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THE WALLACE INVENTIONS, SPIN ALIGNED NUCLEI, THE GRAVITOMAGNETIC FIELD, AND THE TAMPERE EXPERIMENT: IS THERE A CONNECTION?

By: Robert Stirniman


Date: Tue, 19 May 1998 11:13:39 -0700
From: Robert Stirniman 
To: Patrick Bailey 
Subject: [Fwd: Wallace & Tampere (Long)]

[with corrections to the "Gravitomagnetic Field" definition in the Appendix,
 made in a recent email to James Cox, CC to me. PB.]

[snip]

The Wallace Inventions, Spin Aligned Nuclei, The Gravitomagnetic Field, and The 
Tampere Experiment: Is there a connection?

By: Robert Stirniman, May 1998

During the 1960s through the mid 1970s, Henry William Wallace was a scientist at 
GE Aerospace in Valley Forge PA, and GE Re-Entry Systems in Philadelphia. In the 
early 1970s, Wallace was issued patents (1,2,3) for some unusual inventions 
relating to the gravitational field. Wallace developed an experimental apparatus 
for generating and detecting a secondary gravitational field, which he named the 
kinemassic field, and which is now better known as the gravitomagnetic field. 

Wallace's experiments were based on aligning the nuclear spin of elements and 
isotopes which have an odd number of nucleons. These materials are characterized 
by a total nuclear spin which is an odd integral multiple of one-half, resulting 
in one nucleon with un-paired spin. Wallace drew an analogy between the un-
paired angular momentum in these materials, and the un-paired magnetic moments 
of electrons in ferromagnetic materials. 

Wallace created nuclear spin alignment by rapidly spinning a brass disk, of 
which essentially all isotopes have an odd number of nucleons. Nuclear spin 
becomes aligned in the spinning disk due to precession of nuclear angular 
momentum in inertial space -- a process similar to the magnetization developed 
by rapidly spinning a ferrous material (known as the Barnett effect). The 
gravitomagnetic field generated by the spinning disk is tightly coupled (0.01 
inch air gap) to a gravitomagnetic field circuit composed of material having 
half integral nuclear spin, and analogous to magnetic core material in 
transformers and motors. The gravitomagnetic field is transmitted through the 
field circuit and focused by the field material to a small space where it can be 
detected.

In his three patents, Wallace describes three different methods used for 
detection of the gravitomagnetic field -- change in the motion of a body on a 
pivot, detection of a transverse voltage in a semiconductor crystal, and a 
change in the specific heat of a crystal material having spin-aligned nuclei. In 
a direct analogy with a magnetic circuit, the relative amount of the detected 
gravitomagnetic field always varied directly with the size of the air-gap 
between the generator disk and the field circuit. 

Wallace's patents are written in great detail, and he appears to be meticulous 
in his experimental design and practice. In my opinion, it is nearly certain 
that his experiments performed as claimed. None the less, there has been no 
scientific acknowledgment whatsoever of Wallace's discoveries. An in-depth 
search of the literature has uncovered only two references to Wallaces work (4, 
5), and each of these references merely creates further mystery.

The necessary existence of a magnetic-like gravitational field has been well 
established by physicists specializing in general relativity, gravitational 
theories, and cosmology. But, the existence of this field is not well known in 
other of arenas of physical science. The gravitomagnetic field was first 
hypothesized by Heaviside in the 1880's. The field is predicted by general 
relativity, and was first formulated in a relativistic context in 1918 by Lense 
and Thirring (6). In 1961, Forward (7) was the first to express the 
gravitational field equations in a vector form directly analogous and nearly 
identical to Maxwells equations for electromagnetics.

During the last 20 years many other scientists, (8 to 17), have published 
articles demonstrating the necessary existence of the gravitomagnetic field, 
using arguments based on general relativity, special relativity, and the cause 
and effect relationship which results from non-instantaneous propagation of 
energy (retardation). Nearly all of these authors present the gravitational 
field equations in a vector form similar to Maxwells equations. Some authors 
comment that these equations provide fundamental insights into gravitation, and 
it is unfortunate that they are not at all well known. Despite their relative 
simplicity and possible practical value, Maxwells equations for gravitation do 
not appear in any under- graduate physics textbook.

Just as in Maxwells equations for electromagnetics, it is found that in the 
presence of a time varying gravitomagnetic flux there will always exist 
concurrently a time varying gravitoelectric field. The secondary generated 
gravitoelectric field is a dipole field, and unlike the background gravito- 
electric field due to mass charges, the generated gravitoelectric field always 
exists in closed loops. Henry Wallace recognized this and described it in his 
inventions.

Wallace also describes another effect which may result from generation of a 
secondary gravitoelectric field. Wallace believed that a secondary gravito- 
electric field can result in exclusion of an existing primary background field. 
In other words, a gravitational shield can be created. The bulk of Wallace's 
patents describe his experimental apparatus, and his detection of the 
gravitomagnetic field. The effects detected are minuscule, and as such, may not 
be of immediate practical value. In reading his patents it is possible to become 
immersed in the detail of his experimental apparatus, and to neglect the 
possible significance of the alternative embodiment of his invention (figures 7, 
7A, and 7B of his first patent). The alternative embodiment uses a time varying 
gravitomagnetic flux to create a secondary gravitoelectric field in an enclosed 
shell of material in order to shield the background gravitoelectric field of the 
earth. 

Unfortunately, Wallace does not state whether this embodiment was ever actually 
produced, and unlike the detailed discussion of his experimental apparatus, he 
provides no experimental findings or data to back his claim. Nor does he provide 
much in the way of theoretical arguments about how a secondary gravitoelectric 
field can act to exclude a primary field, except to state: "It is well known 
that nature opposes heterogeneous field flux densities."

Is it well known that nature opposes heterogeneous flux densities? Well, not to 
me, and I can not find anything in the way of scientific literature to directly 
support this idea. But it does seem to make sense. It could be argued thusly. In 
a well-ordered manifold all derivatives of the fields, time-like and space-like, 
must be continuous. If you force a field to exist in a region of space, the 
existing background field is somehow required to form a pattern around or 
smoothly merge with the created field. Nature does not permit flux lines to act 
with cross-purposes and to exist with widely different directions in the same 
region of space. Flux lines can never cross. Wallace seems to have gotten his 
experiments right -- maybe he is also right in his claim of inventing a 
gravitational shield? 

In a ground breaking paper in 1966, Dewitt (18) was first to identify the 
significance of gravitational effects in a superconductor. Dewitt demonstrated 
that a magnetic-type gravitational field must result in the presence of fluxoid 
quantization. In 1983, Dewitt's work was substantially expanded by Ross (19).

Beginning in 1991, Ning Li, at the University of Alabama Huntsville, and Douglas 
Torr, formerly at Huntsville and now at the University of South Carolina, have 
published a number of articles about gravitational effects in superconductors 
(20, 21, 22). One interesting finding they have derived is the source of 
gravitomagnetic flux in a type II superconductor material. Guess what? It is due 
to spin alignment of the lattice ions. 

Quoting from Li and Torr's second paper: "The interaction energy of the internal 
magnetic field with the magnetic moment of the lattice ions drives the lattice 
ions and superconducting condensate wave function to move together vortically 
within the range of the coherent length and results in an induced precession of 
the angular momentum of the lattice ions." And quoting from their third paper: 
"Recently we demonstrated theoretically that the carriers of quantized angular 
momentum are not the Cooper pairs but the lattice ions, which must execute 
coherent localized motion consistent with the phenomenon of superconductivity." 
And, "It is shown that the coherent alignment of lattice ion spins will generate 
a detectable gravitomagnetic field, and in the presence of a time-dependent 
applied magnetic vector potential field, a detectable gravitoelectric field." 

Li and Torr also demonstrate that the gravitomagnetic field in a super- 
conductor has a relatively large magnitude compared with the magnetic field -- a 
factor of 10E11 times larger. The gravitational wave velocity in a 
superconductor is estimated as a factor of two magnitudes smaller than the 
velocity in free space. And the resulting estimate of relative gravito- magnetic 
permeability is four magnitudes (10 thousand times) greater than the 
permeability of free space. In their third paper, Torr and Li, demonstrate that 
it is possible to generate a time varying gravitomagnetic field in a 
superconductor, which must exist concurrently with a time varying 
gravitoelectric field.

In 1995, Becker et al (23), show mathematically that a significant size 
gravitomagnetic field must always exist along with a magnetic field whenever 
there is flux pinning or other forms of flux trapping in a type II 
superconductor. They propose a macroscopic experiment to detect the 
gravitomagnetic field. Becker et al, choose not to speculate about the source of 
the gravitomagnetic field, except to provide a brief comment that it may result 
from spin of the lattice ions. One might ask, what is a pinning center if not a 
microscopic hole which carries trapped flux, and what must be source of the 
gravitomagnetic dipole moment if not the angular momentum of the lattice ions at 
the pinning center? 

In 1992, an experiment at Tampere University was reported by Podkletnov (24, 
25). A torroidal shaped type II superconductor disk was suspended via the 
Meissner effect by a constant vertical magnetic field, and was rapidly rotated 
by a time varying horizontal magnetic field. Masses located in a cylindrical 
spacial geometry above the rotating disk were found to lose up to 2% of their 
weight. A gravitational shielding effect is claimed.

Conclusion.
Is a time varying gravitomagnetic field generated in the Tampere disk due to the 
horizontal time varying magnetic field used to rotate the disk, and does this 
result in a time varying gravitoelectric field in the disk, and possibly also in 
the space surrounding the disk, and could this result in exclusion of the 
earth's primary background gravitoelectric field as claimed by Henry Wallace?

Acknowledgments.
Many of the ideas in this article have been developed in personal discussions 
with Kedrick Brown (http://home.att.net/~kfbrown/index.html). I would also like 
to thank Ron Kita for his kind support and useful background information about 
Henry Wallace. 

==================================================== 

References:

1. US Patent No 3626605, Method and Apparatus for Generating a Secondary 
Gravitational Force Field, Henry Wm Wallace, Ardmore PA, Dec 14, 1971. 
Wallace's first patent. The gravitomagnetic field is named the kinemassic field. 
The patent describes the embodiment of his experiment. An additional embodiment 
of the invention (Figures 7, 7A, and 7B) describes how a time varying 
gravitomagnetic field can be used to shield the primary background 
gravitoelectric field. Available on the net. 
http://www.eskimo.com/~billb/weird/wallc/ 

2. US Patent No 3626606, Method and Apparatus for Generating a Dynamic 
Force Field, Henry Wm Wallace, Ardmore PA, Dec 14, 1971. 
Wallace's second patent provides a variation of his experiment. A type III-V 
semiconductor material (Indium Arsenide), of which both materials have unpaired 
nuclear spin, is used as an electronic detector for the gravitomagnetic field. 
The experiment demonstrates that the material in his gravitomagnetic field 
circuit has hysterisis and remanence effects analogous to magnetic materials. 
Available on the net. http://www.eskimo.com/~billb/weird/wallc/ 

3. US Patent No 3823570, Heat Pump, Henry Wm Wallace, 60 Oxford Drive, 
Freeport NY, July 16, 1974
Wallaces third patent provides an additional variation of his experiment. 
Wallace demonstrates that by aligning the nuclear spin of materials having an 
odd number of nucleons, order is created in the material, resulting in a change 
in specific heat. 

4. New Scientist, 14 February 1980, Patents Review 
This article is one of the only references to Wallace's work anywhere in the 
literature. The article provides a brief summary of his invention and ends with 
this intriguing paragraph. "Although the Wallace patents were initially ignored 
as cranky, observers believe that his invention is now under serious but secret 
investigation by the military authorities in the US. The military may now regret 
that the patents have already been granted and so are available for anyone to 
read."

5. Electric Propulsion Study, Dennis L. Cravens, Science Applications 
International Corp, August 1990, Prepared for Astronautics Laboratory, Edwards 
AFB.
This report provides a detailed review of a variety of 5-D theories of 
gravitational and electromagnetic interactions. It also provides a summary of a 
variety of possibly anomalous experiments, including experiments relating to 
spin aligned nuclei. The reports contains two paragraphs about Wallace's 
inventions -- partially quoted here: "The patents are written in a very 
believable style which include part numbers, sources for some components, and 
diagrams of data. Attempts were made to contact Wallace using patent addresses 
and other sources but he was not located nor is there a trace of what became of 
his work. The concept can be somewhat justified on general relativistic grounds 
since rotating frames of time varying fields are expected to emit gravitational 
waves."

6. On the Gravitational Effects of Rotating Masses: The Lense-Thirring 
Papers Translated, B. Mashhoon, F.W. Hehl, and D.S. Theiss. General Relativity 
and Gravitation, Vol 16:711-50 (1984) 
A translation of the original article in German by J. Lense and H. Thirring 
published in 1918. This article is the first fairly comprehensive analysis of 
the necessary existence of the gravito- magnetic field. An earlier prediction of 
the existence of this field was made by Heaviside in the 1880s.

7. Proceedings of the IRE Vol 49 p 892, Robert L. Forward (1961) 
Forward was the first to express the gravitomagnetic field in the modern form of 
Maxwells equations for gravitation. He named it the prorotational field.

8. Gravitation, C.W. Misner, K.S. Thorne, and J.A. Wheeler, Freeman 
Publishing, San Francisco (1973).
MTW is the bible of gravitational theorists. Among many other theories 
presented, gravitational field equations are derived from general relativity in 
a form similar to Maxwells equations. 

9. Laboratory Experiments to Test Relativistic Gravity, Vladimir B. 
Braginsky, Carlton M. Caves, and Kip S. Thorne, Physical Review D, Vol 15 No 8 
p2047, April 15 1977
Gravitational field equations are derived from General Relativity in a form 
similar to Maxwells equations. The gravitomagnetic field is called magnetic-type 
gravity. A variety of experiments are proposed and analyzed for detecting the 
gravitomagnetic field. 

10. Foucault Pendulum at the South Pole: Proposal for an Experiment to 
Detect the Earth's General Relativistic Gravitomagnetic Field, Vladimir 
Braginsky, Aleksander Polnarev, and Kip Thorne, Physical Review Letters, Vol 53 
No 9 p863, August 1984
Analyses an experiment for detecting the earth's gravitomagnetic field. Possibly 
the first authors to use the terms gravitomagnetic and gravitoelectric.

11. On Relativistic Gravitation, D. Bedford and P. Krumm, American Journal 
of Physics, Vol 53 No 9, September 1985
The necessary existence of the gravitomagnetic field is derived from arguments 
based on apecial relativity. The field is referred to as the gravitational 
analog of the magnetic field. 

12. The Gravitational Poynting Vector and Energy Transfer, Peter Krumm 
and Donald Bedford, American Journal of Physics, Vol 55 No 4 p362, April 1987
Establishes the necessary existence of the gravitomagnetic field based on 
arguments from special relativity and energy conservation in mass flow. Derives 
the gravitational Poynting vector. Names the two types of gravitational fields 
as gravinetic and gravistatic. 

13. Gravitomagnetism in Special Relativity, American Journal of Physics 
Vol 56 No 6 p523, June 1988
Predicts the existence of the gravitomagnetic field using special relativity and 
time dilation. Names the fields gravielectric and gravimagnetic.

14. Detection of the Gravitomagnetic Field Using an Orbiting 
Superconducting Gravity Gradiometer: Theoretical Principles, Bahram Mashhoon, Ho 
Jung Paik, and Clifford Will, Physical Review D, Vol 39 No 10 p2825, May 1989.
Provides a summary analysis of Maxwells equations for gravitation, and an in-
depth analysis of the Gravity Probe-B orbital gyroscope experiment for detecting 
the earth's gravitomagnetic field. 

15. Analogy Between General Relativity and Electromagnetism for Slowly 
Moving Particles in Weak Gravitational Fields, Edward G. Harris, American 
Journal of Physics, Vol 59 No 5, May 1991 
Derives Maxwells equations for gravitation from GR in the case of non-
relativistic velocities and relatively weak field strengths. A somewhat more 
direct method of derivation is used compared with the PPN formulation used by 
Braginsky, et al. 

16. Gravitation and Inertia, Ignazio Ciufolini and John Wheeler, Princeton 
Series in Physics, Princeton University Press (1995), Chapter 6 -- The 
Gravitomagnetic Field and its Measurement. 
Derives the electromagnetic analog of the gravitational field equations, and 
provides in-depth analysis of experiments for detecting the gravitomagnetic 
field.

17. Causality, Electromagnetic Induction, and Gravitation. Oleg Jefimenko, 
Electret Scientific Publishing, Star City WV (1992). 
Jefimenko derives the electromagnetic field equations based on retarded sources, 
(charges, moving charges, and accelerating charges). He applies similar 
arguments to the gravitational field equations. If gravitational energy 
propagates at any finite speed, the gravito- magnetic field must exist. Maxwells 
equations for gravitation are presented. He also presents an unusual 
configuration of mass which is predicted to provide an antigravity effect. 

18. Physics Review Letters, Vol 16 p1902, B.S. Dewitt (1966) 
I don't have this paper, and can not provide a summary. Dewitt was the first to 
analyze fluxoid quantization in a superconductor in the presence of a time 
varying magnetic-type gravitational field. 

19. The London Equations for Superconductors in a Gravitational Field, 
D.K. Ross, Journal of Physics A, Vol 16 p1331. (1983) 
Maxwells equations for gravitation are presented in vector form. Ross uses the 
name coined by Forward for the gravitomagnetic field -- the prorotational field. 
Fluxoid quantization is analyzed in the presence of a varying gravitomagnetic 
field. Ross establishes that the momentum of a charged particle in an 
electromagnetic and gravitational field is given (in MKS units) by: p = mv +qA + 
mV, where V is the gravito- magnetic vector potential, and A is the magnetic 
vector potential. The resulting modified London equations are presented in 
covariant form. 

20. Effects of a Gravitomagnetic Field on Pure Superconductors, Ning Li 
and Douglas Torr, Physical Review D, Vol 43 No2 p457, January 1991 
Li and Torr present Maxwells equations for gravitation using MKS units. The 
equations are given in a form where the gravitomagnetic permeability of a 
superconductor material is presumed to be different than the permeability of 
free space. Vector equations for the gravitational potentials are also 
presented. The canonical momentum is derived (same finding as Ross paper). It is 
established that an electrical current also results in a mass current, and an 
inter- relationship is derived between the magnetic field and gravitomagnetic 
field in a superconductor. It is established that the magnetic flux in a 
superconductor is a function of the gravitomagnetic permeability, and vice 
versa, resulting in a more rigorous form of the Meissner equation and the London 
theory. It is shown that the gravitomagnetic field must have a relatively large 
size in a superconductor, and is on the order of 10E11 times larger than the 
magnetic field. 

21. Gravitational Effects on the Magnetic Attenuation of Superconductors, 
Ning Li and Douglas Torr, Physical Review B, Vol 64 No 9 p5489. September 1992.
Li and Torr elaborate on their theory of the interrelationship of the 
gravitomagnetic field and the magnetic field in superconductors. It is 
established that the gravitomagnetic field must be sourced by spin alignment of 
the lattice ions. The velocity of a gravitational wave in a superconductor is 
estimated to be two orders of magnitude slower than the vacuum velocity, 
resulting in an estimate of relative gravitational permeability of a 
superconductor material which is as much as four magnitudes greater than free 
space. 

22. Gravitoelectric-Electric Coupling Via Superconductivity, Douglas Torr 
and Ning Li, Foundations of Physics Letters, Vol 6 No 4 p371. (1993) 
Torr and Li continue their analysis of gravitational effects in superconductors. 
Abstract: "Recently we demonstrated theoretically that the carriers of quantized 
angular momentum are not the Cooper pairs but the latice ions, which must 
execute coherent localized motion consistent with the phenomenon of 
superconductivity. We demonstrate here that in the presence of an external 
magnetic field, the free superelectron and bound ion currents largely cancel 
providing a self-consistent microscopic and macroscopic interpretation of near- 
zero magnetic permeability inside superconductors. The neutral mass currents, 
however, do not cancel, because of the monopolar gravitational charge. It is 
shown the coherent alignment of lattice ion spins will generate a detectable 
gravitomagnetic field, and in the presence of a time-dependent applied magnetic 
vector potential field, a detectable gravitoelectric field."

23. Proposal for the Experimental Detection of Gravitomagnetism in the 
Terrestrial Laboratory, Robert Becker, Paul Smith, and Heffrey Bertrand. 
September 1995. Published on the net. 
http://www.inetarena.com/~noetic/pls/RBecker/Gmexp2.htm 
Becker, et al, demonstrate mathematically that a significant size 
gravitomagnetic field must exist concurrently with a magnetic field in a 
superconductor whenever there is flux pinning or other forms of flux trapping. 
An experiment is proposed whereby a small hole is made in a superconductor, flux 
is trapped in the hole, and the gravito- magnetic field is detected by measuring 
counter-torque from a macroscopic cylindrical mass inserted through the hole. 

24. A Possibility of Gravitational Force Shielding by Bulk YBa2Cu3O7-x 
Superconductor, E. Podkletnov and R. Nieminen, Physica C Vol 203 p441 (1992)
Podkletnov describes an experiment where a 2% reduction in weight is created in 
a mass suspended over a levitated and rotating super- conductor disk. A detailed 
compilation of information about this experiment is available on the net at Pete 
Skegg's website. http://www.inetarena.com/~noetic/pls/gravity.html 

25. Weak Gravitational Shielding Properties of Composite Bulk Yba2Cu3O7-x 
Superconductor Below 70K Under EM Field, Eugene Podkletnov, LANL Physics 
Preprint Server, Cond-Mat/9701074, January 1997. 
Podkletnov provides greater detail about his experimental apparatus and the 
construction of the superconductor disk. Available on the net. 
http://www.gravity.org/msu.html

========================================== 

Appendix - MKS Units for the Gravitomagnetic Field. 

Gravitoelectric Charge	= Kg
(in purely electrical units, Kg = (Weber/Meter)(Coul/Meter)(Sec) 

Gravitoelectric Field = Meter/Sec-Squared 

Gravitoelectric Flux Density = Kg/Meter-Squared 

Mass Current = Kg/Sec = (Weber/Meter)(Coul/Meter) 

Gravitomagnetic Dipole Moment = (Kg)(Meter-Squared)/Sec 
= Angular Momentum
= (Coulomb)(Weber)

Gravitoelectric Dipole Moment = (Kg)(Meter) (You would need the equivalent of 
negative mass to make one of these) 

Gravitomagnetic Charge = (Velocity)(Meter) = Square-Meter/Sec 

Gravitomagnetic Field = (Mass Current)/Meter
=  Kg/Sec-Meter
= ((Kg-Meter^2)/Sec))/Meter^3
= Spin Density
= (Angular Momentum)/Cubic-Meter
= (Coulomb)(Weber)/Meter^3

[A spin-wave is a gravtiomagnetic wave.]

Gravitomagnetic Flux Density = (Gravitomagnetic Charge)/Meter^2 
= Velocity/Meter
= 1/Sec = Angular Velocity

Gravitoelectric Scalar Potential = Joule/Kg 
= (Acceleration)(Meter)
= (Gravitoelectric Field)(Meter)
= Velocity-Squared
= Meter-Squared/Second-Squared

Gravitomagnetic Vector Potential = (Gravitomagnetic Charge)/Meter 
= Velocity = Meter/Sec

Gravitoelectric Permitivity = Gravitoelectric Flux per Gravitoelectric Field 
= (Kg)(Second-Squared)/(Cubic Meter)
= 1/4(Pi)(G) = 1.1927E09 Kg-Sec^2/Meter^3

Gravitomagnetic Permeability = Gravitomagnetic Flux per Gravitomagnetic Field 
= Meter/Kg
Assuming Gravitational Waves Propagate at the Velocity of Light -- 
= 1/(c-squared)(epsilon0)
= 9.316E-27 Meter/Kg

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