March 8, 1995
[Received via email to INE, June 1996]
Plasmoid Phenomena *
Copyright 1995, 1996 by Edward Lewis
Fundamental anomalous phenomena are the contradictions of the postulates of the premises of people's theories, and the environment. Those who apprehend a theory and experience according to the theory may experience the contradictions. It seems that since the fundamental postulates of people's premises are few, the kinds of fundamental anomalies are few. During the last 20 years, the number of people who have been experiencing and reporting about the anomalies of the Q.M. and Relativity theories has been rapidly increasing. The last 20 years is that which Thomas Kuhn called a "crisis period," and there have been crisis periods at about every 80 year interval since 1500(1). It seems to me that a group of fundamental phenomena of the current set of phenomena is that of "plasmoid" phenomena.
In earlier articles, I've written that atoms are plasmoid phenomena. Plasmoids seem to be basically an electrical-magnetic phenomena -- plasmoids have converted to electricity. The magnetism is an aspect of the electricity. I suspect that atoms are like ball lightning -- if this is so then atoms may often be toroidally shaped, and may usually not contain inner clumps in the middle. The magnetism of atoms is an electrical phenomena similar to the magnetism of the earth. People have experienced that the magnetism (people have used the term "magnetic lines of force") of the earth is electrical currents. Light is the same as electricity since it interconverts(2). Inertia, accretion, and separation of plasmoids is also an electrical-magnetic phenomena -- as relative motion of plasmoids also seems to be.
Almost all or all the phenomena that I know about seem to be plasmoid phenomena. Substance seems to be a plasmoid phenomena because galaxies are plasmoids and substance converts to other kinds of plasmoid phenomena, light, and electricity(3). Micrometer-sized plasmoid phenomena has been reported to be the locus of neutron emission(4,5), and ball lightning-like(6) phenomena has been associated with neutron production also. Like other plasmoids, atoms may clump and divide and dissipate so that new substances, elements and isotopes are produced. It seems that plasmoid phenomena are the same though the size varies. For example, galaxies seem to convert to jets, beams, and electrical currents in the middle, and this seems to be similar to the jets, beams, and electrical discharges from ball lightning, the beams and electrical discharges from micrometer-sized plasmoids, the beams from discharge devices reported by Savvatimova and Karabut et al., and the beam that a plasmoid emitted on an electrode that Matsumoto showed(7). I think that EVs(5), ball lightning, plasmoids, tornadoes and galaxies are similar phenomena since the behave similarly(8).
People have produced plasmoid and BL-like phenomena for a long time. W. Bostick produced that which he called plasmoids by discharging through electrodes(9), and according to A. Peratt(10), he coined the term. In this paper, Bostick had already begun to tell others about his speculation that galaxies and the phenomena he produced were similar. He compared the shapes and the travel of these things. He also speculated a little about the identity of "particles." According to experimental results, many people including Bostick, Alfven (Nobel Prize, Magneto-hydrodynamics), Peratt(11) and Lerner(12) have developed similar extensive astrophysical theories that model the universe as plasmoids; while others, such as Bostick(13,14,15) developed models of particles as plasmoids. For decades, many people have tried to use plasmoids for weapons(16,17) and for fusion, and it is well known that plasmoids are associated with element, isotope, and neutron production.
In the latter part of the 1700s, people were producing ball lighting-like phenomena by using Leyden jars, a kind of condensor, and in the late 1800s, Plante and others studied BL-like phenomena produced by discharge through wires and in plate condensors. Tesla also produced such phenomena. There have been about 8 international conferences about ball lightning and luminous atmospheric phenomena during the last 8 years. In 1992, I began to tell(18) people about my idea that tiny ball-lightning phenomena were produced in CF apparatus. Matsumoto has reported about the observation of tiny ball lightning-like phenomena in some cold fusion apparatus(19,20,21).
Most if not all other anomalous phenomena that I know about can be described as plasmoid phenomena. For example, superconductivity seems to be similar to the phenomena of ball lightning traveling though materials such as ceramics and glass without leaving holes or visible effects, yet ball lightning may convert to an electrical surge after touching a wire or it may convert to a bolt of lightning. Also, sonoluminescence and "cavitation" seems to be a phenomena of the water converting to light and perhaps electricity, and to other atoms and bigger micrometer-sized plasmoids. The pits and the localized melting seem to be plasmoid and discharge effects. The vortex phenomena photographed by Stringham and George are plasmoid phenomena.
I suggest that people use nuclear emulsions and check their apparatus microscopically to find plasmoids or their effects. Also, check the electrical grounding of the apparatus and see whether there are electrical surges. I suspect that in many apparatus much substance may convert and leave as plasmoids and/or electricity. Also, I suggest that people try to check whether things like time (maybe use atomic clocks(22)), accretion (the clumping of plasmoids), and magnetism change around their cold fusion and plasmoid apparatus. There is much evidence of anomalous changes of these things around and in plasmoid phenomena such as discharge phenomena, ball lightning, solar flares, volcanoes and earthquakes. The changes of the accretion of plasmoid phenomena associated with plasmoid phenomena is the production of new elements and substances. Check for superconductivity, since this is a plasmoid phenomena. Also, I suspect that storms on earth greatly affect at least some CF apparatus. Hawkins(23) and others(24) reported that a electrolysis apparatus exhibited heat and gamma-ray excursions at the times of electrical storms, but not otherwise. In this vein, it is interesting that V. A. Filimonov reports that a neutron source greatly stimulates CF phenomena(25). Lightning is associated with neutron production(26). I'm speculating that neutrons are a plasmoid environment, like larger plasmoids.
On one weekly T.V. show(27) about unusual phenomena that is shown in Chicago, there was a report about people who were in Gulf Breeze, Florida in the U.S.A. who reported seeing a small light orbiting a larger luminous orb. I have read the reports of people who have seen two BL revolve about a common center and of people who have seen several BL revolving together. I suspect that according to the new set of phenomena, the reason the small BL-like phenomena was orbiting the bigger orb is the same reason that the planets orbit the Sun.
If I could suggest some experiments, as I suggested in 1992(28), look for the emission of neutrons and other kinds of plasmoids during stress of substances other than hydrogen and during stresses other than electrical discharge, such as by thermal cycling or fracture. When I was 5 or 6, I produced tiny, unusual BL-like phenomena (sparks) by fracturing a certain kind of rock. Composites or combinations of elements with big differences of "oxidation state" or electronegativity may prove useful; this seems superficially similar to Hora, Miley et al.'s idea(29) of using differences in Fermi level.
1. E. Lewis, "The Periodic Production of Rationalized Phenomena and the Past Periodic Depressions," manuscript article, 1992, 1994, 1995.
2. A. Tonomura; electron holography provides a means of converting electrons to light.
3. E. Lewis, "Plasmoids and Cold Fusion," Cold Fusion Times, 2 (no. 1), 4 (Summer, 1994).
4. W. H. Bostick, W. Prior, L. Grunberger, and G. Emmert, "Pair Production of Plasma Vortices," Physics of Fluids, 9, 2078 (1966).
5. K. Shoulders, "Energy Conversion Using High Charge Density," Patent Number 5,123,039.
6. G. Dijkhuis and J. Pijpelink, "Performance of a High-Voltage Test Facility Designed for Investigation of Ball Lightning," Proc. First International Symposium on Ball Lightning (Fire Ball) -- The Science of Ball Lightning (Fire Ball) Tokyo, Japan, July 4-6, 1988, World Scientific Company, Singapore, p. 336.
7. T. Matsumoto, "Cold Fusion Experiments with Ordinary Water and Thin Nickel Foil," Fusion Technology, 24, 296 (Nov. 1993); Fig. 8b.
8. E. Lewis, "Luminous Tornadoes and Other Plasmoids, Cold Fusion Times, 1 (no. 4), 4 (Winter, 1994).
9. W. Bostick, "Plasmoids," Scientific American, 197, 87 (October 1957).
10. A. Peratt, email note, January 27, 1995.
11. A. Peratt, "Evolution of the Plasma Universe: I. Double Radio Galaxies, Quasars, and Extragalactic Jets," IEEE Trans. Plasma Science., vol. PS-14, 385 (1986). Many other articles as well.
12. Eric Lerner, The Big Bang Never Happened, New York, 1991.
13. W. Bostick, "The Plasmoid Construction of the Superstring," 21st Century Science & Technology, p. 58, Winter 1990.
14. W. Bostick, "How Superstrings Form the Basis of Nuclear Matter," 21st Century Science & Technology, p. 66, Winter 1990.
15. W. Bostick, "Mass, Charge, and Current: The Essence and Morphology," Physics Essays, 4 (no.5), 45 (1991). Millenium Twain sent me this reference in January or Feb. of 1994.
16. J. Tennenbaum, "Behind the Russian SDI Offer: A Scientific, Technological, and Strategic Revolution, 21st Century Science & Technology, p. 36, Summer 1993.
17. "USAF Conducts Experiments with Compact Toroids for Future Space Weapons," Aviation Week & Space Technology, 130, 60 (May 15, 1989).
18. E. Lewis, "A Proposal for the Performance of Four Kinds of Experiments to Test My Own Hypotheses and a Statement of a Deduction about Phenomena," manuscript article, October 19, 1992.
19. T. Matsumoto, "Cold Fusion Experiments by Using Electrical Discharge in Water," distributed at the ICCF4.
20. T. Matsumoto, "Observation of Tiny Ball Lightning During Electrical Discharge in Water," sub. to FT, Jan. 23, 1994.
21. T. Matsumoto, "Two Proposals Concerning Cold Fusion," Fusion Technology, 26, 1337 (December 1994).
22. E. Lewis. There is an abstract in the back of the ICCF3 about two experiments.
23. N. Hawkins, "Possible Natural Cold Fusion in the Atmosphere," Fusion Technology, 19, 2212 (July, 1991).
24. N. Hawkins, S.-Sh. Yi, X.-Zh. Qi, S. Li, L. Wang, and Q. X. Zu, "Investigations of Mechanisms and Occurrence of Meteorologically Triggered Cold Fusion at the Chinese Academy of Sciences," Proc. Conf. Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, Provo, Utah, October 22-24, 1990.
25. V. A. Filimonov, "A New Cold Fusion Phenomenon," sci.physics.fusion newsgroup (article #16526, from firstname.lastname@example.org), January 21, 1995.
26. S. Shah, H. Razdan, C. Bhat, and Q. Ali, "Neutron Generation in Lightning Bolts," Nature, 313, 773 (1985).
27. SIGHTINGS, Saturday, December 3, 1994, 6:00 P.M.
28. E. Lewis, "A Description of Phenomena According to My Theory and Experiments to Test My Theory, manuscript article, submitted to Fusion Technology, December 1992.
29. G. Miley, H. Hora, E. G. Batyrbekov, R. Zich, "Electrolytic Cell With Multilayer Thin-Film Electrodes," Transactions of Fusion Technology, 26, 313 (December 1994).
* P. S.
I have written a very long (15-30 page) manuscript that I have tried to publish in which I describe phenomena and give citations much more detailedly. I also detail the reasoning process for some of the ideas. If people would like a copy of this manuscript, please send a donation of at least five dollars for it.
There are others that I could also send.
"Recent Experiments That Produced Fundamental Anomalies For Novel Hypotheses Concerning the Production of Elements, Superconductivity, and Anomalous Radiation" a paper by Edward Lewis, Oct. 1996
"The Periodic Production of Rationalized Phenomena and the Past Periodic Depressions" a paper by Edward Lewis, Oct. 1996
"Considerations about Plasmoid Phenomena and Superconductivity Phenomena," a paper by Edward Lewis, June 1996, June 1996, Revised. Oct. 1996.
"Gorgons, Tornadoes, and Plasmoid Phenomena," a paper by Edward Lewis, June 1996, June 1996, Revised. Oct. 1996.
"Tornadoes and Ball Lightning," a paper by Edward Lewis, June 1996, Revised. Oct. 1996.
"Concerning Production of Elements and Plasmoids," a paper by Edward Lewis, June 1996, Revised. Oct. 1996.
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Nov. 15, 1996.