick G. Bailey (1991).  "The Methernitha Free-Energy
   Machine, The Swiss M-L Converter," 26th IECEC, Vol. 4, pp 467-472.
King, Llewellen (1991).  "On Solving the Great Problems of the World," 26th
   IECEC Luncheon Speech, Boston, MA, August 8, 1991.
King, Moray B. (1989).  Tapping the Zero-Point Energy, ITS Books.
King, M. B. (1992), "Update on the Hyde Invention,"  personal written
   communication from Moray B. King, January 1992.
Krafft, C. F. (1955).  The Ether and its Vortices, ITS Books.
Langmuir, I. (1989),  "Pathological Science," Physics Today, 42: 36-48,
   October 1989.
LaViolette, Paul A. (1993), "The U.S. Antigravity Squadron," Proceedings of
   the 1st International Symposium on New Energy, p469.
MacNeill, Ken (1983).  "Insights into the Proprietary Syndrome," 2nd
   International Symposium on Non-Conventional Energy Technology, Atlanta, GA,
   pp 125-126, Sept. 9-11, 1983.
Marinov, S. (1992), "Regarding Becocraft - Letter to Mr. Richard von
   Weizsacker, President of the German Federal Republic, 10 October 1992",
   Deutsche Physik, No. 7, East-West Publishers, Morellenfeldgasse 16, A-8010
   Graz, Austria.
Marinov, Stefan (1994), "Letter to Germany's President," New Energy News,
   April 1994, p16.
Marinov, Stefan (1994), Divine Electromagnetism, East-West Publishers,
   Morellenfeldgasse 16, 8010 Graz, Austria, Tel (0316) 37 70 93, $70.00
   (USD).  (The funds go to aid Stefan in continuing his experimental
McKubre, Michael et. al. (1994), "An Overview of Excess Heat Production in the
   Deuterated Palladium System at SRI," 29th IECEC paper (to be presented
   August 1994).
McKubre, Michael et. al. (1994), "The Evidence for Anomalous Heat and Nuclear
   Product Formation in the Deuterated Palladium System at SRI," 29th IECEC
   paper (to be presented August 1994).
Methernitha (1989).  "Informationsfilm Thesta-Distatica:  Sound Track
   Transcription," Tagungsband Proceedings, Internationaler Kongress fur Freie
   Energie, Einsiedeln, Switzerland 1989, ISBN 3-9520025-1-8.
Moray, John and Kevin (1956).  The Sea of Energy in Which the Earth Floats,
   COSRAY, The Research Institute, Inc., 2505 South Forth Street East, P.O.
   Box 651045, Salt Lake City, UT 84165-1045.
Moray, John E., and Kevin R. Moray (1991).  "The Sea Of Energy:  A Means For
   The Preservation Of The Environment By Drawing Kinetic Energy From Space,"
   26th IECEC, Vol. 4, pp 347-351.
Newman, Joe (1984), "Free Energy:  An Interview with Mr. Joe Newman," The
   Moneychanger, Vol. 4, No. 8, Sept. 1984, pp 1-5.
Newman, J. (1994), The Energy Machine of Joseph Newman, a New Edition is to be
   released in about May 1994 (an older edition is also available):  Joseph
   Westley Newman, Route 1, Box 52, Lucedale, Miss. 39452, $60.00.  A
   videotape is also available for $25.00.
Nieper, H. A. (1984), Revolution in Technology, Medicine and Society, MIT
   Verlag, Germany, 1984 (In English):  Tesla Book Company, PO Box 121873,
   Chula Vista, CA 91912, $27.00.
Pappas, P. T. (1991).  "Energy Creation In Electrical Sparks And Discharges:
   Theory And Direct Experimental Evidence," 26th IECEC, Vol. 4, pp 416-423.
Rashid, Isa, and Edward Meier, English translation by J. H. Ziegler and B. L.
   Greene (1992).   The Talmud of Jmmanuel, 24:29-30, Wild Flower Press, P.O.
   Box 230893, Tigard, OR 97224, 1992, $17.20.
Reed, Troy G. (1991).  "The Reed Magnetic Motor:  The Motor Of Tomorrow," 26th
   IECEC, Vol. 4, pp 484-486.  Troy Reed, PO Box 471613, Tulsa, OK 74147, 
  (918) 664-0100.
Rein, Glen (1991).  "Utilization Of A Cell Culture Bioassay For Measuring
   Quantum Potentials Generated From A Modified Caduceus Coil," 26th IECEC,
   Vol. 4, pp 400-403.
Resines, Jorge (1988).  The Complex Secret of T. Henry Moray, ITS Books.
Rice, William P. (1991), "An Intuitive Look at Electromagnetic Theory," Radio-
   Electronics Magazine, 5 Part Article, August - December 1991.
Russell, Walter (1926).  The Universal One, Univ. of Science and Philosophy.
Russell, Walter (1947).  The Secret of Light, Univ. of Science and Philosophy.
Russell, Walter (1989).  A New Concept of the Universe, Univ. of Science and
Russell, Walter and Lao (1981).  Atomic Suicide,  Univ. of Science and
Sigma, Rho (1977).  Ether-Technology, A Rational Approach to Gravity Control,
   ITS Books.
Seike, S. (1992), The Principles of Ultra Relativity, 11th Ed., 1992:  Space
   Research Institute, Box 33, Uwajima, Ehime (798), Japan, $70.00 (USD).
Shaubach, R. (1992), "Electrolysis of Light Water Produces Excess Energy -
   78 Watts Output with 28 Watts Input," 27th IECEC informal paper, Aug. 7,
   1992, Thermacore, Inc., 780 Eden Road, Lancaster, PA 17601.
Storms, E. (1993), "The Status of 'Cold Fusion'," 28th IECEC paper, pp 2.315-
   2.320, August 1993.
Valone, Thomas (1991).  "Non-Conventional Energy And Propulsion Methods," 26th
   IECEC, Vol. 4, pp 439-444.
Valone, Thomas (1991).  "The One-Piece Faraday Generator:  Research Results,"
   26th IECEC, Vol. 4, pp 473-478.
Valone, Thomas (undated), "Non-Conventional Energy & Propulsion Source
   Database," Integrity Institute, 1377 K Street, NW, Suite 16, Washington DC,
   TEL (202) 682-7371, FAX (202) 543-3069.
Walters, Helen B. (1961).  Nikola Tesla - Giant of Electricity, Thomas Y.
   Crowell Comp., NY.
White, Carol (1993), "A Summary Review of the 3rd International Conference on
   Cold Fusion," 28th IECEC paper, pp 2.309-2.314, 1993.

Patents Information and Ordering

Commissioner of Patents and Trademarks, Box 9, Washington DC 20231;  $3.00 per patent.
Patent Information Clearinghouse, 1500 Partridge Avenue, Building 7,
   Sunnyvale, CA 94087, (408) 730-7290, FAX (408) 735-8762.

Patents of Interest

Alexander, Robert W. (1975), "Method and Apparatus for Increasing Electrical
   Power," U.S. Patent No. 3,913,004, Oct. 14, 1975.
Aspden, Harold (1990), "Switched Reluctance Motor with Full Accommutation,"
   U.S. Patent No. 4,975,608, Dec. 4, 1990.
Brown, Paul (1989), "Apparatus for Direct Conversion of Radioactive Decay
   Energy to Electrical Energy," U.S. Patent No. 4,835,433, May 30, 1989.
Brown, T. Townsend (1960), "Electrokinetic Apparatus," U.S. Patent No.
   2,949,550, Aug. 16, 1960.
Cap, Ferdinand (1986), "Parametric Electric Machine," U.S. Patent No.
   4,622,510, Nov. 11, 1986.
Carr, Otis (1959), "Amusement Device," (i.e. A 'Flying Saucer'), U.S. Patent
   No. 2,912,244.
de Rivas, Villasenor (1977), "Electromagnetic Generator," U.S. Patent No.
   4,006,401, Feb. 1, 1977.
de Rugeris, John (1975), "Carburetor Apparatus Having an Improved Fuel
   Metering Arrangement," U.S. Patent No. 3,920,778, November 18, 1975.
Del Vecchio, Robert M. (1986), "Low Core Loss Rotating Flux Transformer," U.S.
   Patent No. 4,595,843, Jun. 17, 1986.
Ecklin, John W. (1086), "Biased Unitized Motor Alternator with Stationary
   Armature and Field," U.S. Patent No. 4,567,407, Jan. 28, 1986.
Garron, Carlos S. (1968), "Transformer in Combination with Permanent Magnet,"
   U.S. Patent No. 3,368,141, Feb. 6, 1968.
Gray, Edwin V. (1975), "Pulsed Capacitor Discharge Electric Engine," U.S.
   Patent No. 3,890,548, Jun. 17, 1975.
Gundlach, Robert W. (1986), "Electrostatic Generator," U.S. Patent No.
   4,595,852, Jun. 17, 1986.
Hayasaka, Enakichi (1989), "Homopole Type AC Generator," U.S. Patent No.
   4,831,299, May 16, 1989.
Hickox, Barbara, (1981), "Electric Dynamo," U.S. Patent No. 4,249,096, Feb. 3,
Hooper, William W. (1971), "All-Electric Motional Electric Field Generator,"
   U.S. Patent No. 3,610,971, Oct. 5, 1971.
Hyde, William (1990), "Electrostatic Energy Field Power Generating System,"
   U.S. Patent No. 4,897,592, Jan. 30, 1990.
Johnson, Howard (1979), "Permanent Magnetic Motor," U.S. Patent No. 4,151,431,
   Apr. 24, 1979.
Koenig, Earl (1989), "Electrical Circuit for Inductance Conductors,
   Transformers and Motors," U.S. Patent No. 4,806,834, Feb. 21, 1989.
Kromrey, Raymond (1968), "Electric Generator," U.S. Patent No. 3,374,376, Mar.
   19, 1968.
Lien, Charles (1987), "Buck - Boost Parallel Resonant Converter with Inductive
   Energy Recovery Circuit," U.S. Patent No. 4,709,323, Nov. 24, 1987.
McKie, Richard L. (1992), "A Power Supply Comprising Two Tank Circuits," U.S.
   Patent No. 5,146,395, Sep. 8, 1992.
Merestsky, Paul L. et. al. (1980), "Inductive Device Having Orthogonal
   Windings," U.S. Patent No. 4,210,859, Jul. 1, 1980.
Merritt, Thomas, and Mario Pasichinskyj (1985)., "Linear Reciprocating
   Electrical Generator," U.S. Patent No. 4,500,827, Feb. 19, 1985.
Pasichinskyj, Mario (1990), "Magnetic Motion Electrical Generator," U.S.
   Patent No. 4,904,926, Feb. 27, 1990.
Pinkerton, Joseph F. (1990), "High Efficiency Electrical Machine," U.S. Patent
   No. 4,945,273, Jul. 31, 1990.
Regan, Dennis J. (1989), "Magnetic Power Converter," U.S. Patent No.
   4,883,977, Nov. 28, 1989.
Richardson, Frank B. (1978), "Electromagnetic Converter with Stationary
   Variable-Reluctance Members," U.S. Patent No. 4,077,001.
Shoulders, Kenneth (1991), "Energy Conversion Using High Charge Density," U.S.
   Patent No. 5,018,180 (in the last pp), May 21, 1991.
Specht, Theodore R. et. al. (1987), "Oscillating Flux Transformer," U.S.
   Patent No. 4,652,771, Mar. 24, 1987.
Spence, Geoffery M. (1988), "Energy Conversion System," U.S. Patent No.
   4,772,816, Sep. 20, 1988.
Tesla, Nikola (1891), "Electro-Magnetic Motor," U.S. Patent No. 464,666,
   Dec. 8, 1891.
Thomas, Friedrich - Werner et. al. (1988), "Inverter with Power Supply to
   Chopper Through Parallel Resonant Circuit Tuned to Twice the Chopper
   Frequency," U.S. Patent No. 4,748,311, May 31, 1988.
Trombly, Adam (1982), "Closed Path Homopolar Machine," International Patent
   (PCT) H02K 31/00, 39/00, Jun. 24, 1982.
Richardson, Frank B., "Electromagnetic Converter with Stationary Variable-
   Reluctance Members," U.S. Patent No. 4,077,001, Feb. 28, 1978.

[I am indeed indebted to Samuel Faile, Alexander Peterson, and Walter
Rosenthal for their past and continuing efforts in searching for and
identifying U.S. and foreign Patents of interest in these areas.]

Conference Proceedings

1st ISNE, Proceedings of the International Symposium on New Energy, April 16-
   18, 1993:  International Association for New Science (IANS), 1304 South
   College Avenue, Fort Collins, CO 80524, (303) 482-3731, $45.00.
26th IECEC, Proceedings of the 26th IECEC, Volume 4, pp 329-492, August 1991:
   American Nuclear Society, 555 North Kensington Avenue, La Grange Park, IL
   60525, (708) 352-6611, $275.00.
27th IECEC, Proceedings of the 27th IECEC, Volume, pp  4.357-4.295, August
   1992:  Society of Automotive Engineers, 400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096-0001, Order No. P-259, (412) 776-4841, $350.00.
28th IECEC, Proceedings of the 28th IECEC, August 1993:  American Chemical
   Society, Meetings Department, 1155 Sixteenth Street N.W., Washington DC 20036, $310.00.
29th IECEC, Proceedings of the 29th IECEC, August 1994:  American Institute of
   Aeronautics and Astronautics, 370 L'Enfant Promenade, SW, Washington DC
   20024, TEL (202) 646-7528, FAX (202) 646-7508, to be published August 7,
International Tesla Symposium Proceedings (1984, 1986, 1988, 1990, 1992).
   International Tesla Society, PO Box 5636, Security, CO 80931.
The Second International Symposium on Non-Conventional Energy Technology,
   September 9-11, 1983, Atlanta, GA.


The American Raum & Zeit (name changed to Explore in 1992), The New Dimension
   in Scientific Approach, P.O. Box 1508, Mount Vernon, Washington 98273, (800) 845-7866.
Connecting Link Magazine, 9392 Whitneyville Rd., Alto, MI 49302-9694, (616)
   891-0410, $20/yr.
Electric Spacecraft Journal, P.O. Box 18387, Asheville, NC 28814, $24/yr,
   TEL (704) 252-8083, FAX (704) 683-3511.
Explore, The New Dimension in Scientific Approach, P.O. Box 1508, Mount
   Vernon, Washington 98273, $59/yr, (800) 845-7866.
Flat Earth News, quarterly, from the Flat Earth Society.
Nexus New Times Magazine, PO Box 30, Mapleton Qld 4560, Australia.
Project Censored Newsletter, PO Box 310, Cotati, CA 94931, $30/yr.  Yearly
   summary books of the year's most suppressed media stories also are
   available, year by year.
Space Energy Association (SEA) Newsletter, Space Energy Association (SEA),
   P.O. Box 11422, Clearwater, FL 34616, TEL (813) 442-3923, FAX (813)
Tuning In, Free Energy Connection, P.O. Box 255, Ivanhoe, 3079, Victoria,
   Australia, $25/yr, Phone 03 458 3626 AH.

Organizations and Societies

Academy for Future Sciences, PO Box FE, Los Gatos, CA 95031.
AERI, Advanced Energy Research Institute, 14 Devonshire Mews West, London
   W1N 1FP, Great Britain.
ADAS, Association of Distinguished American Scientists, P.O. Box 1472,
   Huntsville, AL 35807, FAX (205) 536-0411.
Borderland Sciences Research Foundation, PO Box 429, Garberville, CA
Center for Action, Book and Videotape List and Newsletter, PO Box 472, HCR 31,
   Sandy Valley, NV 89019, (702) 723-5266 or (800) 729-4131, Newsletter
COSRAY, The Research Institute, Inc., 2505 South Forth Street East, P.O. Box
   651045, Salt Lake City, UT 84165-1045.
Electrodynamic Gravity, Inc., 35 W. Tallmadge Ave., Akron, Ohio 44310.
Flat Earth Society, P.O. Box 2533, Lancaster, CA 93539, (805) 727-1635,
Fusion Information Center, P.O. Box 58639, Salt Lake City, Utah 84158-0369,
   TEL (801) 583-6232, FAX (801) 583-6245.
Gravity Power Research Association, 36 Mountain Road, Burlington, MA 01803.
GRI, Group Research Institute, PO Box 438, Nelson, New Zealand.
High Energy Enterprises, P.O. Box 5636, Security, CO 80931, TEL (719)
   475-0918, FAX (719) 475-0582.
Institute for Advanced Studies at Austin, 4030 Braker Lane W., Suite 300,
   Austin, TX 78759.
INE, Institute for New Energy, 1304 South College Avenue, Fort Collins, CO
   80524, $40.00/yr.
Integrity Institute, 1377 K Street, NW, Suite 16, Washington DC, TEL (202)
    682-7371, FAX (202) 543-3069.
ITS Books (International Tesla Society Books), High Energy Enterprises, PO
   Box 5636, Security, CO 80931, TEL (719) 475-0918, FAX (719) 475-0582.
ISNE, International Association for New Science (IANS), 1304 South College
   Avenue, Fort Collins, CO 80524, (303) 482-3731, $45.00.  IANS supports the
JPI, Japan Psychrotronic Institute, c/o Shiuji Inomata, Electrotechnical
   Laboratory, 1-1-4 Umezono, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305, Japan.
Liberty Library, America's Preeminent Source of Patriotic Books and
   Literature, Liberty Lobby, 300 Independence Avenue, SE, Washington DC
   20003, (800) 522-6292.  Call Now!
NEN, New Energy News, PO Box 58639, Salt Lake City, UT 84158-8639:  monthly
   newsletter free to INE members.
Orgone Biophysical Research Laboratory, Inc., P.O. Box 1395, El Cerrito, CA
   94530, TEL/FAX (510) 526-5978.
Quantum Biology Research Laboratory, Cotati Research Institute, PO Box 60653,
   Palo Alto,   CA 94306.
PACE, Planetary Association for Clean Energy, 100 Bronson Avenue, Suite 1001,
   Ottawa, Ontario, Canada T1R 6G8, TEL (613) 236-6265.  Many documents are
PEA Research, 9638 Soaring Oaks Drive, Elk Grove, CA 95758.  Many documents
REX Research, PO Box 19250, Jean, NV 89019.  Many device writeups are
SEA, Space Energy Association, PO Box 11422, Clearwater, FL 34616.
Tehachapi Distributors, PO Box 1911, Suite 122, Tehachapi, CA, 93581, (800)
Tesla Book Company, PO Box 121873, Chula Vista, CA 91912, (619) 659-0521.
Tesla Incorporated, 760 Prairie Avenue, Craig, CO 81625, FAX (303) 824-7864.
Tesla Incorporated Computer BBS (719) 486-2775 (300/1200/2400, 8, N, 1).
Tesla Memorial Society, Inc., 453 Martin Road, Buffalo, New York 14218.
   Videos and books are available.  Quarterly Newsletters are $1 each.
USP, University of Science and Philosophy, Swannanoa, PO Box 520, Waynesboro,
   VA 22980, (703) 942-5161, (800) 882-5683.

(Title 35, United States Code (1952), sections 181-188)

NOTICE: To the applicant above named, his heirs, and any and all of his assignees, attorneys and agents, hereinafter designated principals:

You are hereby notified that your application as above identified has been found to contain subject matter, the unauthorized disclosure of which might be detrimental to the national security, and you are ordered in nowise to publish or disclose the invention or any material information with respect thereto, including hitherto unpublished details of the subject matter of said application, in any way to any person not cognizant of the invention prior to the date of the order, including any employee of the principals, but to keep the same secret except by written consent first obtained of the Commissioner of Patents, under the penalties of 35 U.S.C. (1952) 182, 186.

Any other application already filed or hereafter filed which contains any significant part of the subject matter of the above identified application falls within the scope of this order. If such other application does not stand under a security order, it and the common subject matter should be brought to the attention of the Security Group, Licensing and Review, Patent Office.

If, prior to the issuance of the secrecy order, any significant part of the subject matter has been revealed to any person, the principals shall promptly inform such person of the secrecy order and the penalties for improper disclosure. However, if such part of the subject matter was disclosed to any person in a foreign country or foreign national in the U.S., the principals shall not inform such person of the secrecy order, but instead shall promptly furnish to the Commissioner of Patents the following information to the extent not already furnished: date of disclosure; name and address of the disclosee; identification of such part; and any authorization by a U.S. government agency to export such part. If the subject matter is included in any foreign patent application, or patent, this should be identified. The principals shall comply with any related instructions of the Commissioner.

This order should not be construed in any way to mean that the Government has adopted or contemplates adoption of the alleged invention disclosed in this application; nor is it any indication of the value of such invention.

It is my feeling that something on the order of a so-called "free-energy device" would receive this treatment. My only approach would be to go to the public domain. That is, get the information or the device out there to enough people that they could not stop you. This group looks like the best group to give this information to. Hopefully it will forthcoming in the next three days.


Transcribed from: PROCEEDINGS; The Second International Symposium on Non-Conventional Energy Technology, September 9-11, 1983, Atlanta, GA, pp 125-126.

Contact Ken MacNeill at Cadake Industries, P.O. Box 1866, Clayton, GA 30525.

[I also have a copy of such an order that was actually sent to a friend of mine that is dated Mar. 17, 1964. The Secrecy Order was fortunately withdrawn and his data and material declassified at a later date. He was lucky.]

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