Recent Experiments That Produced Fundamental Anomalies For Novel Hypotheses Concerning the Production of Elements, Superconductivity, and Anomalous Radiation
This article was presented in the Theory Session of the 2nd Int. Conference on Low Energy Nuclear Reactions, Texas A @ M, College Station Texas, Sept. 13-14, 1996, and will be published in the proceedings.
September 11, 1996
[Received via email to the INE, October 1996.]
[Posted Nov. 15, 1996.]
Recent Experiments That Produced Fundamental Anomalies For Novel Hypotheses Concerning the Production of Elements, Superconductivity, and Anomalous Radiation
Copyright 1996 by Edward Lewis
Recent experiments have produced fundamental anomalies that are hypotheses for a new theory. From the 1950s to the 1990s, some experimenters produced fundamentally anomalous phenomena. Bostick's electrical discharge devices produced stable dense plasma structures ("plasmoids") that existed for long periods of time and exhibited the structure and behavior of astrophysical phenomena. K. Shoulders' research showed that plasmoids and atoms interconverted and converted to electricity and light. Matsumoto produced evidence that during electrolysis palladium composites may convert to plasmoids that are emitted leaving voids, tunnels, and ditches, and may convert to new elements and light and electricity. From various evidence the plasmoids behave like ball lightning. Much substance may move inside and outside apparatus as moving plasmoids. Superconducting vortices are a type of plasmoid associated with particle emission and elemental production.
The QM model of atoms is contradicted, and atoms may convert to light and electricity. There is no other way, as far I know, to explain the voids and plasmoid markings found on electrodes and the anomalous behavior of plasmoids. All phenomena is plasmoidal. Plasmoids behave in characteristic ways, no matter the size. The various types of astrophysical phenomena such as jets and quasars may also occur in various devices and in ball lightning. Since plasmoids convert to light and electricity and are magnetic, they may be assumed to be basically an electrical-magnetic phenomena. The phenomena of atoms clumping to form new atoms or larger plasmoids shows a type of superconductivity phenomena.
Anomalies such as elemental production, neutron radiation, excess radiation, anomalous radiation such as beams, and superconductivity are plasmoid phenomena.
Recent experiments have produced fundamental anomalies that are hypotheses for a new theory. The heuristic hypotheses are that all phenomena is plasmoids; that plasmoids behave in characteristic ways, no matter the scale; and that plasmoids interconvert to light and electricity. Since plasmoids convert to light and electricity directly and are magnetic, they may be assumed to be an electrical-magnetic phenomena. Some major resolutions are that plasmoids and ball lightning are the same general phenomena; that is plasmoids may hop, and bore through materials converting the material to light and electricity and other types of plasmoids, and pass through materials without affecting the materials much, and exhibit other anomalous phenomena such as beams and jets. That atoms are plasmoids and behave like plasmoids, so that like other plasmoids they may convert to light and electricity directly. That electricity and light may convert to atoms and other substances. That superconducting vortices are a plasmoid phenomena. It seems to be that the phenomena of atoms clumping to form new atoms or larger plasmoids are a type of superconductivity phenomena. An understanding of substance as plasmoids would allow understanding of the various anomalies as plasmoids. In this article, it is shown that recent experiments produced fundamental anomalies, and experiments and novel ideas are described.
From the 1950s to the 1990s, some researchers produced fundamentally contradictory phenomena to the Quantum Mechanics theory. Bostick's plasmoid research in the 1950s using electrical discharge devices showed that plasma may form stable dense structures for long periods of time, and that these plasma objects exhibit the structure and behavior of astrophysical phenomena. This provided evidence for conjectures that astrophysical phenomena such as our planet are plasmoids, and alternate ideas about the consistency and formation of atoms and particles.
Later research showed, among other things, that plasmoids emit neutrons and are associated with elemental production and isotopic transmutation, that plasmoids discharge electricity, and in the 1980s, through the work of a group of plasma researchers at the University of Darmstadt, that electron beams are segmented. These plasmoid phenomena all are exhibited in various electrolysis devices and other devices being discussed at this meeting.
K. Shoulders plasmoid research in the 1980s and 1990s using various electrical discharge devices and various gases and liquids showed that plasmoids may behave in fundamentally anomalous ways such as 1) converting atoms to be part of larger plasmoids or converting atoms to light and electricity entirely 2) leaving tunnels and ditches in materials, meaning that the materials dissappeared, meaning that the materials were carried away or converted to radiation or discharge 3) converting entirely to light and electricity 4) exibiting excess radiation and electrical discharge 5) and emitting beams of light, confirming Bostick's report of such beams. The significance of this research is that it became evident that atoms convert entirely to light and electricity, thus contradicting the QM model of the atom, as well as other aspects of the premise of Quantum Mechanics. There is no other way of explaining the plasmoid behavior. Thus, this is a means of obtaining light and electricity as well as a means of atomic and elemental production. K. Shoulders would probably aver that an atom would convert to electricity and light entirely and directly. He wrote me: "A new binding method for electrons has been found and the old one using a nucleus is passe'."
T. Matsumoto's research of the 1990s showed that much of many new elements and heavy elements are formed in inter-grain and grain shaped voids in the surface layer of palladium electrodes during electrolysis, that via electrolsis and discharge using several electrode materials and configurations including palladium-heavy water and nickle-water, the same types of plamoids are emitted, that the plasmoids themselves are associated with elemental and particle residues, that the plasmoids behave in previously unreported ways such as passing through glass and water without dissipation or damage to the glass, hopping, skimming, emitting particle residues, and emitting jets or beams (Fig. 2b of Ref. ) that show a particle structure. The plasmoids are similar to those produced by Bostick and Shoulders. The significance of this research is 1) a confirmation of K. Shoulders research 2) evidence for the supposition that the various types of devices being reported to produce anomously high radiation or new elements also produce various types of plasmoids, thus supplying an explanation for at least a part of the reported anomalies 3) furthur evidence of the conversion of atoms to emitted plasmoids of various sizes and evidence of the conversion of atoms such as the palladium during electrolysis and discharge to other elements 4) proof of the interconversion of subtance (atoms) to light and electricity by the evidence on nuclear emulsions of micrometer size plasmoids emitting particles of various types (such as "superstar" trace (Fig. 8)) and the various voids in electrodes and in nuclear emulsions set outside the glass of the apparatus such as ditches and pits on the electrodes and emulsions and tunnels and voids inside the materials showing the dissappearance of the materials meaning that the atoms were taken away by the plasmoids so that the atoms became part of the plasmoid and were left as residues or that the atoms were converted by the plasmoids to light and electricity; since it is known from the discharge marks on emulsions used by Matsumoto and from K. Shoulder's research that plasmoids may convert to light and electricity directly and entirely, and it is apparent from the "Superstar" trace that a micrometer size plasmoid with apparently much charge passed through the glass container of the electrode to reach the emulsions were it produced relatively large particle emission, it is apparent that the atoms once they become part of a plasmoid, lose their atomic behavior such as impenetrability to other atoms, and convert to light and electricity; the meaning of these phenonemena should not be missed: there is no other explanation for the dissappearance of the materials and the appearance of atomic residues in the fashion that K. Shoulders and Matsumoto have described and shown pictures of other than the conversion of atoms to light and electricity entirely and the conversion of atoms to be larger plasmoids; the phenomena are also anomalous radiation and production of elements and the various anomalies produced by various electrolysis and discharge apparatus such as anomalous radiation such as beams that some have reported from electrodes and anomalous elemental production, and anomalous marking on electrodes such as ditches can thus be resolved as plasmoid phenomena 5) the contradiction of the Quantum Mechanical model of the atom with the ideas about hadrons and nuclear structure and the distinction between light and electricity (fermions) and matter (mostly hadrons) and 6) the ball lightning identity of plasmoids, that is, that ball lightning are a type of plasmoid since the plasmoids behave as do ball lightning in various ways which had only been associated with ball lightning such as passing through materials, converting to light and electricity, hopping, leaving tunnels and ditches, emitting particles and weird residues, and anomalously high radiation. All of these phenomena are essential phenomena in the various devices that people at the meeting are producing.
During the past several years, there have been some replications of Matsumoto's work. As far as I know, no one has tried setting up emulsions around devices to find the various beautiful plasmoid marks such as the trails (Figs. 7a,b of Ref. 12) and pits or tunnels (Fig. 4a of Ref. 12). Thinking according to prior theory, Matsumoto called these marks the marks of "black holes." But they are plasmoid marks according to the new set of phenomena. The number of groups reporting new elements and elements in voids has been increasing. Liaw et al. and Silver et al. found anomalous pits in their electrodes. Silver also found a mark (in Fig. 8) that looks to me like a trail mark similar to a very clear one on a copper electrode used by Matsumoto.
The research of Lipson and Deryaguin in the 1990s showed the correlation of the dissappearance of the superconductivity phenomena in 1-2-3 type superconducting materials and the neutron emission and tritium generation -- only in the range 88-93K, during the lattice phase transition in these materials when the superconductivity phenomena is lost. The signifance of this is that it provided evidence of the association of the two phenomena; since the superconducting vortices behave in many ways like plasmoids in the context of the developed conjectures about both ball lightning and plasmoids, especially prior speculations about the superconducting aspects of plasmoids (for example, ref. 4), there seems to be sufficient evidence for identifying superconductivity as a plasmoid phenomena and superconducting vortices as a type of plasmoid. Not only would this identification enable better superconductivity research and provide information about the structure of the superconducting vortices, but the the neutron emission and other atomic and particle plasmoid phenomena that may be found in superconducting substances could be explained as due, in part, to the disruption of these vortices, similar to the way that the disruption of astrophysical plasmoids produce discreet plasmoids and atoms.
Periodically, the basic postulates of prior theories have been contradicted and the fundamental anomalies widely reported during short periods of time. T. Kuhn called these periods "crisis periods," and there have been crisis periods at about every 80 year interval since 1500. The development of science has shown a three generational periodicity: during one generation individuals formulate new premises, during the second, member of the second generation develop theories substantially, and members of the third generation experience the fundamental anomalies to the theories. The fundamental anomalies of this current period such as those produced by the experimenters mentioned in this article are novel working hypotheses: all matter and everything is plasmoidal, thus atoms are plasmoids and structured as plasmoids; that plasmoids convert to light and electricity directly. From these hypotheses a wide variety of anomalous phenomena may be ramified and a novel theory that is the understanding of the new set of phenomena may be developed.
Novel Ideas and Experiments
Ball Lightning(BL) is known to show anomalously high energy manifestations and people have given estimates for various reported phenomena. Some of the energy manifestations are anomalous to prior theory so that people's estimates about them don't make sense. Examples of this type of anomalous phenomena is the boring phenomena where BL leave empty tunnels in various materials or the ground without residues or when BL phenomena carry heavy things. Since BL-like phenomena are produced in various devices, it should be no surprise that they contribute part of the anomalously high radiation and anomalous radiation and electrical discharges produced by various devices. Bostick wrote that plasma discharges created in focus machines achieve "flux densities beyond those reached even in nuclear explosions -- in a device small enough to fit onto a desktop(4)." However, similar kinds of plasmoids are evidently produced during various kinds of stresses such as electrolysis and mechanical pressure even.
According to some of the recent ball lightning researchers, there are cases of ball lightning observation from which an estimate of the energy content and energy density of the ball lightning could be determined by the effects. In several cases reported by Barry, the manifested energy per size of BL was much higher than any known chemical effect -- up to about 100,000 Joules per cubic centimeter of ball lightning. In comparison, TNT manifests energy at about 2000 Joules per cubic centimeter of material. However, trying to study plamoid phenomena and estimate total energy content or manifestation according to prior theories and prior ideas about energy is unworkable, since plasmoids fundamentally contradict prior theory.
Plasmoids emit various anomalous radiation such as beams and jets, or frequently change colors, sometimes rapidly, and give off "bundled" frequencies of radio or light (beams and etc; or radiation that may also be all of one frequency, like sonoluminescence radiation, or somewhat like lasers, or cycle through an array of frequencies in patterns that may repeat) or other radiation that remind me of the audio tapes and phenomena described by Bill Ramsay. So in various ways, plasmoid phenomena is a source of anomalous radiation and anomalously high radiation, and would explain such phenomena being found in various in various devices such as the beams reported by Savvatimova and Karabut and the beams shown on the nuclear emulsions used by Matsumoto. For an example of a jet, Matsumoto has produced a trace of a plasmoid emitting a jet (Fig. 2b of ref. 12) that extended about 100 micrometers on a nuclear emulsion, and the mark of the plasmoid and the jet looks amazingly much like the image of galaxy M87. Galaxy M87 has a very clear and long jet that is said to extend 4000 light years, and the galaxy itself is said to be 8000 light years wide. But I suppose that the way people measure distances is probably erroneous. Galactic jets and quasars are said to be highly energetic phenomena. The radiation per size of phenomena is much, much higher than that of the radiation per size of stars. However, it is evident that such phenomena also occur both in and around electrolysis and discharge apparatus. This would explain some of the anomalous radiation and heat from these apparatus and various others, as well as some anomalous radiation phenomena such as beams from electrodes. New elements and isotopes may also be deposited by such jets.
My premise hasn't changed much during the last few years, but many of the phenomena I predicted, such as the production of electrical surges during various stresses, various BL behavior of plasmoids such as hopping and skimming, and the effect of the use of composites of materials which have a relatively large difference of oxidation states or electronegativity, have been produced. I have described checking for anomalous changes of the operation of various time measuring apparatus around CF apparatus and nuclear reactors. Light and electricity seems to make plasmoids clump generally, and light to bend and slow, and the rate of change of plasmoid phenomena to slow, though the kinds of plasmoid phenomena changes. During the last few years, I've learned about some confirmatory evidence such as the experiences of O. Reifenschweiler, and Filimonenko according to Frolov and Goryacherin, about the reduction of radioactivity; and work done to find a relationship between the apparent mass of astrophysical bodies and their luminosity; and anomalous time changes during large BL phenomena; and other evidence. In regards to the radioactivity however, it is evident that there is a change of structure of atoms occurring, because heating of various radioactive substances is reported to permanently change the isotopes to non-radioactive isotopes, so it may be difficult to determine to what extent time change is associated with the variations of radioactivity.
As suggested as experiments before(ref. 20), look for emissions of plasmoids from substances without hydrogen during various stresses. When composites of metals with dissimilar electronegativities are subjected to thermal cycling, grain-shaped and intergrain voids are found that look similar to those associated with new elements that have been recently reported. I suspect there is elemental production and plasmoid emission in such cases also.
Much substance apparently converted to moving plasmoids in Matsumoto's devices. He caught only a small portion of the emitted plasmoids with his small nuclear emulsions that he usually set only to one side of his devices. Much plasmoids remained inside leaving behind deposites of new elements, or traveled around his laboratory.
Also, check to see whether superconducting vortices travel though gases and liquids as do plasmoids.
1. W. Bostick, "Plasmoids," Scientific American, 197, 87 (October 1957).
2. W. H. Bostick, W. Prior, L. Grunberger, and G. Emmert, RPair Production of Plasma Vortices,S Phys.of Fluids, 9, 2078 (1966).
3. V. Nardi, W. Bostick et al., "Internal Structure of Electron-Beam Filaments," Phys. Rev A, 22, no. 5, 2211 (Nov. 1980).
4. W. Bostick, "Recent Experimental Results of the Plasma-Focus Group at Darmstadt, West Germany: A Review and Critique," Int. Journal of Fusion Energy, Vol. 3, No. 1, January 1985.
5. K. Shoulders, "Energy Conversion Using High Charge Density," Patent Number 5,123,039.
6. K. Shoulders, Letter, 10/18/82.
7. T. Matsumoto, and K. Kurokawa, "Observation of Heavy Elements Produced During Explosive Cold Fusion," Fusion Technology, 20, 323, (1991).
8. T. Matsumoto, "Microscopic Observation of Palladium Used for Cold Fusion," Fusion Technology, 19, 567 (May, 1991).
9. T. Matsumoto, "Cold Fusion Experiments with Ordinary Water and Thin Nickel Foil," Fusion Technology, 24, 296 (Nov. 1993).
10. T. Matsumoto, "Artificial Ball-Lightning -- Photographs of Cold Fusion." manuscript dated Jan. 17, 1995 presented at the ICCF-5, April 9-13, 1995, Monte Carlo, Monaco.
11. T. Matsumoto, "Observation of Tiny Ball Lightning During Electrical Discharge in Water," sub. to FT, Jan. 23, 1994.
12. T. Matsumoto, "Searching for Tiny Black Holes During Cold Fusion," Fusion Technology, 22, 281 (Sept. 1992).
13. T. Matsumoto, "Observation of Gravity Decays of Multiple-Neutron Nuclei During Cold Fusion," FT, 22, 164 (1992).
14. T. Matsumoto, "Observation of Meshlike Traces on Nuclear Emulsions During Cold Fusion," FT, 23, 103 (Jan. 1993).
15. D. Silver, J. Dash, and P. Keefe, "Surface Topography of a Palladium Cathode After Electrolysis in Heavy Water,"Fusion Technology, 24, 423 (December 1993).
16. T. Matsumoto, "Experiments of One-Point Cold Fusion," Fusion Technology, 24, 332 (Nov. 1993).
17. A. G. Lipson, et al., "Generation of the Products of DD Nuclear Fusion in High-Temperature Superconductors YBa2Cu3O7-x Near the Superconducting Phase Transition," Tech. Phys., 40 (no. 8), 839 (August 1995).
18. E. Lewis, "The Periodic Production of Rationalized Phenomena and the Past Periodic Depressions" manuscript article, 1992, 1994, 1995.
19. J. Barry, Ball Lightning and Bead Lightning -- Extreme Forms of Atmospheric Electricity, Plenum Press, New York (1980).
20. E. Lewis, "A Description of Phenomena According to My Theory and Experiments to Test My Theory," manuscript article, submitted to Fusion Technology, December 1992.
"The Periodic Production of Rationalized Phenomena and the Past Periodic Depressions" a paper by Edward Lewis, Oct. 1996
"Considerations about Plasmoid Phenomena and Superconductivity Phenomena," a paper by Edward Lewis, June 1996, June 1996, Revised. Oct. 1996.
"Gorgons, Tornadoes, and Plasmoid Phenomena," a paper by Edward Lewis, June 1996, June 1996, Revised. Oct. 1996.
"Tornadoes and Ball Lightning," a paper by Edward Lewis, June 1996, Revised. Oct. 1996.
"Concerning Production of Elements and Plasmoids," a paper by Edward Lewis, June 1996, Revised. Oct. 1996.
"Plasmoid Phenomena," a paper by Edward Lewis, June 1996
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Nov. 15, 1996.