Recent Advances in LENT and Proposed CF via Deuterium Crystals written by Robert W. Bass & Wm. Stan Gleeson presented by Patrick G. Bailey INE/EEMF Conference on New Energy Conversion Salt Lake City, September 8-9, 2000 Introduction We challenge predominant view that Low Energy Nuclear Transmutations (LENTs) are prohibited by standard Quantum Mechanics (QM). This view, supposedly based on standard nuclear theory, need not apply in condensed-matter environments. These considerations indicate that seemingly novel experimental evidence of rapid aneutronic bulk-process transmutation, at extraordinarily low energy levels, in a simple electrochemical reactor, can occur. This explains: (1) induced rapid decay of radioactive Thorium into stable nuclides, e.g. Cu; (2) resulting, anomalous distribution of Cu isotopes. Description of Actual Work We re-examine arguments of P.J.E. Peebles (1) cited as evidence that standard QM "forbids" Cold Fusion (CF). We note (2) over-simplifications in those and present an alternative, more sophisticated calculation [cf. Bass, (3)-(8)] demonstrating that conventional wisdom about impenetrability of the "Coulomb barrier" fails as a result of periodic-order-induced resonance. We also examine empirical evidence (9)-(15). In three independent tests of a LENT electrolysis cell, using different I-V-T (current/voltage/time) protocols, the percentage of Radiation Reduction (RR) transmutation achieved A = [23%, 50%, 83%] versus expended energy E = [0.6535, 32.5, 74.6] (Watt-hrs), obtained by numerical integration of recorded product I.V for processing time T, provides near-perfect straight-line correlation: A = alf.E + Ao, (alf = 0.8105, Ao = 22.888, (0.65 < E < 0.75). The basis of the CF/LENT results is the Resonant Transmission Theory (RTT) of L. Turner, R.T. Bush & R.D. Eagleton, and R.W. Bass [cf. (3)-(8), (16)-(17)]. This theory, using a periodic array of point-particle deuterons bound in a linear lattice and interacting coherently with the wave-function of an excited deuteron, results in Zero-Point Fluctuation (ZPF) broadening of line-spectra of associated energy-levels. Thus Coulombic interaction between deuterons occurs between "waves" (versus "particles"). In certain configurations an array of deuterons undergoes resonant (wave-like) interactions, penetrating Coulomb barriers, analogously to light's penetration through transparent mirrors. Certain specific low-energy [10ev-to-150ev] levels (7) enhance penetration. This model refines (6) ideas of Schwinger about importance of ZPF and phonon-mediated energy transfer from excited alpha-particles. Premature criticisms of RTT by JŠndel, by Rabinowitz & Worledge, and by Merriman, are addressed. Connection is made (8) between our idealized point-particle/linear-arrays and fully three- dimensional work of W. Lamb & R. Parmenter which predicts resonant-transmission tunneling times of at most hours even when nuclear angular-momenta and more complicated 3D-lattice geometries are considered. Also a related "optical" reaction-barrier transparency theory of Kim, Zubarev & Rabinowitz is discussed. Citing Schwinger's Selection Rule rebuttals, we address two objections ("miracles") required by J. Huizenga (19) as prerequisites to CF. (Huizenga noted:  need to explain anomalously small tritium-neutron branching-ratio, not present in aneutronic CF but known to occur in D-D fusion in rarified plasmas or ion-bombardments;  lack of ionizing-radiation emission in CF experiments.) Two different derivations, one (5) based on semi-classical old QM as in Bohr's atom, and another (2)-(4) & (6)-(8) on Schršdinger's equation, provide a Quantum Resonance Triggering (QRT) principle: a host-lattice, reacting bound-particle pair produces CF if and only if associated SR/pi is closer to an odd than an even integer, where Schwinger Ratio SR = L/aZ, aZ = rms amplitude of ZPF of particle, L = lattice-period length. First derivation illustrates importance of particle-momentum Duane's Rule, while wave-theoretical derivation illustrates particle-position probability density. Results Objections to possibility of LENT/CF are addressed, including:  "Rabinowitz's acid test" (18) that deuterons but not protons work in Pd- lattices while opposite prediction is required for Ni-lattices);  criticisms (19) about basic credibility of LENT/CF reactions because of tiny magnitudes of effects, implying possible measurement errors. (This point is addressed with evidence of bulk-process transmutation, involving a small [wall- socket magnitude] AC current [of less than 1kW] for less than an hour, and evidence from independent experiments (12)-(15). Note that Celani et al (15) recorded good agreement between both "chemical balance" using mass-spectroscopy and optical spectroscopy, and "radiometric balance" using alpha- and beta- counting, while reporting 15-25% transmutation achieved.) Regarding the QRT criterion, above-cited criticisms of RTT are addressed and application to LENT is generalized and new predictions made. We endorse C.G. Beaudette's speculation (20) that reliable CF may require construction of host- lattices "one atom at a time to tight specifications." This is achievable by going beyond Solid State crystalline lattices to preparation of Meta-Stable Deuterium (MSD) crystals as proposed in 1987 by R.W. Bass, using the Cook/Pozwolski/Wilhelm/Tuck theory and demonstration of Liquid Metallic Plasmoids (LMPs) from high-density pressure-ionized rather than thermally- ionized gases. Plausibility of this LMP-intermediate route to MSD was enhanced in May 2000 by published demonstrations of "metallic deuterium" at LLNL. We propose to dilute deuterium LMPs with non-reacting heavy-element modulators (less expensive than Palladium, Titanium, Gold used by E. Storms, e.g. Nickel or Iron) so apportioned that the lattice-Period L in resultant hybrid-MSD crystal be an odd multiple of pi.aZ in order that reliable CF fuel-pellets may be manufactured according to Beaudette's prescient desideratum. References NOTE: Abbreviations: ICCF = International Conference on Cold Fusion; CFSB = Cold Fusion Source Book; JNE = Journal of New Energy; NEN = New Energy News; FF = Fusion Facts; IE = Infinite Energy: The Magazine of New Energy Technology. Although JNE is an archival periodical abstracted in Chemical Abstracts, it is not widely available; however, CFSB and over ten years (1989-2000) of JNE, NEN, FF [over 4,000 pages] are available in pdf-printable format on CD-ROM for $49.00 from Fusion Information Center, 3084 E. 3300 South, Salt Lake City, UT 84109- 2154; IE is available from www.infinite-energy.com; NEN is available in downloadable form at www.padrak.com/ine . (1) P.J.E. Peebles, Quantum Mechanics, Princeton University Press, 1992, pp. 56- 20 & 89-90. (2) R.W. Bass, "A High-School Level ExposŽ of the Mistake Upon Which the ERAB Report is Based," JNE, vol. 2, no. 3/4 (Winter, 1997), pp. 22-28. (3) R.W. Bass, "A Closed-Form Expression for a Generic Madelung Series," (ICCF- 4) FF, vol. 5, no.8 (Feb. 1994), pp. 5-6. (4) R.W. Bass, "Bi-Resonant Transparency of Quadruple Coulomb Barriers in Periodic Triple Potential Wells," (ICCF-4), FF, vol. 5, no.8 (Feb. 1994), p. 8. (5) R.W. Bass, "LINT: A Semi-Classical Quantized Theory of Lattice-Induced Nuclear Transmutations," CFSB (1994), pp. 34-46. (6) R. W. Bass, "Is the Coulomb Fusion-'Barrier' A Resonantly-Transparent Mirror? Refutation of the Conventional Cold-Fusion 'QM-Impossibility' 'Proof'," CFSB (1994), pp. 45-60. (7) R.W. Bass, "Resonant Transparency Spectrum of Deuterium Lattices in Pd.D_1.0 Cold Fusion Reactors," ICCF-5 Book of Abstracts #418 (1995) and FF , vol. 6, no. 11 (May 1995), p. 3. (8) R.W. Bass, "Parmenter's Fundamental Breakthrough Contributions, " IE, vol. 4, no. 21 (1998), pp. 45-49 & 59. (9) R.W. Bass, "Low-Energy Bulk-Process Alchemy," NEN, vol. 5, no. 3 (1997), pp. 1-3. (10) R.W. Bass, R. Liversage, S. Gleeson, "Low-Energy Bulk-Process Alchemy: Most Sacrosanct Principles of Physics Overturned," IE, vol. 3, no. 13/14 (1997), pp. 18-29. (11) R. Bass, R. Neal, S. Gleeson, H. Fox, "Electro-Nuclear Transmutations: Low- Energy Nuclear Reactions in an Electrolytic Cell," JNE, vol. 1, no. 3 (1996), pp. 81-87. (12) R.W. Bass, "Experimental Evidence Favoring Brightsen's Nucleon Cluster Model," JNE, vol. 1, no. 4 (1996), pp. 59-61. (13) R.W. Bass, "LENT: Tungsten into Silver, Iron, Barium, Tin, Chromium, etc.: Simple Macroscopic Alchemy Demonstration, " NEN, vol. 5, no. 9 (1998), pp. 7-9. (14) H. Fox, R.W. Bass, S-X. Jin, "Plasma-Injected Transmutation," JNE, vol. 1, no. 3 (1996), pp. 222-230. (15) F. Celani , M.Achilli, A. Battaglia, C. Cattaneo, G. Buzzanca, P.G. Sona, A. Mancini, "Preliminary Results with 'Cincinnati Group' Cell of Thorium 'Transmutation' Under 50 Hz AC Excitation," (ICCF-7) NEN, vol. 6, no. 2 (1998), pp. 17-18. (16) R.T. Bush, "Cold Fusion / Cold Fission to Account for Radiation Remediation," IE, vol. 3, no. 13/14 (1997), p. 30. (17) R.W. Bass, "Eagleton's Theory of the CG's LENT Process," IE, vol. 3, no. 13/14 (1997), pp. 31-32. (18) M. Rabinowitz, private communication. (19) J. Huizenga, Cold Fusion: Scientific Fiasco of the Century, Oxford University Press, 1993. (20) C.G. Beaudette, Excess Heat: Why Cold Fusion Research Prevailed, Oak Grove Press [distributed by IE], 2000.
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