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By: Patrick Bailey, Toby Grotz, and James Hurtak

An updated and revised version of a paper originally submitted in June 1997 to the 1997 Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, the 32nd IECEC, held July 27 - August 1, 1997, in Honolulu, Hawaii.

Posted to the INE Website with the permission of authors.


Patrick G. Bailey
Institute for New Energy
P. O. Box 201
Los Altos, CA 94023-0201

Toby Grotz
Wireless Engineering
760 Prairie Avenue
Craig, CO 81625

James J. Hurtak
Academy for Future Science
P.O. Box FE
Los Gatos, CA 95031


A summary review is presented of the experiments, motors, generators, devices, and demonstrations that have been reported in the past several years to produce near-unity or over-unity operation. The concepts of free-energy, zero-point energy, and over-unity devices are not new, and many examples of such devices have been built within the last 100 years. Several researchers are reviewed and a few are selected for immediate interest and support. Whether new forms of potential energy can be demonstrated and successfully utilized within the near future for the ultimate benefit of the human race remains to be seen.


'Energy' cannot be created nor destroyed - it exists throughout space and within matter. 'Perpetual Motion' does not exist - and long lasting motion is easily observable, such as planetary orbits.

'Zero-Point Energy' (ZPE) is known as an energy that fills the fabric of all space. Technically the ZPE results from an electric flux that flows orthogonally to our perceived dimension or reality. The mass equivalence of this energy has been calculated by physicists to be on the order of 1093 gms/cm3. Henry T. Moray, Walter Russell, and Nikola Tesla described the nature of the ZPE and designed and built equipment to engineer its properties. It may be possible to build devices to cohere this energy. This would result in a non-polluting, unlimited supply of virtually free energy.

'Free Energy' is a term that can have two meanings: either (1) the additional energy that can be obtained from a device at little or no additional cost, so the additional energy is essentially free; or (2) more output energy appears to be available than the input energy, so it looks like some energy is being created, such as in the case of the detonation of an atomic bomb.

'Over-unity Devices' are those systems which appear to produce more energy than they use. In analyzing such systems, a box is drawn around the device and energy balances are formulated to measure the amounts of energy coming into and going out of that box. Whether or not the device is termed an 'over-unity' device will depend upon the size of the box. When the box is drawn large enough, all systems or devices will have a net energy transfer of zero. On the other hand, when the box is drawn just small enough, the device will seem to produce energy out of nothing, and can be said to be an 'over-unity' device - and any intelligent person will know better.

From this point of view, examples of existing so-called 'free-energy' and 'over-unity' devices abound: such as Hoover Dam! So then is any battery, generator, or any nuclear reactor: by way of 'potential energy'. More energy certainly comes out of a dam than went in to making it (by us, at least). And any dam engineer will tell you that it will produce more energy than it cost to build, and that it will last forever (or at least until his kids get out of college). So it is seen that these generators can be thought of as free-energy or over-unity devices, while they are really only energy conversion devices, and obviously not perpetual motion machines. People who insist that they actually are "perpetual motion machines.", are either very ignorant or very devious. In such cases, it is important to examine the person's true motives. Another 'free-energy' system which has been carefully studied in refereed scientific journals is the radiation that emanates from a hydrogen atom (Puthoff, 1987).


Ultimately, the sources for all information in these areas come from the inventors, researchers, or investigators themselves. The US and foreign patent offices provide some information into new developments in these areas, yet the actual patents themselves reveal very little useful information and almost no experimental results. Patent law does not require any disclosure of the full operational plans of a device or operational data, and patents are held nationally. Also, an interesting area of big business today is the international transfer of patent information at no cost. Currently, bills are before both houses of Congress to allow US Patents to be given to ideas alone, much like as is done in Japan, which would strip an inventor of his patent protection worldwide [].

Other sources of information and data include papers, reports, books, and conference proceedings. Papers and books that are of special interest are those by Hans Coler (1946), the Gravity Research Group (GRG 1956), Hans Nieper (1984), Stefan Marinov (1992), and Shinichi Seike (1992). Conferences that have been recently held to collect and summarize information in these areas include the 26th and 27th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conferences (1991 and 1992) and the four International Symposiums on New Energy (ISNE) (1993, 1994, 1996, 1997). Other conferences and reports have also documented some of this information. All of these materials are available from the sources identified in the references section.

Also, this paper represents an update of a similar survey paper that reviewed these interesting technologies at the 1993 IECEC (Bailey and Grotz, 1993).


There are several societies and conferences world-wide that present and document the results of research in these areas. As this work is not considered as mainstream science within the US, much of the results of these researchers goes by unnoticed. The 26th IECEC (1991) provided a forum for researchers in these areas to voluntarily come forward and present their ideas, theories, and results to the mainstream scientific community. They were met with interest ranging from mistrust to awe, and from feelings ranging from friendship to outright anger. The ranges of these attitudes will likely depend upon the preconceived ideas and the emotional stability of the listeners.

The 26th IECEC created international interest that stimulated further review papers in these innovative areas to be published in all subsequent IECECs. Groups of organizations are now networking on a world-wide basis to support and organize this on-going research. Some of these organizations are listed in the references (AERI, AFS, GRI, IASA, INE, JPI, SAFE, SEA, TI, and USP). "New Energy News" is the large, monthly newsletter of Institute for New Energy (INE), a US technical non-profit society, created in April 1993, that is committed to researching these technical areas. Note that the references include complete accurate addresses, websites, and cost information, so that serious investigators have no excuse to not investigate.

This paper reviews all of the information that has been made available to the 1991 and subsequent IECECs, all of the International Symposiums on New Energy (ISNE) conferences, and other contributed personal source information and documents. Our focus here is on actual data and results - not on ideas or mathematical theories. Our emphasis here is on repeatable experimental evidence - or on the documented testimony of multiple reliable witnesses that have been willing to stand-up, testify, and document a description of what they witnessed.

Just because YOU don't see it doesn't mean that it's not real!

The list of the researchers, experiments, devices, and results that are deemed important enough to be addressed in this review are listed in Table 1. The list is divided into five sections based upon our interest, from 'Highest Interest' to 'Lowest Interest', and each section is then organized alphabetically.


Experiments, Devices, and Demonstrations

In the Areas of Interest of:


The entire current Table 1 is located at


We feel that the interpretation of anyone's results can fall into one of four basic categories: (1) Lying for attention; (2) Lying for money (funding, stock options, etc.); (3) Inaccurate measurement or misinterpretation of the data or results; and (4) Accurate representation of physical phenomena.

In our reviews, we have found absolutely no evidence that any one of the researchers we have studied in Table 1 belonged specifically in categories (1) or (2) (although so far as we know some of these researchers have not been able to replicate their initial published results). Frauds are quickly and easily discovered, especially if encouraged to reproduce their results and to provide detailed information. So, we are left to carefully analyze the results from each researcher, carefully cross-reference all available data, and then draw our own conclusions.

While on one hand some researchers may possibly be overstating the capabilities and results of their experiments and devices, on the other hand many so-called 'scientific experts' are very active in discounting all of the research results in these areas without investigating the details of any of them. "The Nobel chemist Irving Langmuir (1881-1957) used to give a cautionary talk on pathological science, and ... told a number of stories of pathological science and listed the features they have in common." (Cromer, Skeptical Inquirer, 1993). In his eight page article, Cromer states that there are many lessons from this: "(1) Scientists themselves are often poor judges of the scientific process; (2) Scientific research is very difficult. Anything that can go wrong will go wrong; (3) Science isn't dependent on the honesty or wisdom of scientists. (4) Real discoveries of phenomena contrary to all previous scientific experience are very rare, while fraud, fakery, foolishness, and error resulting from over enthusiasm and delusion are all too common. Thus, Glashow's closed-minded 'I don't believe a word of it' is going to be correct far more often than not." Cromer also cites Langmuir as saying (Langmuir 1989): "There are cases where there is no dishonesty involved, but where people are tricked into false results by a lack of understanding about what human beings can do to themselves in the way of being led astray by subjective effects, wishful thinking, or threshold interactions. These are examples of pathological science. These are things that attracted a great deal of attention. ... [But] the critics can't reproduce the effects. Only the supporters could do that. In the end, nothing was salvaged. Why should there be? There isn't anything there. There never was."

A good review paper of this so-called "pathological science syndrome" was given at the 1993 IECEC (Bennett, 1993).

Our sincere response to these viewpoints is: If there is no initial interest - then there will be no investigation. If there is no investigation, there will be no research to replicate. Your interest will spark the urge to replicate. If there is interest, research, and no replication, then that fact should be published and disseminated with integrity. If there are witnesses to the results and the results were or are repeatable, then we feel all fault and blame lies with the critic and not with the researcher.

Therefore, given the experiments and devices referenced in this paper: Demand that they be tested with an open mind! One success out of all of the failures is more than worth the effort!

A significant example of this necessary point of view is that after the publication of Bennett's 1993 paper completely denouncing all "cold fusion" as pathological science, P. Bailey personally invited SRI International to present at the following IECEC their results that showed conclusively large excess heat produced within their own cold fusion cells (McKubre, 1994).

It is also interesting to note that now repeatable cold fusion results are being demonstrated world-wide, as reported by other authors in papers in this conference (Hurtak and Bailey, 1997).


The researchers and the works that we feel are worthy of great attention in the near future are those that are listed within the first and second sections as listed in Table 1 (Highest Interest and High Interest).

There are also other devices that are listed in the last section of Table 1that are also of great interest, and these are still under investigation. After these investigations are concluded, they will be included in their proper positioning in the table.

These researchers and devices have been ranked in Table 1, in the 5 sections indicated, by a 13 point "scale of interest" [] as assigned by the authors. This scale is described in a companion paper [].

Additional information on each researcher and each device is encouraged to be received by the authors []. The information will be reviewed, and the interest rankings will change accordingly.

Each of these devices and all associated data that we receive for each device is being placed into a large database. As additional information and data is made available, the database will be updated. Separate web pages will be automatically generated for each device that will contain all of the data in the database for that device. These separate device web pages are all available and listed on the INE website [].


The Methernitha Swiss M-L Converter developed by Paul Baumann and the Methernitha spiritual community in Switzerland has been repeatedly demonstrated to many scientists upon request (26th IECEC, Nieper 1984, SEA). Its three foot counter-rotating disks and specially designed energy storage system are reported to generate a steady output power of about 3 to 5 kilo-Watts (kW) indefinitely - while sitting on top of a table. A videotape has been produced and its narration has been transcribed.

John and Kevin Moray are pursuing the technology that was repeatedly demonstrated in the 1930s by T. Henry Moray. One device was reported to generate 50 kW for long periods of time by itself, as formally witnessed by the press and others.

Viktor Schauberger is famous in Germany for his work in the 1930s in 'implosion' science and centripetence motion to overcome gravity. His work centers on the use of 3-D vortex mechanics, and his technology offers the implosion motor, suction turbines, and home power plants. Results of his work are now just becoming known in the US (Borderland, 1985).

Floyd Sweet demonstrated his vacuum triode device to at least two expert engineers that have documented their observations in sworn affidavits. Several videotapes were also made during these demonstrations. From a nine volt battery starter unit, nearly continuous output powers of 500 - 1,000 W have been reported to be observed. Experimentation is still in progress to further refine the device and to improve its operational capabilities.

Paramahamsa Tewari has been doing experiments with a N-Machine and has reported over-unity operation from instrument readings. His most recent development is a method reported to eliminate back EMF, a condition which has plagued other N-machine developers. He is currently performing new experiments to feed the output of the device back into the input to obtain a 'free-running' condition. Many researchers have performed experiments with these devices, also called, homo-polar generators, or unipolar dynamos. They usually consist of a rotating magnetic disk where electrical current is passed from the center of the disk to its edge. Small increases in the motor input power result in large increases of output power, thus encouraging the idea of an over-unity cross-over point. Regardless of all of the theory and reasons pro and con, it will be exciting to see the results of Tewari's forthcoming experiments and the videotapes he has promised.

Hans Coler demonstrated two major devices to many amazed witnesses and officials in Germany during 1925-1945. A small device was replicated in 1937, and the war bombings ended further research in 1944. A complete 32 page report declassified by the British Intelligence Objectives Sub-Committee is available (Coler 1946, Nieper 1984). The theories expressed are very similar to those presented in a comprehensive report (GRG 1956) (the latest unclassified report we can find so far...) on electrogravitics systems, interactions of E-M with gravity, or counterbary control devices.

Barry Davis is the inventor of the 'Davis Turbine' for use in rivers or oceans with tidal currents, which already has proven itself in several prototype demonstration tests of 5 - 100 kW. Formal estimates indicate energy costs less than $0.02 kW/hr.

Hal Fox and Edmund Storms have reviewed much of the work done internationally in the so-called area of 'cold fusion', and they have both collected and documented the results of the repeatable work in this world-wide research area (Fox, 1997).

Stefan Marinov is the editor of Deutsche Physik in Germany and has demonstrated many experiments that confound conventional E-M theory. His recent paper describes devices that create anti-Lenz effects, thus increasing the generator's efficiency.

It appears that all serious research and development activities in the energy conversion technologies will continue to be closely monitored and guarded by the existing oil, transportation, and economics industries. Serious researchers in these new areas (Methernitha, RQM, etc.) are not allowing "the establishment" to buy them out. At the same time, there is strong evidence of aggressive suppression. The German company Becocraft specializing in the development of "new energy devices" was forcibly shut down and its president quickly imprisoned on investment fraud charges in a court case that had only one plaintiff: the Utility Company of Cologne! (Marinov 1992). All of the investors of Becocraft fought the case to no avail. Closer to home, the US Patent Office has classified over 3,000 patent devices or applications under the "Secrecy Order," Title 35, U.S. Code (1952) Sections 181-188 []. Where did that technology go? These patents would be a great place to start for a new company involved with defense conversion technologies for environmental use!


"It has been said that science is man's futile attempt to understand Nature. While it becomes important to learn, understand, and apply science in our everyday lives, it is equally important to continue the pursuit of unraveling the secrets of Nature." (ISNE 1993, from Forward 1).

If ignorance was a good enough reason to not try, AC alternating current would have never been invented, and the Earth would still be flat. Let us be judged by our work and repeatable results, and not by hasty dismissals, especially by some antagonistic critic! If some of these works turn out to be not valid: So Be It; Let it Be Known; Remember; and Let's Move Forward with Integrity! We are all desperately looking for the next big breakthrough in modern physics to assist us in solving the escalating energy and environmental crises!

Do something to promote and encourage the continuation of these researchers and these works! If you don't do it, who will? If not now, when?


The authors gratefully acknowledge these and many other researchers, scientists, and skeptics that have contributed serious open research and documentation to boldly advance science and technology for the benefit of the human race.


26th IECEC, Volume 4, pp. 329-492, August 1991; American Nuclear Society, 555 North Kensington Avenue, La Grange Park, IL 60525, $275.00.

27th IECEC, Volume 4, pp. 4.357-4.295, August 1992; Society of Automotive Engineers, 400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096-0001, Order No. P-259, $350.00.

28th IECEC, August 1993:; American Chemical Society, Meetings Department, 1155 Sixteenth Street N.W., Washington D.C. 20036, $310.00.

29th IECEC, August 1994; AIAA, Wash. DC.

Adams, R. "The Adams Pulsed Motor Generator Manual," Jan. 1993: Nexus New Times Magazine, PO Box 30, Mapleton Qld 4560, Australia, $50.00.

AERI, Advanced Energy Research Institute, 14 Devonshire Mews West, London W1N 1FP, Great Britain.

AFS, Academy for Future Sciences, PO Box FE, Los Gatos, CA 95031. []

Bailey, P., and Grotz, T., "A Critical review of the Available Information Regarding Claims of Zero-Point Energy, Free-Energy, and Over-Unity Experiments and Devices," 28th IECEC, August 1993. []

Bailey, P., Grotz, T., and Hurtak, J., "Review And Status of Reported Innovative Energy Conversion Technologies, Contrasted Using A Consistent R&D Ranking Scale," October 1997. []

Bennett, G., "The Pathological Science Syndrome: A Concern for Energy Science," 28th IECEC, pp. 2.335-2.340, August 1993.

Borderland Sciences, P.O. Box 429, Garberville, CA 95440-0429. []

Coler, H., "The Invention of Hans Coler, Relating to an Alleged New Source of Power," British Intelligence Objectives Sub-Committee report No. 1043 Item 31, 32 pp., Now Declassified, Summer 1946. (Available from P. Bailey for $5.00)

Cromer, A., "Pathological Science: An Update," Skeptical Inquirer, Vol. 17, pp. 400-407, 1993.

Fox, H., and Bailey, P., "Possible New Applications of Cold Fusion Processes", 32nd IECEC, July-August 1997.

GRG, Gravity Research Group, "Electrogravitics Systems: An Examination of Electrostatic Motion, Dynamic Counterbary, and Barycentric Control," Feb. 1956: Gravity Research Group report GRG-013/56, Wright Patterson AFB Technical Library, Catalog No. TL 565 A9, WPAFB, Ohio 45433. []

GRI, Group Res. Instit., PO Box 438, Nelson, New Zealand.

Hurtak, J., and Bailey, P., "Cold Fusion Research: Models And Potential Benefits," 32nd IECEC, July-August 1997.

IASA, Institute for Advanced Studies at Austin, 4030 Braker Lane W., Suite 300, Austin, TX 78759.

INE, Institute for New Energy, P.O. Box 58639, Salt Lake City, UT 84158-8639, $35.00/yr. []

INE Authors:

INE Devices:

INE Subjects:

INE Website:

INE Websites (Of Related Subjects):

ISNE, Proceedings of the International Symposium on New Energy, April 16-18, 1993: International Association for New Science (IANS), 1304 South College Avenue, Fort Collins, CO 80524; (303) 482-3731, $45.00. []

ISNE, 1994, $50.00. []

ISNE, 1996, $50.00. []

ISNE, 1997, $50.00. []

JPI, Japan Psychrotronic Institute, c/o Shiuji Inomata, Electrotechnical Laboratory, 1-1-4 Umezono, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305, Japan.

Langmuir, I., "Pathological Science," Physics Today, 42: 36-48, October 1989.

Marinov, S., "Regarding Becocraft - Letter to Mr. Richard von Weizsacker, President of the German Federal Republic, 10 October 1992" , Deutsche Physik, No. 7, East-West Publishers, Morellenfeldgasse 16, A-8010 Graz, Austria. []

McKubre, M., et. al., "An Overview of Excess Heat Production in the Deuterated Palladium System," 28th IECEC, pp. 1478-1483, August 1994.

Meyer, S. Water Fuel Cell Technical Brief, July 1991: Stanley A. Meyer, 3792 Grove City, OH 43123, $25.00.

"New Energy News", PO Box 58639, Salt Lake City, UT 84158-8639. Large monthly newsletter free to INE members. Past Issues and TOCs:

Newman, J., The Energy Machine of Joseph Newman, July 1993: Joseph Westley Newman, Route 1, Box 52, Lucedale, Miss. 39452, $60.00.

Nieper, H. A., Revolution in Technology, Medicine and Society, MIT Verlag, Germany, 1984 (In English): Tesla Book Company, PO Box 121873, Chula Vista, CA 91912, $27.00.

Puthoff, Hal, "Ground State of Hydrogen As A Zero Point Fluctuation Determined State," Physical Review D, Vol. 35, No. 10, May 15, 1987.

Rex Research, P.O. Box 19250, Jean, NV 89019.

SAFE, Swiss Association for Free Energy, Binzenstr. 7, 8733 Eschenbach, Postfach 2142, 8645 Jona, Switzerland.

SEA, Space Energy Association, PO Box 11422, Clearwater, FL 34616. []

Seike, S., The Principles of Ultra Relativity, 11th Ed., 1992: Space Research Institute, Box 33, Uwajima, Ehime (798), Japan, $70.00.

Storms, E., "The Status of 'Cold Fusion'," 28th IECEC paper, pp. 2.315-2.320, August 1993.

TI, Tesla Incorporated, 820 Bridger Circle, Craig, CO 81625. []

USP, University of Science and Philosophy, Swannanoa Place, Box 520, Waynesboro, VA 22980. []

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