Considerations about Plasmoid Phenomena and Superconductivity Phenomena
[Received via email to INE, June 1996; revised July 1996, and Oct. 1996.]
[Reposted Nov. 15, 1996.]
Considerations about Plasmoid Phenomena and Superconductivity Phenomena
Copyright 1995, 1996 by Edward Lewis
Abstract There seems to be substantial evidence for identifying superconducting vortices in superconducting substances as a plasmoid phenomena similar to ball lightning or whirlwinds. MHD models about astrophysical "force-free filaments" as developed by Bostick, Alfven, Peratt, and Lerner is discussed in relation to superconductivity.
I have been speculating that the "superconducting vortices" associated with the superconductivity phenomena may be a type of plasmoid similar to other kinds of plasmoids such as ball lightning(BL) and tornadoes and stars. The vortices are in many ways similar to plasmoids and the two seem to be associated.
Plasmoids have a long history of research. The early work of Nobel Prize winner Alfven, and of Bostick(1) led to the development of both astrophysical models and experimental plasmoid and fusion research. Plasmoids, because they have been experienced to convert to electrical discharges and to convert entirely to be surges of electricity in conductors by both K. Shoulders(2) and BL observers, and because they are magnetic, seem to be basically an electrical-magnetic phenomena(3). Some models of the two phenomena are similar in that they involve moving or orbiting electrons and magnetic flux, but I don't know whether the models are correct since there is insufficient experiential evidence to know the structure of either. Some ball lightning researchers(4) have speculated about their superconducting nature also. N. Hawkins(5) speculated about the link of Abrikosov vortices in BL and neutron emission phenomena in the atmosphere during lightning strikes, and in electrolysis apparatus that showed temperature changes and gamma-ray emission during electrical storms. But evidence that solid-looking ring plasmoids are not a circle of flux is a solid semi-ring trace that Matsumoto produced, though perhaps the components of ring plasmoids may be.
Lipson and Deryagin et al.(6) have worked for the last several years to show a strict coincidence during thermal cycling of the superconductive transition in 1-2-3 type superconducting materials and the neutron emission and tritium generation -- only in the range 88-93K, during the lattice phase transition in these materials when the superconductivity phenomena is lost. As I've written several years ago, my idea about plasmoids is that they may be the locus of the superconductivity phenomena, and the superconductivity is lost because the plasmoids in the substance that are bigger than atoms leave or disrupt and are detected as neutrons or other "particles", just as some of the plasmoids arriving at the nuclear emulsions used by Matsumoto obviously disrupted by emitting smaller particles and other kinds of plasmoids, as did the plasmoid that left the trail trace and the associated atomic residue traces that Matsumoto called the "Superstar" (Fig. 8)(7). Plasmoids also disrupt by emitting electricity and light, and this may explain voltage noises or electrical pulses at the superconducting transition.
The Abrikosov vortices seem to be about the same size range as tiny BL-like plasmoids and to behave similarly. Like plasmoids, the "vortices" seem to skim around in different directions on the surface of superconductors, repel each other somewhat, and follow each other across surfaces. According to Matsuda and Tonomura's pictures and drawings(8), the paths within which "vortices" traveled across the surface were only about 1 to 1.4 micrometers wide. Though the authors did not write so, this suggests that the phenomena followed each other single file because of the relatively long distances apart maintained by the phenomena, and this single-file motion is exactly the behavior of both the plasmoids produced by K. Shoulders(2) and BL. Like plasmoid rings, some of the "vortices" are also arranged in rings such as a 6 component ring(9) that was detected by neutron beam scattering. According to recently produced videos Tonomura has shown, some "vortices" may meet and disappear, perhaps as some plasmoids and whirlwinds(10) meet and disrupt. This reminds me of the behavior of dust devils in the desert in that dust devils rotating in opposite directions may dissipate if they meet.
As I've written several years ago, if plasmoids are a locus of the superconductivity phenomena, perhaps the superconductivity is due to the motion of plasmoids though the substance or perhaps electricity flows without dissipation through plasmoids. Perhaps superconductivity is the extension of long plasmoids of "electricity" through substances. Both BL and smaller plasmoids may travel through substances such as glass, ceramics, water and air without dissipating and with seemingly little effect to the substance(2), just as the electrons in superconductors according to their models. This ability to travel through materials without dissipation may also relate to the phenomena of plasmoids, such as atomic plasmoids, clumping together to form larger plasmoids such as bigger atoms -- the cold fusion phenomena. Also, there is a phenomena that I am calling "plasmoid waves"(11) that are electrical waves such as tremors that are associated with lightning strikes and such as earthquake land and atmospheric compression waves and tsunamis that dissipate very little. Based on some evidence such as electrical phenomena associated with 'land waves,' surges of electricity in conductors in the ground during earthquakes, reports about electrical phenomena during earthquakes, and Matsumoto's description of the wave phenomena he photographed, I am suspecting that such transverse waves associated with electrical surges in conductors may also be associated with plasmoids or the plasmoid atoms in superconductors, at least when they disrupt. Such seemingly anomalous plasmoid wave phenomena have been recorded on nuclear emulsions(12) that were set around apparatus and seemingly even inside plasmoid ring marks such as the one (thin, white) shown in Fig. 5(13).
The theories about Magneto-Hydrodynamics (MHD) as developed by Nobel Prize winner Alfven, and Lerner(14), and Peratt and others in order to model astrophysical phenomena phenomena may be applicable to the case of plasmoids in materials. I don't know whether any of them now think that plasma vortices in galaxies or would ever be perfectly conducting, but the plasmoids in superconductors seem to be. However, according to Lerner's book, the idea of perfectly conducting astrophysical plasma was generally accepted a few decades ago, even by Alfven. Perhaps one may consider the vortex phenomena to be "force-free" -- the inner electrons or the electricity would travel without dissipation, that is be superconducting -- up to a certain limit of current per size of "filament." Then they would disrupt or pinch and may form discreet plasmoids such as stars or, I think, the tiny plasmoids described in this article, such as electrons. As I have written before, I suspect that all plasmoids are not composed of discreet plasmoids -- they may be non-discreet. They have produced scaling laws defining current carrying capacity per size of filament. So in order to obtain the maximum current flow per quantity of material, one should maximize the size or the number of the superconducting plasmoids. An application of their developed MHD theory to studying the superconducting plasmoids seems useful. I do not know why such an idea has not already been proposed. However, a general theory must resolve anomalous plasmoid phenomena such as ball lightning.
I somewhat independently developed ideas of plasmoid phenomena that match their ideas by learning about ball lightning, and the plasmoids produced in apparatus by those such as Bostick, K. Shoulders, and Matsumoto, and anomalous geophysical phenomena. For example, their idea of MHD waves or Alfven waves seems somewhat like my idea of plasmoid waves. And Lerner described "plasma whirlwinds" and "electromagnetic tornadoes" (page 196), and I think that whirlwinds are plasmoids and have developed ideas about the structure of plasmoids and tornadoes. A drawing by Lerner in his book (page 195) of a "force-free filament" in which electrical current flows along a helical pattern reminds me of a drawing made by a person many decades ago (and shown in a more recent article(15)) of a whirlwind in which the dust and air move in intricate helical patterns. As I have described before, terrestrial plasmoids seem to be associated with anomalously high magnetic-like effects and magnetic-like effects that are anomalous. For example, tornadoes have picked-up and carried locomotives and box cars long distances, and comparatively small ball lightnings only a few meters in diameter have carried automobiles long distances(16). Phenomena like these cannot be effects of winds of only 400 kilometers an hour. Another anomaly is that sometimes people report that there was no wind in tornadoes that lifted things up. For example, a person named Dr. Pettier saw fir trees being plucked up, and then "he felt a kind of pressure from above; he noticed an unusual smell of ozone; then he felt himself raised up, and this not by the wind, for it was calm, but as though by some invisible force."(17) These plasmoid phenomena contradict theories about gravity and "mass," and I think that both may be the same phenomena and is also the reason why things stick to the earth. The astrophysicists explain that the "force-free" plasma vortices have extremely high magnetic fields. This seems to relate both to the terrestrial plasmoid phenomena and to the extremely rapid vortices of galaxies(16) and quasar phenomena, and I suspect planetary revolution(16) and the high magnetic effects of superconductors as well. I have explained that according to eyewitness reports some gorgons, tornadoes, and atmospheric ball lightning(18) seem structured as stacks of toroids. People say that some gorgons look like stacks of disks. Perhaps some superconducting plasmoids may also be structured as stacks of discreet toroidal plasmoids.
In order to test for the identity of the "vortices" as plasmoids, one suggestion is to see whether the "vortices" may leave surfaces as do plasmoids and travel in gas and liquids to leave marks on materials like plasmoid marks. The phenomena are already known to travel through vacuum gaps between superconducting materials. K. Shoulders wrote(2) that the chains of plasmoids that he calls "EV chains" traveling on guide surfaces may leave a guide surface and travel free through the gas as the "gas pressure" in his apparatus is increased. As do other plasmoids(16), these phenomena may also emit beams or jets like quasars, especially when they disrupt.
Figure 1 is from T. Matsumoto, ARTIFICIAL BALL LIGHTNING -- PHOTOGRAPHS OF COLD FUSION, January 17, 1995, presented at the Fifth International Conference on Cold Fusion, 1995, Monaco.
Trail and hopping marks left on nuclear emulsion by toroidal or cylindrical plasmoid phenomena.
1. W. Bostick, "Plasmoids," Scientific American, 197, 87 (October 1957).
2. K. Shoulders, "Energy Conversion Using High Charge Density," Patent Number 5,123,039.
3. E. Lewis, "Plasmoid Phenomena," New Energy News, 2 (no. 12), 9 (May, 1995).
4. G. S. Teletov, "Ball Lightning," (in Russian), Priroda, 55, no. 9, 84 (1966).
5. N. Hawkins, "Possible Natural Cold Fusion in the Atmosphere," Fusion Technology, 19, 2212 (July, 1991).
6. A. G. Lipson, et al., "Generation of the Products of DD Nuclear Fusion in High-Temperature Superconductors YBa2Cu3O7-x Near the Superconducting Phase Transition," Tech. Phys., 40 (no. 8), 839 (August 1995).
7. T. Matsumoto, "Observation of Gravity Decays of Multiple-Neutron Nuclei During Cold Fusion," Fusion Technology, 22, 164 (Aug. 1992).
8. T. Matsuda et al., "Observation of Dynamic Interaction of Vortices with Pinning Centers by Lorentz Microscopy," Science, 271, 1393 (March 8, 1996).
9. J. W. Lynn, N. Rosov, T. E. Grigereit, H. Zhang, and T. W. Clinton, "Vortex Dynamics and Melting in Niobium," Physical Review Letters, 72 (no. 21), 3413 (May 23, 1994).
10. E. Lewis, "Tornadoes and Tiny Plasmoid Phenomena,"New Energy News, 3, no. 9, 18 (March 1996).
11. E. Lewis, "Some Important Kinds of Plasmoid Traces Produced by "Cold Fusion" Apparatus,"Fusion Facts, 6 (no. 8), 16 (February, 1995).
12. T. Matsumoto, "Interference Phenomena Observed During Cold Fusion,"Fusion Technology, 21, 179 (March, 1992).
13. T. Matsumoto, "Observation of Quad-Neutrons and Gravity Decay During Cold Fusion," Fus. Tech., 19, 2125 (July 1991).
14. E. Lerner, The Big Bang Never Happened, Vintage Books, New York, 1991, 1992.
15. R. Peterson, "In Pursuit of Dust Devils," Weatherwise, 29, no. 4, 184 (Aug. 1976).
16. E. Lewis, "Plasmoid Phenomena and Cold Fusion," submitted to Fusion Technology June 1995, and Cold Fusion Newsletter Nov. or Dec. 1995.
17. H. A. Hazen, "Electric Storms and Tornadoes in France on Aug. 18 and 19, 1890," Science, 17, no. 434, 304 (May 29, 1891).
18. E. Lewis, "Tornadoes and Ball Lightning," manuscript article submitted to Fusion Facts, Summer 1995.
"Recent Experiments That Produced Fundamental Anomalies For Novel Hypotheses Concerning the Production of Elements, Superconductivity, and Anomalous Radiation" a paper by Edward Lewis, Oct. 1996
"The Periodic Production of Rationalized Phenomena and the Past Periodic Depressions" a paper by Edward Lewis, Oct. 1996
"Gorgons, Tornadoes, and Plasmoid Phenomena," a paper by Edward Lewis, June 1996, June 1996, Revised. Oct. 1996.
"Tornadoes and Ball Lightning," a paper by Edward Lewis, June 1996, Revised. Oct. 1996.
"Concerning Production of Elements and Plasmoids," a paper by Edward Lewis, June 1996, Revised. Oct. 1996.
"Plasmoid Phenomena," a paper by Edward Lewis, June 1996
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Nov. 15, 1996.